%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140903010928+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140903010928+01'00') /Title (The Korean War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4628 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Korean War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With 'The Korean War' Peter Lowe returns to the subject of the 1950-53 south-east Asian conflict which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues could have flared up into the third world war of the twentieth century \(see also Peter Lowe 1986\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the preface he outlines the objective of the book as follows, 'to provide a concise survey of the origins, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature and aftermath of the Korean war'. What he in fact achieves, especially in the first two thirds of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume, is a concise survey of the origins and nature of American interventions in the Korean war)] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is most convincing when looking at the context of and reasoning behind for American policy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plenty of detail is supplied. In tracing American policy Lowe takes the reader back to 1943 and the Cairo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conference and concludes that Roosevelt included Korea with such colonies as Indo-China in envisaging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trusteeship as the best way of proceeding once Japan had been expelled from south-east Asia. He asserts that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Truman had no particular vision for south-east Asia upon taking office and that American policy in Korea in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the immediate post-war period was determined by two men. On the ground there was MacArthur's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative, General John Reed Hodge. He actively promoted Syngman Rhee in order to create a credible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right-wing alternative to the communism that he loathed. Back in Washington, Dean Acheson formulated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy, being partly responsible for the identification of the 38th parallel as the line across Korea and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informing the senate Foreign Relations Committee that America should commit to a rolling programme of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aid in the country.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From tracing these early American approaches Lowe goes on to identify much of the detail of American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision making and the rationales underpinning behind it. He outlines changing perceptions of Taiwan and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Security Council paper 68 of 1950 as the broad context of the decision to act in Korea in the face of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the DPRK attack. The latter demonstrated a general fear of communism in American foreign policy, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former determined tough stances in the face of the threat in Asia. He shows how MacArthur acted ahead of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orders in despatching military aid to south Korea and that the Americans initially relied on his assessments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(157)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 December, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Lowe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Mills)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7239 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the ROK's army in deciding to send in ground troops. He shows how early decisions were driven by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military considerations and that Truman gave MacArthur the lead while he was successfully pursuing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('rollback' of the north's forces despite his unease over the general.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lowe similarly argues that it was the subsequent military achievements of General Matthew B. Ridgway that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drove American thinking in the later stages of the war. His ability to arrest the advance of communist forces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduced the likelihood that the Atomic bomb would be used in a full conflict with China and instead moved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the focus onto armistice negotiations aimed at recognising that the war could not be won by any of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antagonists. He mentions Truman's experience of repatriating reluctant Russian prisoners to the USSR after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(WWII by way of explaining the American concern over POWs which drew out the armistice negotiations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and he points to the demise of Truman's presidency and Eisenhower's electoral triumph as the events which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precipitated the conclusion of these negotiations. He outlines Eisenhower's use of the National Security )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Council to adopt bellicose stances designed to intimidate the negotiators into a settlement and also shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the Americans had plans to oust Rhee had he not acquiesced in the signing of the armistice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In short, the most information provided in this book is on the motives for and on the details of American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy. The first problem with this is that the account of American decisions is patchy and uneven. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, the reader is given the name of the American ambassador at the time of the ROK's initial attack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite his apparent insignificance \(he appears to have had no impact on policy and appears neither before or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after his name is mentioned\). But the reader is denied far more significant information. For example, General )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Reed Hodge is identified as a key decision maker in Korea in the aftermath of the Japanese defeat and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reader is given a thumbnail sketch of the man's personality, his political convictions and his approach to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Korea. Having introduced the reader to the General \('Hodge hailed from rural Illinois'\) and having identified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him as the man who promoted Syngman Rhee, Hodge is then forgotten by the author and never mentioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again. Having been identified as an early key player in formulating American policy and as a MacArthur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place man it might have been useful to provide a broader consideration of Hodge's reign. This would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly seem to be the case when it is considered that he remained in charge of the American military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government of Korea until 1948, a period which included such colourful episodes as his threatening to kill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rhee's main rival Kim Ku.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem with achieving a balance in the consideration of American motives and policies goes further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the problem of the relevance and irrelevance of the information that is included and excluded. At key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moments in the decision making process Lowe fails to provide an explanation for the outcomes of American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasoning. In looking at the prelude to Chinese intervention, he repeatedly emphasises that 'American and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British intelligence reported the growing mobilisation in Manchuria and the Chinese involvement' \(p. 44\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that 'American intelligence believed that around 35000 Chinese troops were in Korea' \(p. 45\). In short, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lowe ably demonstrates that the Americans were aware that China was amassing a significant presence, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it had already demonstrated on the 18 October that it was willing to engage in direct confrontation. Yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacArthur ploughed on with his advance and ran straight into what Lowe call the 'jaws of the trap' \(p. 46\) of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Chinese army.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The obvious question that the reader will ask with all of this information supplied by the author is why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacArthur drove onwards. Yet here the author's analytical courage fails him. He provides no clue as to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasoning of MacArthur and his fellow commanders, Walker and Almond, despite the importance of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisions for understanding American positions in the subsequent months. In a book which is dominated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a consideration of the motives for American decisions it seems a curious source of imbalance to fail to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain for the reader what lay behind one of the most important and unsuccessful of the policies pursued.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A range of other decisions are contemplated in detail despite their dubious relevance to the progress of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Korean war. It becomes a book about American foreign policy to point out that Truman's failure to seek a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congressional declaration of war foreshadowed the actions of subsequent presidents in Vietnam but the place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this fact in a study of the Korean conflict needed to be explained. Similarly the spat between the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Americans about trade with China is relevant in a book about American foreign policy but a failure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to demonstrate whether these arguments or the subsequent sanctions had any impact on the course of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7426 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict suggests that the author was insufficiently focused on the task of writing about the Korean war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That the greatest amount of detail and analysis is devoted to American objectives and motives is of course a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious and fundamental flaw in a book about an Asian war. While the differing strategies of various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans and their individual allies are considered at each stage of the war, it seems that there was only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one moment when there was any debate within the Chinese leadership. Thus Lowe points to the conviction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in October 1950 of Mao Tse-tung and P'eng Teh-huai that China had to intervene and to the reluctance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chou En-lai and Lin Piao to agree. Ten pages later though he depicts Chou En-lai, little more than two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(months later, as a hardliner unwilling to make any concessions to the UN. He fails to explain why Chou En-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lai had now adopted this position. Quite simply, while he lavishes plenty of attention on the minutiae of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American policy he devotes little time to explaining the changing approaches of the various Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision makers and to exploring the ways in which they picked their way among the options that faced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most serious failure on this score is his consideration of Koreans. As the book is about the Korean war it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be expected that Korean actors would feature heavily but this simply is not the case. For example, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continually refers to the idea that the 1950-1953 conflict 'was a continuation of a civil war that began in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1945' \(p. 32\) and that 'a civil war was in progress before June 1950 when it was submerged in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international war' \(p. 98\). This of course is correct and especially important for understanding why the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans and the UN got it wrong when they decided that they were taking on an expansionist global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communism in Korea. However, at no point in the book does Lowe provide details of this civil war or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discuss such issues as the ferocity with which it was fought, what its major battles were and their outcomes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which sections of Korean society fought on each side and so on. His account of the pre-1950 period, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he christens 'the gathering storm', includes sections on Japanese occupation, on American and Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies, on the relationship of the Soviet Union and China and on American attitudes towards Taiwan and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how their position on Korea changed as a result of this. Korean society merits a page and a half with such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociological observations as 'the peasants were, as always, exploited' \(p. 7\) and Korean politics after 1945 is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given half a dozen sentences under the heading 'American and Soviet policies' with such unsubstantiated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculation as 'had the foreign powers not intervened it is probable that Korea would have developed into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical state in 1945-6 and one which would have gravitated towards communism' \(p. 10\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As his account develops, opportunities are consistently passed up to explore and explain the agendas of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Koreans who after all started this conflict, did most of the fighting and suffered the majority of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(casualties. 'Unrest existed in various parts of Korea and there was a danger of armed rebellion of the kind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desired and encouraged by Kim Il Sung' \(p. 13\) is his account of the impact of the 1948 elections. Here are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the origins of the Korean war, the Korean people's dissatisfaction with the UN conducted elections, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure of Syngman Rhee to allow democracy to run its course and the development of armed opposition in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(south Korea to the government of Rhee. Yet this is all dismissed in a sentence, there is no detail given and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worst of all the author attempts to implicate the north's government in unrest in the south in the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsatisfactory and speculative of manners \(he might have proved his point and demonstrated an interest in or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of what was actually happening in Korea prior to the Korean war by mentioning the Communist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organised insurrections at Yosu and Sunch'on in 1948\). This sentence is sandwiched in between a section on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who were members of the UN election organisation and who was in charge of the American military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence. In short, Koreans are deemed less important in understanding the Korean war than a group of UN )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials and a not particularly effective American Brigadier-General.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This point needs emphasising. In the whole account of the war and the armistice it seems that there are six )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Koreans worth mentioning by name, Kim Il Sung, Syngman Rhee, Pak Hon-yong, Kim Ku, Kim Dae-jung )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Nam Il. Only the first two are mentioned consistently, Pak Hon-yong and Kim Ku disappearing early in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the story and Nam Il appearing once as the sole Korean general to be mentioned in the entire book, and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the signing of the armistice. Kim Dae-jung appears early on in an aside and then, of course, in the final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter as the victor in the 1997 presidential election. This final chapter, on the development of the Koreas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 1953, is a clear and useful summary of the key events in both the north and the south since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(armistice and to the present day. This chapter proves that when he does hold his focus on Korean politics the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7380 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author can be authoritative. This makes the absence of any real detail on Koreans in the rest of the book all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the more perplexing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This absence gives the impression that the Korean war had little to do with contemporary Korean society or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its modern history. The steady impoverishment of the peasantry under Japanese rule and the decline of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Korean land-owning small-holder \(the number of 'fire-field' subsistence farmers grew six times between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1916 and 1936\) together with the rise of an industrial proletariat \(the number of factory workers and miners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grew almost seven times between 1931 and 1944\) are important developments in understanding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attraction of communism and the dynamics of Korean politics after WWII. The history of armed resistance is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also important and can be traced in the modern period from such early battles against the Japanese as those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Feng-wu-tung and Ch'ing-shan-li \(1920\) up to such war-time organisations as the Kwangbokkun )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Restoration Army\). The history of political idealism and organisation is also surely important in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding why the Korean people fought so hard and so long. Again this has a modern history, finding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on such occasions as the founding of the March First Movement \(1919\) and of the formation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sin'ganhoe \(1927\) and also partly explaining the rejection of the organised parties available to them by south )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Korean voters in 1950 \(128 of the 210 seats in the National Assembly went to Independents and only 56 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(went to the government\). By 1950 the Korean people had specific political expectations, experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making subsequent political commitments and a history of making these commitments and fighting for them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the face of oppressive and threatening circumstances. These were chief among the reasons why the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Korean war was fought, and the odd sentence such as 'the peasants were . exploited' \(p. 7\) and 'Japan also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulated by reaction a burning patriotic zeal' \(p. 9\) hardly demonstrate this in enough detail in a book on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Korean war that can find the space to devote 500 words to building up to the 'question of how much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(damage was done to American politics' \(p. 91\) by Eisenhower's handling of McCarthy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This failure to really examine Korean agendas and interests means that the book will remain of interest less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a solid source of reference for understanding the conflict and more as a reminder to twenty-first century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of the interests that lay behind much history writing in the twentieth century. The west-centred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the book is obvious and damaging. In its weak form it gives the impression that to understand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicts in Asia one needs to focus on New York and Washington and possibly on London and Moscow. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With its claim to superpower status it might also be necessary to include Beijing in this analysis, but only in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so far as the Chinese featured in plans devised in New York and Washington. The idea that the Korean war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had complex historical, sociological and political origins in south-east Asia and that local agendas flared into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war is overlooked.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In its stronger forms in the book, the west-centred outlook of the author verges on the offensive and results )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in unbalanced writing. Who but a westerner, in writing about the Korean war, would describe that part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(south-east Asia as 'this remote peninsula' \(p. 5\) and as 'an obscure Asian peninsula' \(p. 30\)? The region may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear remote and obscure from the author's Manchester office and the Woodrow Wilson International )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Center in Washington but it is fairly certain that not so many Koreans would have died throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth century in the area's various conflicts had they agreed that their homeland was so unimportant. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And who but a westerner would choose the word 'petulant' as his most critical adjective for an American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who planned to annihilate Chinese cities through atomic bombing \(Lowe's toughest description of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacArthur on p. 65\) while painting the picture of Oriental despotism that was the 'unscrupulous, ruthless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intolerant of criticism and . extremely repressive' \(p. 40\) Syngman Rhee. Of course Rhee was all of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things but so was MacArthur and his having been born in the West ought not to shield him from such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism. On this point it is significant indeed that while the author dwells on the point that 'atrocities were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed by the NKPA, just as they were by ROK forces and Rhee's agents' \(p. 40\) there is no mention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the alleged massacres by western troops such as the No Gun Ri incident during the war or indeed of alleged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crimes such as the killings at Kwangju which have occurred since.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the book will remain of interest as a demonstration of the perils of west-centred writing when analysing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asia it also flags up the failure of historical approaches that focus solely on the elite politics of the diplomats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the generals. Over thirty years of writing on Asian societies, from historians such as the Subaltern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Studies collective \(1988\), from anthropologists such as James Scott \(1985\), and from analysts of revolution )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6619 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and war in Asia such as David Gillin \(1964\), has emphasised that the peasants that make up the majority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asian societies have complex, localised and varying agendas. In the Korean war, in which it has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estimated that civilian casualties matched military ones, the villages and the farms were central to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fighting and the ability of these institutions to mobilise for defence, attack or concealment needs explaining. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a complex issue as organised peasant resistance was not simply an age old phenomenon once again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lumbering out of history for the same old reasons. Rather, it had a specific and modern history in such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations as the Red Peasant Unions of the 1930s, in such events as the Autumn Harvest Uprisings in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1946 against the American occupiers and throughout the Korean war where such episodes as the battle at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taejon show that women and children fought alongside the men of the rural areas against American troops.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In other words historians need to explain why ordinary Koreans fought the Korean war and why so many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(died in prolonging the conflict. Indian historians \(Ranajit Guha 1983\) and historians of Vietnam \(James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harrison 1989\) and of China \(David Gillin 1964\) have shown that it is not enough in explaining peasant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation in wars of revolution to point to a broad `potent sense of cultural cohesion' \(p. 6\) or to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universalize 'peasant grievances' \(p. 6\) as in reality these are either elite constructions of rural societies or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaningless generalisations. A book such as Lowe's that fails to analyse peasant societies and agendas in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeking to explain a conflict such as the Korean war is a very dated volume indeed, especially when there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are books available \(Cumings 1981\) of which the author was aware and which do attempt to begin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering these issues in the origins of the Korean war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Lowe's 'The Korean War' was presumably intended as a broad survey of historical understandings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conflict. Its market was no doubt the general reader and the student population and it would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hoped that academics would have bought it as a handy reference point. It cannot be recommended as being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suitable for any of these groups. The general reader will come away with the impression that the Korean war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was an American affair, fought in 'an obscure peninsula' with the Chinese army although most of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important engagements were in Washington and New York. This general reader will have little sense of why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Korean leaders were engaged in the war above a generalised sense of the personal ambition and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universalized attraction to/hatred of communism of Kim Il Sung and Syngman Rhee. The reader will have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no sense of why non-elite Koreans fought in the war and indeed will have little idea that they did fight in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war as they rarely feature in this book as anything but POWs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Students will find similar problems but will also pick up bad habits from the author. There is much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsubstantiated and unnecessary speculation 'under a weaker or more extreme American president it is quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely that this option [atomic attack] would have been implemented' \(p. 50\). There is much unreferenced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gossip 'some sources suggest that Mao suffered a temporary breakdown on receiving the news [of Stalin's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duplicity]' \(p. 42\). Is it not too much to expect a discussion of how reliable such sources are or indeed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hope for a footnote to allow readers to go and decide for themselves? There is also evidence of a tendency to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jumble points in together rather than to think clearly about where each might belong. For example on page )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(88 a paragraph on the bacteriological warfare controversy is suddenly introduced after a paragraph on POWs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and before a further paragraph on POWs without any attempt to explain how the germ war issue relates to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of prisoners.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Academics will find the book frustrating as it shows that west-centred and elite-focused histories of wars are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still being written. This despite almost thirty years of post-colonial history writing which has attempted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift the focus on to the complexities of non-western and non-elite agendas and to the importance of these in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding conflicts such as the Korean war that involve whole societies and regions. It is to be hoped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Peter Lowe will be able to use his expertise and experience in studying the Korean war to write a fuller )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and more considered survey now that the pressure of getting an anniversary edition into print has passed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(December 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 2395 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bibliography:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Gillin, 'Peasant Nationalism in the History of Chinese Communism', in )] TJ ET BT 392.348 758.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Asian Studies)] TJ ET BT 510.020 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 23, 2, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1964.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 717.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Guha, 'The Prose of Counter-Insurgency', in R. Guha \(ed.\), )] TJ ET BT 334.280 717.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Subaltern Studies II)] TJ ET BT 429.608 717.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Oxford University Press )] TJ ET BT 34.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Delhi 1983\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 677.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Guha and G. Spivak \(eds\), )] TJ ET BT 178.328 677.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Selected Subaltern Studies)] TJ ET BT 305.648 677.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Oxford University Press New Delhi 1988\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 650.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Harrison, )] TJ ET BT 92.672 650.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Endless War: Vietnam's struggle for independence)] TJ ET BT 357.212 650.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Columbia University Press New York )] TJ ET BT 34.016 636.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1989\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 610.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Lowe)] TJ ET BT 74.012 610.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, The Origins of the Korean War)] TJ ET BT 230.348 610.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Longman London 1986\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Scott, )] TJ ET BT 75.356 584.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Weapons of the Weak: everyday forms of peasant resistance)] TJ ET BT 363.968 584.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Yale University Press New Haven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 569.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1985\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 543.653 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 529.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 524.671 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 506.891 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 506.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/157)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 505.497 m 322.316 505.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 480.520 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 466.120 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/799)] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.720 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 505.8115 322.3157 517.6915 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/157) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000531 00000 n 0000000613 00000 n 0000005293 00000 n 0000005402 00000 n 0000005512 00000 n 0000005621 00000 n 0000009182 00000 n 0000009310 00000 n 0000009394 00000 n 0000009459 00000 n 0000016751 00000 n 0000016816 00000 n 0000024295 00000 n 0000024360 00000 n 0000031793 00000 n 0000031858 00000 n 0000038530 00000 n 0000038614 00000 n 0000041062 00000 n 0000041190 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41285 %%EOF