%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150302062635+00'00') /ModDate (D:20150302062635+00'00') /Title (Top Down: the Ford Foundation, Black Power and the Reinvention of Racial Liberalism) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4005 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Top Down: the Ford Foundation, Black Power and the Reinvention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(of Racial Liberalism)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(You?d think that people would love you for giving away money. But that ain?t always so. One of the major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lessons from the history of the philanthropy is that people who give away money aren?t always loved. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sometimes, philanthropists get nothing but grief in exchange for their efforts. The problem is that the money )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looks like a donation, but in fact, donations are really one side of an exchange. Often, those who give money )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do so with an expectation. Every check should have a place where the donor can write ?this is what I expect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of you?. When choosing a charity, or a cause, a donor signals to the rest of the world. ?This is what I think is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good. This is important?. Often, donors will ask recipients to report what they did or otherwise justify the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gift.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The gift, then, is not just a gift. It?s not even a promise, or merely an attempt to buy the obedience of others. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather, the gift sets a stage, a place where people act out their interests. The donor has a dream, a better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world that they can gently pull into reality with their money. The dream is )] TJ ET BT 392.984 83.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(their)] TJ ET BT 415.652 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( dream, though. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beneficiaries might have a different version of the dream. The dream might be a nightmare for yet other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people. These people ? the donor, the beneficiary, and the antagonists use the gift as a stage to settle scores )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1569)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 27 March, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karen Ferguson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780812245264)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Pennsylvania Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.upenn.edu/pennpress/book/15142.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philadelphia)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fabio Rojas)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7132 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and push agendas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This may be a harsh, and limited, way to view philanthropy, but the gift-as-stage-for-conflict approach to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charity has its uses. It offers us a way to succinctly understand the complex, and often contentious, history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philanthropic organizations, such as the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations. If one can accept that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philanthropy is politics by other means, then one can easily identify the same cast of characters that populate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our histories of politics and social life. In American philanthropy, we have the poor, the freedmen, and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descendants. We have the monied Northern interests, and the rising managerial classes of the mid 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, armed with their dream of scientifically guided social progress. And the fight is the same. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict is the same one that?s defined American domestic politics from Reconstruction to the Reagan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution. Minorities, organized labor, and women ally with white \(often male\) elites to extract some sort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of concession from capital and its allies, low income whites.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karen Ferguson?s )] TJ ET BT 123.992 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Top Down: The Ford Foundation, Black Power, and the Reinvention of Racial Liberalism)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recounts one very interesting chapter in this decades-long struggle. The setting should be familiar to those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who are well versed in philanthropic history or American history. Shortly after the Second World War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activist liberal white elites gained controlled some of the major philanthropic organizations, and then used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their considerable resources to kick start a social revolution. Ferguson?s tome focuses on the tip of the spear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this effort, the Ford Foundation, and explains the problems the Foundation had when they tried to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eliminate poverty and reform public schools. The story is not a pretty one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is in cases like this that the gift-as-conflict-generator metaphor is very helpful. A strength of Ferguson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account is that she very clearly situates the Ford Foundation?s position in mid 20th-century social politics. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are three belligerents in the battle. First, we have highly educated \(mostly\) white Northern elites who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became the Ford Foundation?s leadership. Most historians will be familiar with people like MacGeorge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bundy, who was Harvard dean and Kennedy man before becoming Ford?s president in 1966. But there is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cohort of Ford Foundation program officers who preceded Bundy that may be more important to be aware )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of. These officers created the organizational and intellectual framework for the Ford?s activism in the 1960s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1970s. The list includes Paul Ylvisaker, Mario Fantini, Preston Wilcox, and Mitchell Sviridoff. Many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these individuals were highly resourceful optimists who started out in leading universities and ended up in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Ford Foundation after years of working as either activists or in government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While it would be misleading to say the Ford Foundation possessed a clearly articulated ideology, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ferguson?s account indicates that they shared a ?esprit de corps?. That is, there was a shared sense that elite-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driven policy could significantly address social problems like poverty. Such policy would be shaped by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social science and by collaboration between government, the non-profit sector, and local activists. The Ford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foundation was a particularly apt vehicle for this idea because it had status, authority, and, above all, control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over one of the largest fortunes in America. Once there was a critical mass of program officers within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foundation who adopted this point of view, then real social change could happen. ?Top down? indeed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem with this idea is that the recipients of aid had a very different view of what progress meant. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the Ford Foundation staff, justifiably, focused on life outcomes, such as education or employment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many African-Americans had a different view. Starting in the 1950s, but really accelerating in the 1960s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism became the vibrant force in African-American culture. They didn?t want top-down control. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Social change was going to be a bottom-up affair.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, this was not a universally adopted point of view. Many civil rights activists still believed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working through the courts, legislatures, and other arms of government. After the civil rights era, numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activists turned to Democratic politics as a way to pursue their politics. However, for a period of about five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, nationalism was the spark that created a profound rift in the coalition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that supported black freedom. White liberal allies were appalled that integration was now questioned and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that radicalism was being seriously entertained. The leadership of the civil rights movement itself was torn, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as people grasped for a response to riots and political assassinations. And the nationalists themselves faced a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dilemma. Push for community control and lose the backing their white allies, or continue working with )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7162 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whites who might put their stamp on the black community.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Top Down)] TJ ET BT 84.356 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( helps us understand how this conflict played out by exploring the Ford Foundation?s encounter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with ?community control? in the mid 1960s. Ferguson uses two episodes to help us understand the limits of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white liberalism in this era. First, the Ford Foundation worked with various leaders in New York?s school )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(district to help Puerto Ricans. Later, they also targeted African-Americans. The basic idea was that schools )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would better serve their constituents if the school district was decentralized. The fundamental problem was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the New York City School Board did not actively pursue desegregation after )] TJ ET BT 404.624 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brown)] TJ ET BT 436.628 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. If ?local? control were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established, schools could bypass the Board of Education and integrate schools in a more meaningful fashion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem with this plan, as Ferguson notes, is that it immediately forced the Ford Foundation to choose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sides in some very bitter ?local? fights, such as the brewing conflict between Columbia University and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African-American neighbors. That was not the only the conflict. As time passed, the Ford Foundation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discovered that ?local? control often meant ceding authority to activists who did not share their view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial progress defined by integration and individual uplift.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, Ferguson relays the story of the Ford Foundation?s involvement in the arts, which was another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to promote racial liberalism of a multicultural variety. Here, the Foundation decided to fund artistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups that embodied the emerging black consciousness in the arts. The grants that Ferguson analyzes went )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to support groups like the Negro Ensemble Company and the New Lafayette Theater. Ferguson argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Ford Foundation?s involvement resulted in a short term distortion of that artistic scene. The Ford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foundation grants required the groups to strive for self-sufficiency, which meant embracing the mainstream )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theater world rather than maintain a commitment to nationalism in the arts. Ultimately, though, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foundation?s support of the arts was successful in that it created an incubator for the more mainstream )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drama that its officers preferred.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So, what, in the long run, was the result of this titanic effort? The Foundation spent a lot of time and effort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trying to manage, shape, or control important educational and cultural institutions. At the very least, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created a stage for controversy. For example, the Foundation?s attempt to decentralize school control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attracted the ire of New Yorkers who resented outside interference in their schools. It also made a lot of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African-Americans mad, when the Foundation did not completely buy into their version of community )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control. In the world of the arts, sponsorship probably allowed more mainstream artists to have careers in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arts, while more radical artists may have had to find work elsewhere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More broadly though, all this conflict might have fed into the view the Foundation engaged in adventurism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by jumping into thorny political fights. It was during this era that the Foundation became the focus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Congressional action, leading to the Tax Reform Act of 1969. Surely, much of the animus would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directed at any wealthy patron who unabashedly sided with Civil Rights groups of any stripe. But by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participating in a three way brawl with New York City school officials, Harlem residents, and an emerging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crop of nationalists, the Ford Foundation made themselves a highly visible target to conservatives upset with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fundamental rewriting of the contract that bound blacks and whites together in America.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In reading to the concluding chapters of )] TJ ET BT 228.308 211.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Top Down)] TJ ET BT 278.648 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, one gets the impression that the Ford Foundation staff )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not properly understand the emerging landscape of post-civil rights America. Nowhere did I sense that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ford Foundation officers in the 1970s had any inkling of the major problems that would soon face black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America in the 1980s: mass incarceration, the war on drugs, and the subsequent erosion of voting rights. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been argued by many, the shackles of Jim Crow were replaced by the bars of the state prison. Instead of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealing with these problems, the Ford Foundation first retreated into a more piecemeal strategy of working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with community-development-corporations and other mechanisms designed to slightly improve the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic landscape of impoverished neighborhoods.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps )] TJ ET BT 75.008 85.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Top Down)] TJ ET BT 125.348 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( might be read as an indictment of American philanthropy in general during this period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During an emotionally intense period, major philanthropies jumped whole heartedly into hard social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems, but they were not prepared for the long haul. They were first blindsided by localism and then by )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3272 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nationalist surge. The third strike landed when Congress shook up the entire field of philanthropy with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new world of cumbersome regulation. Punch drunk, the world of philanthropy didn?t develop a new strategy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attuned to the emerging reactionary atmosphere of the 1970s. Instead, they moved on to less contentious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versions of their old strategies, whereby the Foundation chose leaders with new backgrounds, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franklin Thomas, to energize lagging programs that were formulated or instituted during the Great Society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(era. Now, we know that insufficient funding to local non-profits and community development corporations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not the most pressing problem that the African-American community would face.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What lessons should be drawn from a book like this? Historians must reconsider, or modify, the view that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philanthropies are effective agents of social control. Even the most powerful philanthropies can encounter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful social trends that they are powerless to stop. Without the coercive power of a state, or the cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority of a religion, groups like the Ford Foundation may find their plans in ruins. Practitioners in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philanthropy should probably draw a different lesson. Nonprofits in the 20th century identified the correct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems ? repression, poverty, and a lack of access to resources ? but were unable to come up with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing and politically viable solutions. I would argue that practitioners in the present day are in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inverse position. The policies that are offered are more acceptable to the various parties that dominate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American politics but these policies do not address the underlying issues that face the black community. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once American philanthropists face the fact that the largest and most important problems in African-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American life may well be to do with mass incarceration then they will have the moral high ground to enact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bolder initiatives.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 511.135 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 493.355 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 493.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1569)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 491.961 m 328.316 491.961 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 466.984 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 452.584 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/74423)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 492.2755 328.3157 504.1555 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1569) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000586 00000 n 0000000668 00000 n 0000004725 00000 n 0000004834 00000 n 0000004944 00000 n 0000005053 00000 n 0000008614 00000 n 0000008742 00000 n 0000008826 00000 n 0000008891 00000 n 0000016076 00000 n 0000016141 00000 n 0000023356 00000 n 0000023440 00000 n 0000026765 00000 n 0000026893 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 26989 %%EOF