%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150707050739+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150707050739+01'00') /Title (Food Supply, Demand and Trade: Aspects of the Economic Relationship between Town and Countryside) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3861 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Food Supply, Demand and Trade: Aspects of the Economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Relationship between Town and Countryside)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a prerequisite that prosperous, expanding towns need to maintain a secure and ample food supply. How )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns managed this issue, drawing foodstuffs from both their immediate hinterland and from further afield, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the resultant effect upon agricultural productivity are examined in this collection of 11 papers. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions mostly focus on the Low Countries and England, bar one on Westphalia, but they cover a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad chronological spectrum from the 13th to 19th centuries. This lends a certain coherency to the volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and allows for interesting comparisons between the papers, which often touch upon the same issues from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differing perspectives; though such a comparative analysis is only briefly offered in the introduction to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. For many of the contributors, the significant question is how the demands of large towns affected the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural and transport structure of their hinterlands, with the processes of agricultural specialisation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market integration to the fore. For others, the strategies and responses of municipal authorities, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at times of crisis, are the main concern.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London was by far the largest town in late medieval England, so its consumption of food and fuel was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1571)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 3 April, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Piet van Cruijningen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Erik Thoen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9782503512839)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(215pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brepols N.V.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.brepols.net/Pages/ShowProduct.aspx?prod_id=IS-9782503512839-1)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turnhout)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Davis)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7447 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparatively and uniquely significant. It is worth stressing London?s weak powers regarding its rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hinterland. From 1327, rival markets and traders could be suppressed up to seven miles away, but otherwise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London could not directly control the regional trade in foodstuffs. The city was reliant upon the effectiveness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of surrounding market networks. However, James Galloway argues that we should not assume a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commensurate and consistent impact upon the city?s immediate hinterland and that a wider national and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international context is vital. He explores the importance of the River Thames in London?s food supply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(network, and how the relatively low costs of river and sea transport encouraged the growth of supplies from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distant markets, particularly in crisis years but also for the more regular grain trade after the Black Death. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This had a local effect in that we do not see the extent of adjacent rural development and arable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensification that one might expect. Galloway also posits the idea that we see ?a decline in overall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integration levels, and a deprofessionalisation of the wheat trade, as aggregate demand declined? \(p. 12\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 1350. Similarly, fuel supplies were traditionally drawn from the woodland nearby areas, but there was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gradual switch to coal by the 16th century that again meant London had an outlook that went well beyond its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediate hinterland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his contribution, Derek Keene looks more specifically at how London managed its food supply, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in years of harvest shortage such as 1258, 1315?17, and 1438?40. The crisis of 1258 has not been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensively researched by scholars and Keene notes how the chroniclers record that London saw a huge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influx of the hungry and that thousands died in the streets. There were various responses from the London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizens and royal government, but the market system generally worked well and there was little risk of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostile attack from outside, so London did not store grain. When prices were high, the financial strength of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the city tended to draw supplies in its direction, even from a fair distance. London?s authorities were able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevent the grain then moving back to the hinterland or for export. There were other restrictions at times of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortages, such as on bakers through an increased monitoring of the assize of bread. However, Keene argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the political situation in London made it difficult for them to take collective action in 1258. The famine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1315?17 was a much broader crisis and the king actively intervened to encourage the import and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary movement of grain, looking to international markets. The city authorities tightened up their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulations concerning brewers, the open grain market, and certain middlemen activities. The 1439?40 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortages led to the creation of a public granary \(Leadenhall\). Although this collective venture proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temporary, Keene suggests that it was recognition of how 15th-century London had become vulnerable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short-term price fluctuations and competition from continental rivals. London had long relied on its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic strength to attract grain supplies, but it still needed to take remedial action at times of crisis and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the approaches reflect differing political circumstances, powers and identity as much as pragmatic means to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alleviate food shortages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The importance of a town?s hinterland is similarly examined by Michael Limberger for 16th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antwerp. His conclusions are comparable to Galloway?s, as he describes a complex inter-relationship that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not governed simply by economic demand in the von Thnen mode. Competition from other towns, political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances and geography all affected the supply networks. The immediate hinterland could only provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for some of Antwerp?s growing needs in the 16th century and there was a certain dependence upon imports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(via the River Scheldt \(eg. from Zealand\), as well as from the Baltic in order to stabilise prices at times of bad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harvests. Nonetheless, we do see some modest agricultural specialisation in the vicinity of the city alongside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more traditional intensification of grain production. Limberger identifies a variety of farming systems in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hinterland, including a gardening belt in the south and east, and a zone of ?crop alternation? where legumes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and livestock were used to help eliminate fallows. Like London, Antwerp did not have a particularly strong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political hold over its surrounding countryside, but this meant that development of the hinterland was led by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban demand and investment by the city?s wholesalers. In comparison, cities in northern Italy were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant in their )] TJ ET BT 119.684 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(contado)] TJ ET BT 158.348 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but the result appears to have been a lack of investment and agrarian stagnation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Limberger notes that the investment in rural property by Antwerp citizens was to have ramifications for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property structures and relations, with a growth in the leasehold system and a greater economic stratification )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst the peasantry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johan Dambryne also stresses the dependence of early modern cities upon their hinterland, but again notes )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7648 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the production levels in Flanders were insufficient to feed the cities. Most grain was imported from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northern France via the Scheldt and Lys rivers. Ghent acted as important entrept in the interregional grain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade, but Dambryne asks if this was still the case as its staple right was eroded and more grain was imported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the Baltic. The staple right ensured that all of the Flemish grain trade had to pass through Ghent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the wheat and rye had to be sold in the city?s market. Ghent?s rights were upheld by the sovereign, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linked to the latter?s interest in river tolls. This was to change in 1587 under Philip II of Spain and the staple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right no longer applied to unsold grain from outside Flanders, while the imposition of a saleable quota in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ghent was relaxed. Dambryne looks at two grain taxes, )] TJ ET BT 302.960 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(muddegeld)] TJ ET BT 355.616 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 378.944 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(zaemcoperie)] TJ ET BT 439.592 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentation is particularly detailed after 1568. Due to Ghent?s role as a staple transit port, its food supply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was generally buoyant and price fluctuations were tempered, though the municipal authorities were careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to buy grain to guard against harvest failures. There were comparatively few food riots in Ghent, suggesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the staple right and civic policies were beneficial to the city. It does also appear that wheat prices were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(higher in other markets, such as Antwerp, though this differential mostly narrowed during the 16th century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In general, Dambryne argues that the development of the grain trade in 16th-century Ghent was largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determined by cyclical economic factors rather than institutional, but the city?s supply was often affected by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and military interventions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The grain trade of the Low Countries is further examined by Milja van Tielhof, this time focusing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amsterdam?s role in distribution. Limberger and Dambryne argued that Baltic imports were relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modest for Flanders, except at times of severe shortages, but for Holland they were increasingly important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1530 to 1650 and Amsterdam dominated this trade. Dutch merchants, sailors, coins and language all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permeated the Baltic grain markets. The prominent position of Amsterdam was partly due to the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful resistance of its merchants to paying a Habsburg tax on grain exports \(the )] TJ ET BT 442.604 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(conggeld)] TJ ET BT 491.924 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and later to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(low customs duties, good infrastructure, transmission of market information, and the flexible enterprise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the city?s merchants. Van Tielhof also highlights the accompanying improvements in Dutch shipbuilding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ship design that helped lower transport costs via economies of scale. It was not until the late 17th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century that Amsterdam?s trade with the Baltic diminished, largely due to greater commercial restrictions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and warfare in the region. By the 18th century, England had become more prominent in the importation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baltic grain. At this time, Amsterdam was also more reliant on foreign merchants for its food supply, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competitors were achieving similar efficiency in shipping, and the city began its decline as the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European entrept for grain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Unger approaches the grain supplies of towns in the Low Countries from the perspective of market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integration, and whether the flow of goods was efficient enough to lead towards equalization of prices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between regions. However, Unger rightly notes that measures of market integration are problematic, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least due to the often incomplete data and difficulties of comparability. In the 14th and 15th centuries, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is anecdotal evidence for increasing integration of markets, with more trade per capita and more long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distance shipping. But the process was complex and certainly not linear. As Unger states, markets could both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrate and disintegrate. When looking across north-west Europe, 1384?1520, there are indications of price )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correlation between some pairs of towns and also very little in others. This may be because most late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval towns did not need to look too far to satisfy their consumption needs. As we have seen, even the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15th-century cities of Flanders and Holland did not look much beyond northern France. There was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regular reliance on distant markets for grain imports. Instead, integration was on a regional level, such as in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the southern Low Countries. Unger compares pairs of towns to show that there was an emergence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groupings in the 15th century, again indicating a series of regional markets. The improvements seen in ship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(design, and thus lower transport costs, did not translate into the integration of distant markets in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages, but rather it was river and coastal craft that seem to have created any benefits in flexibility and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efficiency.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bruno Blond concentrates on the importance of these transport costs in feeding cities and agricultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development. He analyses the paved road network for Brabant in the 18th century. Paved roads provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantages in terms of heavier freight loads, fewer horses, and more reliability, especially in bad weather. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There were, of course, cost implications in terms of tolls, which could be quite hefty for marketable goods. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7396 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, paved roads enabled cities to enlarge their hinterlands. In Brabant, the cities of Leuven and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brussels looked southward and reinforced their position, often to the detriment of small towns. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improved transport infrastructure was also pivotal in the market integration process, and Blond downplays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the negative impact of the toll structure by highlighting the preferential tax tariffs granted to farmers, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged town-countryside exchanges. However, the tolls may have dampened inter-urban trade in bulk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(products, thus discouraging market integration. Nevertheless, paved roads appear to have increased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural productivity, especially when there were growing urban populations, with increased land prices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(near the new roads. The transport infrastructure was thus an important factor in town-countryside dealings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Chartres highlights the many middlemen who operated in the 17th- and 18th-century English grain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade and how they were subject to decreasing levels of regulation. He argues that this helped the integration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of premium grain markets and provided a better response to harvest shocks. In examining these layers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mercantile relations, Chartres uses three case studies: the Kent grain trade; the middlemen of the partnership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Hoar-Galpine \(Somerset\); and the end-use of grains by a 1760s London distiller, Currie & Co. Chartres )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(downplays the importance of export bounty payments, which have traditionally been regarded as a stimulus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to producers and prices. He argues that although England was important in the overseas grain trade, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituted less than 3.5 per cent of domestic output and its effect on prices was relatively minimal. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were some regional effects, such as the shift to commercial barley in East Anglia, while the dominance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Amsterdam merchants also suffered. The corn bounties also generally indicate that Britain was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestically well-supplied with food and had a mature grain market system that could encourage regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialisation and productivity gains. The wheat market was integrated through middlemen, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around London, but there was also a high level of asymmetrical power relations between these traders, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranged from hoymen to cornfactors. This did not necessarily create monopsonies, but many of the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful middlemen assiduously sought information about prices, home and abroad, that influenced their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market decisions and prospects.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Piet van Cruyningen approaches the issue from another perspective by concentrating on the agricultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(producers in 18th-century West Zeeland Flanders. This arable region supplied the urban centres of Holland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its social structure had been largely formed by the investment of urban capitalists in the 17th century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There were a small number of large tenant farmers alongside a much larger number of farm labourers; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter were increasingly seasonal workers from Flanders. Van Cruyningen uses accounts of a tariff on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exported agricultural products, 1693?1793, to show a shift in destination for their grain from Flemish towns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to those of Holland, particularly Middelburg or Rotterdam. Many of the smaller farmers had to sell quickly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in order to meet their rents and taxes, and they were at the mercy of middlemen, such as the bargemen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(?Oosterhouters?\) who transported grain to the large cities, from whom they received a relatively low price )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for their produce. Only the wealthier farmers could afford to ship grain themselves to urban centres, often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later in the agricultural year, and thus obtain higher prices from brokers. With this disparity in opportunity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many poorer farmers went bankrupt, thus reinforcing the dominance of the rural elite in West Zeeland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flanders.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is difficult to measure the quantity of foodstuffs flowing into towns when victuals often escape the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available documentation. Craig Muldrew looks at debt litigation for 17th-century King?s Lynn in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide a glimpse into the everyday food trade. Consumption estimates for Lynn suggest some 4.6oz of meat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(per person per day, supplied by 49 butchers, suggesting a significant level of activity. Similarly, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence of 30 bakers indicates a thriving trade in bread. Most debt suits by butchers and bakers were for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small-scale, consumption deals, reinforcing the idea that much victualling took place on credit. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, the debt litigation provides little evidence as to how grain and livestock were actually brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the town, with most of the disputes seemingly concerned with small retail transactions in food and drink.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final paper, written by Michael Kopsidis, is chronologically the most recent and is also the only paper to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(look much beyond the Low Countries and England. His main aim is to examine how Westphalian peasant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agriculture in the 18th and 19th centuries was shaped by processes of German market integration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialisation. Kopsidis notes that those regions with good connections to the expanding industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets of the Ruhr achieved better agricultural growth and intensification than more remote areas. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 4284 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, regional grain markets were still weakly integrated by the 1820s, and did not become significantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrated until the 1850s with the development of the railways and decreased transport costs. The railways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also quickened the pace of agricultural growth in Westphalia. Farmers? account and ledger books show )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contractual instruments for labour and capital that gave flexibility to the peasants. By the 1850s, this was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly market-oriented peasant economy in Westphalia, but due more to differing processes of market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integration rather than Prussian agrarian reforms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One thing that clearly emerges from this collection is that the relationship between these north-western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European towns and their hinterlands was far from straightforward. It is difficult to see clear zoning as in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(models of Johann Heinrich Von Thnen, but certain rural areas did intensify and specialise their production )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in response to urban demand. The impetus behind these agricultural developments varied from a competitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to high prices to deliberate investment by urban merchants. The importance of long-distance grain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supply is shown for London, Antwerp, Ghent and Amsterdam, but this did not negate the significance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their immediate hinterlands. Such factors did, however, influence the extent, geography and chronology of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market integration, linked also to price fluctuations, transport costs and the role of middlemen. Noticeable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative threads thus run through these thought-provoking essays, but the similarities and contrasts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the papers are perhaps not fully highlighted. Nonetheless, this volume adds to the important debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on pre-industrial town-country relations and provides much food for thought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors are happy to accept this review and do not wish to comment further except to make say thatthis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is published in a series of comparable books on comparative rural history, namely the CORN )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Publication Series. See about the CORN network-Comparative Rural History of the North Sea Area-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(network:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 79.676 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.corn.ugent.be/)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 79.676 485.955 m 206.000 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 209.000 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 222.992 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for the book series: )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.brepols.net/Pages/BrowseBySeries.aspx?TreeSeries=CORN)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 471.699 m 381.080 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 384.080 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 456.367 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 438.587 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 438.587 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1571)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 437.193 m 328.316 437.193 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 412.216 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.816 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/45074)] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.416 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.corn.ugent.be/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 369.016 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.brepols.net/Pages/BrowseBySeries.aspx?TreeSeries=CORN)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 79.6757 486.2695 205.9997 498.1495 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.corn.ugent.be/) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 472.0135 381.0797 483.8935 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.brepols.net/Pages/BrowseBySeries.aspx?TreeSeries=CORN) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 437.5075 328.3157 449.3875 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1571) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000606 00000 n 0000000688 00000 n 0000004601 00000 n 0000004710 00000 n 0000004820 00000 n 0000004929 00000 n 0000008490 00000 n 0000008618 00000 n 0000008702 00000 n 0000008767 00000 n 0000016267 00000 n 0000016332 00000 n 0000024033 00000 n 0000024098 00000 n 0000031547 00000 n 0000031645 00000 n 0000035982 00000 n 0000036109 00000 n 0000036186 00000 n 0000036313 00000 n 0000036429 00000 n 0000036557 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36653 %%EOF