%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141121084224+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141121084224+00'00') /Title (Ignacio de Loyola) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4201 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ignacio de Loyola)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The continuing importance of Ignatian spirituality and the Society of Jesus is hard to deny these days )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially in the wake of the recent election of the first Jesuit as pope. It certainly helps to explain the flurry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of biographies on the founder of the order in the last two decades alone. But as the recent contribution by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enrique Garca Hernn makes clear, Ignatius Loyola deserves another look. Indeed, biographers have long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grappled with the complexity of a reformer who seemed equally at ease in the roles of spiritual advisor, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author, administrator and diplomat. Loyola suffered from ill health for most of his life, and yet traveled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensively, developing large networks of friends, colleagues and patrons in the process. How to situate this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important thinker in the intellectual and spiritual climate of the day is particularly difficult given his wide-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranging interests. His writings bear witness to the influence of humanism and mysticism, scholastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theology, and even the Iberian movement, )] TJ ET BT 239.312 130.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(alumbradismo)] TJ ET BT 308.648 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ignacio de Loyola)] TJ ET BT 121.340 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the most recent biography to come out of the book series )] TJ ET BT 410.972 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Espaoles Eminentes)] TJ ET BT 513.296 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Produced by Taurus Publishing, the intent of this series is to introduce well-researched biographies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important Spanish individuals to a broad audience. Hernn is a formidable scholar in his own right, a highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded expert on Early Modern Spain. He is, therefore, a worthy choice as author for a subject as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1567)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 27 March, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enrique Garca Hernn)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9788430602117)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(584pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taurus)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.editorialtaurus.com/es/libro/ignacio-de-loyola/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Madrid)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Megan Armstrong)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7565 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important as Loyola. Given the more popular focus of the series, Hernn also shows that he can write an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaging and informative book that could appeal beyond the walls of academia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hernn is not exploring Ignatian spirituality )] TJ ET BT 248.000 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(per se)] TJ ET BT 276.992 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but rather Loyola?s success as the founder of one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most influential missionary traditions in the history of the Catholic Church. As he points out quite rightly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until recently the function of most biographies of Loyola was essentially hagiographic. Their intent was to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represent a perfected image of the reformer, one worthy of sainthood. His life was intended to provide a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model of spiritual heroism that was carefully constructed for public consumption and imitation. The earliest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographies date back to the lifetime of Loyola, and it is worth noting that his immediate group of followers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced a prodigious number. This may reflect, as Hernn suggests, the personal appeal of the great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformer. Much like Francis of Assisi, the founder of another influential missionary tradition, Loyola seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have been a remarkably compelling individual who captivated the imagination of his followers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The close, personal relationship between Loyola and his earliest followers forms one of the important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thematic threads in Hernn?s monograph. It also explains why Hernn turns frequently to the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographies to understand Loyola the man. Four in particular are important to his analysis: Those of Diego )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lainez \(1547\), Juan de Polanco \(1551\), Jeronimo Nadal \(1555\), and Pedro de Ribadeneira \(1572\). They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(require contextualization, however. Hernn points out, for example, that the earliest biographies do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention Loyola?s association with a number of well-known )] TJ ET BT 325.316 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(alumbrados)] TJ ET BT 382.652 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and for good reason: this religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement was eventually denounced as a heresy by Spanish authorities. And indeed, Loyola would come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under suspicion with the Spanish inquisition because of his reputed connections to some of its adherents. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And yet, Hernn argues that the early Jesuit biographies are useful for his purposes because they present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctive visions of the founder of their order. Here we find Loyola as the passionate reformer and soldier, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pilgrim and student, loyal vassal and religious founder.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A fundamental question underlies Hernn?s investigation: What accounts for Loyola?s success in founding a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new religious order? Over the course of several chapters, Hernn argues that Loyola capitalized on certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skills and qualities that were valued in Early Modern Europe. He was remarkably adept above all at working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the complicated political and religious realities of the post-Reformation era.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Each chapter responds to Hernn?s interest in examining Loyola )] TJ ET BT 346.952 377.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in situ)] TJ ET BT 376.628 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? that is, in the context of his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture. The first part looks at the early years of Loyola?s life. Hernn notes that we know very little about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his early years, and so his task from the start is to recreate the world into which Loyola was born. He was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oungest child belonging to a noble family that recognized the duke of Najera as an important patron. Loyola )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was trained in arms as well as letters as one would expect at this time of a member of the nobility. The hope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of course was that he would pursue a military and/or administrative career in the court of a powerful prince )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the Duke. Even as a child, however, Loyola would find his world changing in dramatic ways that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would shape his later interest in a career as a missionary and religious leader. By 1492, a year after his birth, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain was en route to becoming the heart of a empire that would eventually stretch from the Atlantic world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Mediterranean Sea. Travel accounts described Spanish encounters with new cultures. Meanwhile, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe was overwhelmed with reformist impulses both within the Western Church, and by 1521, without.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was during these formative years that Loyola seems to have first become familiar with the )] TJ ET BT 479.936 208.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(alumbrados)] TJ ET BT 537.272 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later chapter probes more deeply the impact of this movement upon Loyola?s development as a reformer. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Hernn, however, Loyola?s early encounter with the controversial movement is still significant. It shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was thinking deeply about his faith long before he was injured in battle in 1521 at the battle of Pamplona, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an event that is often given credit for sending him more firmly on the path of a religious reformer. Hernn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(downplays, in other words, the traditional narrative of Loyola?s ?conversion? from soldier to reformer. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather we find a man who had been thinking deeply about his faith from an early age.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part two covers Loyola?s years as a soldier, a career facilitated by the patronage of the Duke of Najera. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, the Duke would be an important patron of Loyola from this time forward. Hernn spends little time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Loyola?s experience in battle, but instead follows his development as a skilled administrator and military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leader. By all accounts Loyola was an effective leader until he was sidelined by injury in 1521. He )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6908 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed as well a reputation as a good negotiator as well, a skill that would see him recruited for work as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political envoy on behalf of the Spanish monarchy. These skills and the growing patronage network of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Loyola during these years would prove useful later on, when Loyola made the decision to pursue an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altogether different career path.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The remaining seven parts of the biography trace Loyola?s life as a religious reformer. Part three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigates more closely his interest in )] TJ ET BT 226.004 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(alumbradismo)] TJ ET BT 295.340 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and parts four and five explore his pursuit of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theological vocation first at the Universities of Alcal, Valladolid and Salamanca in Spain, and then in Paris. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While it was in Paris in 1534 that Loyola formally gave birth to his society in 1534, Hernn shows that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Loyola had already begun forming a group of ?companions? while at University in Spain. Indeed, a number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his associates from these days would remain close friends and some would join the Society in Paris. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final four parts look at his years as the leader of a new religious order: his efforts in Rome to gain papal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curial support, the formulation of its distinctive administrative structure, and the political hurdles faced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Loyola and the society during its first years of existence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As one would expect, Hernn?s narrative of Loyola?s years as a reformer covers familiar ground. We learn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about his investigation by the Spanish inquisition, the oath taken by the brotherhood in Paris, his frustrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts to go on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and the writing of the )] TJ ET BT 346.640 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spiritual Exercises)] TJ ET BT 437.636 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. For the most part, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, Hernn uses these moments to illuminate Loyola?s remarkable skills as a mediator. Establishing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new religious order was no easy task, especially in the era of the Reformation. Church leaders were sensitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to any indications of unorthodoxy and this included any questioning of church authority. Loyola succeeded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where others failed, however, because he understood the social nature of power. While he clearly considers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Loyola an innovative administrator and religious thinker, Hernn suggests that his success also owed a great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deal to his ability to forge ?a middle way?. This was a skill honed through his earlier experiences as a soldier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political envoy, before the courts of the Inquisition, at University, and in the corridors of curial authority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Rome. And it would prove critical as well during Loyola?s direction of the fledgling order in the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades after its foundation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hernn?s biography proves that Loyola is one of those historic figures that bears repeated examination. Here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a broader cultural and political framework provides a rather different perspective on Loyola the man, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that underscores his political savvy and charisma as well as his determination. Loyola attracted admirers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close friends with relative ease, a quality which may well help explain why he was able to create a new order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that from its start was international both in orientation as well as membership. As a study of the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between political networks and religious reform, Hernan?s biography fits in well with the recent work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara Diefendorf and Jodi Bilinkoff among others. As a complex study of the origins of the Jesuit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition and the leadership of Loyola, )] TJ ET BT 220.988 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ignacio de Loyola)] TJ ET BT 308.312 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( aligns comfortably with John O?Malley?s )] TJ ET BT 515.624 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(First Jesuits)] TJ ET BT 93.020 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. But it is also an examination of Early Modern Spain. Hernn vividly shows the Iberian footing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the entire Jesuit enterprise, beginning with Loyola himself. His political and religious formation was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely the product of Iberian culture, and it was through Spanish patronage networks that Loyola received )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the political and financial support he needed to found his new order. Wherever he traveled ? Paris, Rome, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Venice ? he operated within a web of personal relations that were decidedly Iberian in origins and nature. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And his earliest followers were, with few exceptions, from Spain. This Iberian facet of Hernn?s biography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is no less intriguing, as much for what it tells us about the operations of Spanish networks outside of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iberian peninsula, as its role in the construction of the Jesuit tradition itself.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 173.503 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 155.723 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 155.723 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1567)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 154.329 m 328.316 154.329 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 129.352 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.952 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/61189)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 154.6435 328.3157 166.5235 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1567) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000513 00000 n 0000000595 00000 n 0000004848 00000 n 0000004957 00000 n 0000005067 00000 n 0000005176 00000 n 0000008737 00000 n 0000008865 00000 n 0000008949 00000 n 0000009014 00000 n 0000016632 00000 n 0000016716 00000 n 0000023677 00000 n 0000023805 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 23901 %%EOF