%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150130121424+00'00') /ModDate (D:20150130121424+00'00') /Title (The Employee: A Political History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4205 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Employee: A Political History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The legal act of defining the ?employee? is about drawing lines. Those boundaries are often artificial, legally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structured, and forged in an array of contests over power, ideology, and economics. They may be artificial, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but they are powerful, demarcating who is in and who is out, who is us and who is them. Out of wars led by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lawyers and politicians, treaties get drawn up to settle the question, as the old labor anthem put it, ?Which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Side Are You On?? By defining an employee in broad or narrow terms, a society establishes the terrain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around which questions of loyalty, opposition, harmony, and bargaining must inevitably cleave. And in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States, that cleavage has often been sharp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jean-Christian Vinel?s fine new book, )] TJ ET BT 220.652 147.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Employee: A Political History)] TJ ET BT 386.636 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offers a deep history of the legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition of the employee and its near enemy, the doctrine of ?supervisory exclusion?. A juicy, dense, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legalistic read about a subject rarely if ever explored in depth, )] TJ ET BT 333.944 118.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Employee)] TJ ET BT 402.260 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( opens up a vast world of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquiry. Vinel has pinpointed an important conceptual problem, one that, when given the seriousness it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserves, forces a rethinking of many core ideas in labor, working-class, legal, and social history. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the title is a bit misleading \(the subject is more legal than political\), this well-researched, closely argued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book dissects a subject that we too often take for granted. If the narrative grace is not what one might hope, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1573)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 3 April, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jean-Christian Vinel)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780812245240)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(31.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Pennsylvania Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.upenn.edu/pennpress/book/15144.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philadelphia)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jefferson Cowie)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6732 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book rewards close attention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Employee)] TJ ET BT 102.332 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( begins and ends with the notorious 2006 )] TJ ET BT 302.324 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kentucky River)] TJ ET BT 375.968 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( cases, a set of legal disputes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decided that ?charge nurses?, those with a modest degree of supervisory authority at a subsidiary of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kentucky River Community Care, did not have the protected right to bargain collectively because their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibilities made them supervisors not employees. If they?re not employees, goes the catch, then they do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not have protected collective bargaining rights. The nurses, unlike those automaton stereotypes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assembly line era, allegedly demonstrate discretion, exercise autonomy, and wield some authority in such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways as to exclude them from the category of employee \(a fiction that Vinel shreds\). The highly technical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision is typically regarded as an end-run assault on collective bargaining in the United States. Rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attack the mechanisms of unionization and collective bargaining, the )] TJ ET BT 366.632 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kentucky River)] TJ ET BT 440.276 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( cases eviscerates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject: the employee.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the surface, the )] TJ ET BT 127.652 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kentucky River)] TJ ET BT 201.296 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( cases seem like the thousandth of the thousand cuts that have tortured the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labor movement in the United States. But one of historians? favorite arguments is that it has always been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus. And Vinel makes this grand old argument with regard to the narrow definition of the worker in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American life with devastating thoroughness. By the time the author is done with his subject, )] TJ ET BT 484.316 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kentucky River)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looks like a pretty obvious outcome for American labor history. Yet Vinel?s inquiry goes beyond debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over who should be excluded from bargaining and who should not. Rather, he interrogates the existence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the question. The implicit puzzle of this book is why there are any such divisions in the first place, and why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all citizens do not have bargaining rights. American workers, Vinel believes, have lost the connection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between citizen and worker in a legalistic cauldron of divide and conquer. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vinel begins his story by rolling back the clock to the origin of the term ?employ?, which, given that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author is French, must have been a fascinating process of untangling how his nation bequeathed such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic term to American legal history. Why did this term take root, he queries, when a host of words )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like mechanic, workingman, hireling, journeyman, worker, and laborer, among others, were available in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American lexicon? In adopting this once obscure French term American language created a muddy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discursive and political ?respectability that bridged social classes? \(p. 21\). The result was a language about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work ?rooted in opposition to class antagonism? \(p. 22\). Thus begins one of his key themes: that the social, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political, and legal definitions of the employee undermined a broad sense of class identity. He pushes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story through early industrial relations theory and practice, with a skillful reading of the fetish of class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harmony as nave and detrimental as compared to the actual workings of American capitalism. Vinel soldiers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on through National Labor Relations Board decisions, court decisions, and industrial relations literature, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parsing the cases, precedents, and ideas in intricate detail. Americans are not citizen workers, he concludes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but rather lost in the illusion of class harmony ? and wearing a name badge given to them by the bosses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is fascinating stuff, but the author?s sense of causation is not always clear as he risks placing language, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the legal regimes that grew up around it, on the cusp of historical causation. The author also stops just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short of taking responsibility for the full argument. Rather than being the product of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances, this language seems to \(maybe\) cause history. Vinel implicitly posits the ?Marxian collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worker? as a sort of obvious alternative to the fragmentation and legal traps that did happen in the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States \(p. 47\). A reader might bristle, given the immense number of variables that scholars have pointed to in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trying to account for the comparative weakness of the working-class in American political life, none of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which are mentioned here. At other points, Vinel argues simply that ?language bore the mark of the defeat of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ideal of working-class emancipation? \(p. 39\). We are left to puzzle whether Vinel believes the definition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the employee is a mere historical scar or the actual knife of history.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6661 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was a minor miracle that the National Labor Relations Act \(NLRA or Wagner Act\) of 1935 made no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction between employees, workers, and supervisors. He shows how unions of foremen actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sprouted up in the brief political sunshine between the 1935 NLRA and the 1947 Taft-Hartley Act ? whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amendments to the NLRA radically narrowed its purview. Those curtailments to the once capacious labor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law restricted its subject considerably, creating a claustrophobic and technocratic definition of the employee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by excluding a mouthful of potential workers, including:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any individual having authority, in the interest of the employer, to hire, transfer, suspend, lay )] TJ ET BT 64.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(off, recall, promote, discharge, assign, reward, or discipline other employees, or responsibly to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direct them, or to adjust their grievances, or effectively to recommend such action, if in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection with the foregoing the exercise of such authority is not of a merely routine or clerical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature, but requires the use of independent judgment \(p. 152\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 579.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These exclusions made some sense, however flawed, in the strict hierarchies of Fordist production, but they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ended up increasingly irrelevant in the technologically driven service economy that grew to replace post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry. Vinel shows how this deep-seated conceptual problem in postwar American history grew to be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis in recent decades.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 510.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The exclusion of foremen, Vinel suggests, recognized that the ?right to organize was not universal social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 496.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right of the wage or salary worker, but rather a kind of compensation for factory workers who accepted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strict work regime of the mass?production system? \(p. 141\). So many white-collar workers, the group C. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wright Mills once called the ?managerial demiurge? of the postwar economy, ended up outside of the labor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations framework ? despite, or more accurately, because of the fear that that would and did start unions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own \(p. 113\). Foremen, whether they wanted to or not, ended up having to sidle up alongside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management, becoming )] TJ ET BT 151.664 425.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(them)] TJ ET BT 174.992 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( rather than )] TJ ET BT 232.640 425.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(us)] TJ ET BT 243.308 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for the rank and file workers. This book is ultimately about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalties on the job, and here the issue is seen in stark relief. While a problem during the height of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial economy, this complexity becomes all the more severe in the information and service economies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where the illusion of autonomy and discretion are everywhere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is very good in his treatment of the post-war industrial pluralists? ?chameleon?-like position on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the employee. As he states, ?industrial pluralism appears bland against the grand reformist schemes [of the] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s, but in view of the stakes inherent in the definition of ?employee? and ?manager?, in a context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing anti-unionism it takes much brighter colors? \(p. 185\). Reframed, he means that the ideas of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working in the post-war paradigm were positively utopian compared with those to come. They believed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the route to social harmony could be found in all groups finding representation, while at the same time they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought that disruption, alienation, and conflict were things of the past. The new route forward was through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stability, incorporation, bargaining, and growth. Yet few foresaw the opportunity for business to close down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the New Deal opening just decades after it began.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author has fascinating conclusions, but he is just not quite sure how much to make of them. Ultimately, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he risks putting the cart of legalism before the horse of class consciousness. Vinel?s belief that class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness got funneled through legalism is sound. But he may have developed too much of a crush on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his subject when he concludes, ?one may argue that the entire American working class was defeated when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supervisors and managers were framed and defined as being impervious to freedom of association and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective bargaining? \(p. 234\). Note the rhetorical slight of hand: ?one may argue?. Perhaps if American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers had a clearer sense of themselves as a class, an elusive thing in American history, then others might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not be able to stamp them so readily with elusive labels and slippery legal categories. In short, it might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been a more effective approach had the author had let the legal language speak for itself rather than placing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon it all the burdens of class in America. The slender intellectual threads here simply cannot hold all of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weight of American exceptionalism.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5445 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a way to flip part of Vinel?s argument on its head. ?The success of foremen?s unions', he argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('would have durably altered the common sense of the social meaning of unionism by turning the right to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organize and bargain collectively into a right that all citizens enjoyed in American democracy? \(p. 156\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That?s a beautiful idea. Rather than wondering why supervisors were excluded, perhaps the more fascinating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question might be how they ever got included in the first place in American legal history. Vinel?s argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the Wagner Act depends upon some pretty rare historical circumstances between 1935 and 1947. Here, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author risks naturalizing and even romanticizing the extraordinary period of labor relations from 1935 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1947, rather than continuing to problematize the deeper and more fundamental issues in the history of class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations in the United States. As a labor historian writing in the 2014, it sometimes seems like a miracle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that anybody ever got the right to organize in the United States ? let alone the fact that some people were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excluded. For all of the deft Vinel brings to his legal readings, he seems just a bit too preoccupied with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?correct? version of class expression rather than the complexities of American history outside of his well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parsed legal decisions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Today, with all of the retail associates, assistant managers, and other fuzzy titles that obfuscate the service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sector employment relationship, the most miserable aspects of Vinel?s story have come to bear. As the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ACLU?s Lewis Maltby explained back in the 1990s, ?Given the way industry is involving employees in day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to day operations, it won?t be long before everyone is a supervisor under the NLRA, and no one has a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical right to join a union? \(p. 213\). The state of affairs illustrates Vinel?s case that ?the postindustrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of the Wagner Act? is more than conservative, it is ?the product of business hegemony over labor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law? \(p. 198\) Yet we cannot have the argument that it has always been a slippery definitional mess and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent tragedy. We cannot have a case in which legal decisions restrain class consciousness without class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness having an )] TJ ET BT 155.000 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a priori)] TJ ET BT 192.008 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( vulnerability to being restrained.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although a bit confusing about its sense of causation and sometimes hanging too much weight on its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions, )] TJ ET BT 96.680 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Employee)] TJ ET BT 164.996 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( nonetheless invigorates the stale paradigms of labor history and the anachronistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems of labor law by asking questions in new ways, brings new perspectives and intellectual energy to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject. By drawing together law, history, and industrial relations, this book changes the way we think. In an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age of independent contractors and assistant managers to the assistant managers ? with nary a worker in sight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? his history is relevant to the highest order. We are all supervisors now, one might readily conclude, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation is all the worse for it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(EH.net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://eh.net/book_reviews/the-employee-a-political-history/)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 305.139 m 324.320 305.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 327.320 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 301.807 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 284.027 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 284.027 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1573)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 282.633 m 328.316 282.633 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 257.656 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 243.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/80908)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.856 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://eh.net/book_reviews/the-employee-a-political-history/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 305.4535 324.3197 317.3335 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://eh.net/book_reviews/the-employee-a-political-history/) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 282.9475 328.3157 294.8275 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1573) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000536 00000 n 0000000618 00000 n 0000004875 00000 n 0000004984 00000 n 0000005094 00000 n 0000005203 00000 n 0000008764 00000 n 0000008892 00000 n 0000008976 00000 n 0000009041 00000 n 0000015826 00000 n 0000015891 00000 n 0000022605 00000 n 0000022696 00000 n 0000028194 00000 n 0000028321 00000 n 0000028433 00000 n 0000028561 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28657 %%EOF