%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 35 0 R 40 0 R 45 0 R 71 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141026020146+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141026020146+00'00') /Title (Hitlers Bildungsreformer: Das Reichsministerium fr Wissenschaft, Erziehung und Volksbildung 1934-1945) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4922 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Hitlers Bildungsreformer: Das Reichsministerium fr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Wissenschaft, Erziehung und Volksbildung 1934-1945)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What?s in a name? Often, particularly with books marketed at a more popular audience, all too much seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be at stake ? the controversy caused by Paul Preston?s )] TJ ET BT 309.632 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Spanish Holocaust)] TJ ET BT 420.968 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( being a recent case in point.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 207.377 m 48.008 207.377 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Thus far, criticism of Anne C. Nagel?s 2012 volume, )] TJ ET BT 308.972 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hitlers Bildungsreformer)] TJ ET BT 430.640 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, has followed similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lines, with a recent review in )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 175.652 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Soz-u-Kult)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 175.652 193.521 m 241.640 193.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 244.640 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 258.632 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( condemning its title ? as well as some of its content ? for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imparting a far too positive note to the machinations of the Third Reich?s Education Ministry, while failing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to dwell at sufficient length on the ultimately criminal nature of its endeavours, which were thoroughly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implicated in the Nazi )] TJ ET BT 143.336 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Volksgemeinschaft)] TJ ET BT 233.324 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s mechanisms of exclusion and destruction. The title is castigated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicitly for its ?provocative? linking of Reich Education Minister Bernhard Rust and his henchmen with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reformers of the Weimar Republic or the later Federal Republic of Germany ? and implicitly, one might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argue, for suggesting an affinity with irreproachable pioneers of educational reform such as Pestalozzi or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilhelm von Humboldt. Moreover, the fact that Nagel dares to highlight continuities between the Third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reich?s )] TJ ET BT 75.008 80.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reichsministerium fr Wissenschaft, Erziehung und Volksbildung)] TJ ET BT 389.672 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and its previous manifestations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prussia and the Weimar Republic, is also treated as an unconscionable piece of whitewashing.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 485.600 66.611 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 485.600 64.817 m 499.592 64.817 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1576)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 10 April, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne C. Nagel)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9783596194254)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.26)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(448pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fischer Taschenbuch)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.fischerverlage.de/buch/hitlers_bildungsreformer/9783596194254)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berlin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helen Roche)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 208.0915 48.0077 219.9715 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 175.6517 193.8355 241.6397 205.7155 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://hsozkult.geschichte.hu-berlin.de/rezensionen/2013-2-124) >> endobj 19 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 485.5997 65.5315 499.5917 77.4115 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8514 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, are such criticisms really justified? The answer necessarily involves a deeper value judgement on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a more abstract level ? should we actively shun shades of grey in our exploration of the organs of National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Socialist power, or, in seeking them out, do we automatically risk condoning the actions of the organisations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under consideration? I suspect that responses to this question are still often constructed somewhat differently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Anglo-American and German historiography, and that the H-Soz-u-Kult reviewer?s reaction was more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instinctive ? or heedlessly politically correct ? than well-considered. For, at least in this reviewer's opinion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hitlers Bildungsreformer)] TJ ET BT 155.684 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an informative and very readable piece of scholarship which \(rightly\) tries to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(break loose from such conventions, exploring the actions of the Reich Education Ministry and its acolytes on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own terms. After all, do we really need a disclaimer on every page \(or a slave whispering in our ear\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warning us that ?you must remember that these people were )] TJ ET BT 325.292 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nazis)] TJ ET BT 351.968 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and Nazis are )] TJ ET BT 426.272 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(evil)] TJ ET BT 443.600 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?? Nagel?s readers are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably historically engaged enough to be able to draw those particular conclusions for themselves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So, controversy aside, what of the book itself? Nagel admits that the catalyst for her interest in the topic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came from a personal encounter with a seemingly \(fairly\) innocuous elderly gentleman who shared her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family?s block of flats. Said gentleman claimed that he had always been thick as thieves with the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exalted Nazi bigwigs ? a claim which Nagel and her family always assumed to be false. Yet, years later \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here, the tale seems almost reminiscent of that behind Mary Fulbrook?s )] TJ ET BT 380.636 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Small Town near Auschwitz)] TJ ET BT 524.648 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though far less personal and harrowing\), when helping his widow clear out his office after his death, Nagel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discovered that all his boasts had been based in fact: he had been a highly-placed ? and thoroughly odious ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functionary in the )] TJ ET BT 122.336 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parteiamtliche Prfungskommission)] TJ ET BT 297.332 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a Party censorship body which had always been at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daggers drawn with the Reich Education Ministry. Once she began researching the Ministry?s policies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, Nagel found herself tracing these connections further, discovering how thoroughly her erstwhile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbour had been embroiled in the Third Reich?s educational history ? in this sense, )] TJ ET BT 451.628 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hitlers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bildungsreformer)] TJ ET BT 119.348 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was ?inspired? by her personal encounter with a bit-player from the Nazi past \(p. 8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In general terms, this work is more than a mere institutional history; it also provides an exhaustive case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of two of the centrifugal forces which constantly bedevilled the National Socialist regime?s capacity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(govern throughout the Third Reich. Firstly, we are given a superb overview of the intricate web of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kompetenzstreiten)] TJ ET BT 123.344 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in which the Ministry was enmeshed ? that is, the utter inability of competing ministries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government institutions, Party organisations, and especially their leaders, to agree on fixed demarcation lines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between their respective competencies. Goebbels, whose unrivalled greed for dominion over all cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters \(including education\) quickly revealed itself in a childish yet deadly desire to thwart Rust at every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn, is demonstrably the worst offender, but lesser functionaries such as Alfred Rosenberg, Rudolf Hess, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their acolytes also had a role to play, as Nagel?s elegant disentangling of the multiple \(poisoned\) threads )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of extra-ministerial politics makes very clear. From this perspective, it is a wonder that Rust ever managed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to hold onto the reins of power in the Ministry at all, let alone remaining in post until the bitter end in 1945 ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this chimes with Nagel?s broader revisionist argument that the Minister was not as weak or ineffectual a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political figure as has often been claimed \(pp. 16?20\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, we are presented with the incessant struggle between the National Socialist regime?s desire for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state centralisation, and the powerful regionalism present in the semi-autonomous federal system of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German )] TJ ET BT 75.668 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lnder)] TJ ET BT 110.336 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which found a novel \(though perhaps not entirely unexpected\) support in the form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hitler?s new breed of power-hungry Party satraps, the )] TJ ET BT 296.948 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gauleiter)] TJ ET BT 342.944 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 345.944 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 345.944 191.091 m 359.936 191.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 359.936 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While Rust and his aides saw the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merging of the Prussian Culture Ministry and the Reich Education Ministry which followed the Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(takeover as presenting the perfect opportunity to streamline and unify educational policy throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reich, in accordance with Hitler?s ideal of the National Socialist ?)] TJ ET BT 353.624 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Einheitsstaat)] TJ ET BT 416.300 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(unified state\), those with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stake in regional government sought to stymie their every move, in this as in other areas of political reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where centralisation was seen by Berlin as being both desirable and necessary. Ultimately, despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Party?s initial investment in the idea, Hitler felt unable to ride roughshod over federally minded yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically loyal factions who were reluctant to see their authority subsumed into the national government, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly since many of the )] TJ ET BT 180.320 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gauleiter)] TJ ET BT 226.316 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( whom he had appointed as regional rulers were close personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friends and allies from the ?time of struggle? before the Nazis had come to power.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 345.9437 191.4055 359.9357 203.2855 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 8659 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The content of the book is divided into six very broadly chronological chapters, beginning with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ministry?s backstory as the Prussian Culture Ministry during the Second Reich and Weimar Republic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapter one\), then tracing the expansion of the Reich Ministry?s capacity and responsibilities during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of peace \(chapters two to five\), and concluding with its development and subsequent decline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the Nazi regime?s belligerent final phase of conquest and annihilation \(chapter six\). As one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might suppose, this weighting of the chapters does lead to a certain imbalance in the treatment of the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years and the Ministry?s role in the occupied territories ? a matter which will be discussed in more detail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(below. Nevertheless, it does allow Nagel plenty of opportunity richly to depict the texture of the Ministry?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional life, including vignettes such as the licence with which, following Rust?s removal from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ministerial apartment in the main building to a more exalted residence in the suburban district of Berlin-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dahlem, the secretaries began not only to brew tea and coffee, but also to cook and grill in-house, so that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ministry?s interior began to reek like a street-corner )] TJ ET BT 287.288 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imbi)] TJ ET BT 315.284 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(pp. 15?16\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter, ?Berlin ?Unter den Linden??, sets the scene both literally and metaphorically, describing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Ministry buildings in great detail )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 212.684 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 212.684 585.747 m 226.676 585.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 226.676 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and tracing continuities between the contours of the Ministry?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educational and cultural policies from 1871 to 1933 and those later to be pursued by Rust and the Reich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ministry, which in effect realised Prussian Culture Minister C. H. Becker?s unfulfilled dream of ?a Prussian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ministry, which is simultaneously an institution of the Reich? \(p. 67\). Following a brief elucidation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book?s scope and objectives, we are taken on a whistle-stop tour of the Ministry?s Prussian pre-history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompassing what we might term the Wilhelmine )] TJ ET BT 281.660 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bildungs)] TJ ET BT 324.332 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-boom, which heralded the far-reaching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiative of the Prussian educational reform conferences \()] TJ ET BT 312.284 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Schulkonferenzen)] TJ ET BT 396.932 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), and saw a massive increase in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educational expenditure across the board, ranging from primary to tertiary education, which later contributed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the impressive scientific advancements made during the German war effort. Under the Weimar Republic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, priorities changed; now the new Social Democratic government was almost as keen to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?republicanise? the Ministry and its endeavours as the Nazis would later be to ?national-socialise? them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minister Becker therefore presided over a gradual process of democratisation, appointing a new team of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(younger, pedagogically-informed bureaucrats who could help him put his reforms into practice; however, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world financial crisis undid most of his achievements, as well as leading to swingeing cuts in the Ministry?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative structure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nagel then gives us a brief biographical sketch of her main protagonist, Bernhard Rust, detailing his war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service, his background as a classicist and schoolteacher, his post-war radicalisation and membership of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right-wing groups such as the )] TJ ET BT 179.000 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stahlhelm)] TJ ET BT 227.000 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and his activities as )] TJ ET BT 329.660 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gauleiter)] TJ ET BT 375.656 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Hannover North \(later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sdhannover-Braunschweig, one of the ?brownest? regions of all\) from 1925 onwards. During this time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rust leaned more towards the ?Socialist? wing of the Party, and is even rumoured to have hosted a meeting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at which Gregor Strasser, Goebbels and others raised the possibility of kicking Hitler out of the Party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because his views were too ?petit bourgeois? \(p. 44\). Nevertheless, Rust and Goebbels soon became united )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in their adoration and admiration of the Fhrer, and this devotion, along with Rust?s obvious talent for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation and leadership at a regional level, made him \(to Goebbels? never-ending chagrin\) the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obvious choice to take on the Prussian Culture Ministry once the Party gained power. The final section in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter describes Rust?s ministerial takeover ? replacing Becker?s republican bureaucrats with a young team )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of enthusiastically Nazi aides, and ruthlessly implementing the )] TJ ET BT 338.324 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Berufsbeamtengesetz)] TJ ET BT 439.640 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a law which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediately disqualified Communists, Jews, and other supposed enemies of the regime from office.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second chapter explores the Ministry?s various and wide-ranging competencies, including its attempts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to gain control over further areas whilst simultaneously protecting its existing domains from incremental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poaching. Logically, the Reich Ministry should have continued to bear the title )] TJ ET BT 415.316 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kultusministerium)] TJ ET BT 503.996 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prussian Ministry had done ? yet Goebbels? constant craving to monopolise all aspects of ?Culture? meant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the Ministry?s short title became ?)] TJ ET BT 220.664 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reichserziehungsministerium)] TJ ET BT 361.988 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(Reich Education Ministry\) by default, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(except when dealing with university matters, when it was known as the )] TJ ET BT 378.968 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reichswissenschaftsministerium )] TJ ET BT 536.636 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75\). In this context, too, ?what?s in a name?? had become a loaded question.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 401.612 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 401.612 77.043 m 415.604 77.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 415.604 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nevertheless, despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incessant wrangling with the Ministry of the Interior and Goebbels? Propaganda Ministry over areas which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had not yet been assigned, such as museums and heritage preservation, Rust still held sway over some )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 212.6837 586.0615 226.6757 597.9415 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 401.6117 77.3575 415.6037 89.2375 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 8219 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(250,000 Ministry-employed officials throughout the Reich, from university professors to primary school )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teachers \(p. 69\). The number of civil servants also grew exponentially, so that everyday life in the Ministry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was often characterised by acute frugality ? main lights were never to be turned on except for large meetings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(desk lamps alone should suffice\), paper had to be used double-sided wherever possible, and one was never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposed to make a telephone call when a timely letter or two could sort the problem out just as well \(p. 74\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In order to safeguard his exalted position at the top of this bloated bureaucratic structure, the Minister )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completely reorganised the Ministry so that it more closely resembled a military hierarchy of command, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rust himself playing the role of Generalissimo. Yet, in Nagel?s view, Rust?s diligence and devotion to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tasks before him were genuine; he did not treat his ministerial position as a mere sinecure. Even though Rust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was working in the service of an evil regime, she implies, his dedication was still impressive \(pp. 79?80\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The rest of the chapter describes some of the problems of regional factionalism which made Rust?s dream of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centralisation so profoundly difficult to realise, as well as the tensions between the \(often exorbitant\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial demands of Rust?s Ministry and the cautious frugality of the Prussian and Reich Finance Ministries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under Johannes Popitz and Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk respectively.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three, ?The hour of the experts: players and adversaries?, describes the machinations and double-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealing which went on behind the scenes within the Ministry ? and outside it. Whilst Rust was known for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding himself with a circle of relatively young aides, selected for their personal loyalty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional competence )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 155.984 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 155.984 540.723 m 169.976 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 169.976 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it was in the interest of other members of the Nazi elite to ensure that those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with most loyalty to or contact with their own organisations or institutions should reach the top ? and for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those whom they disliked or distrusted to be ousted as quickly as possible. This led to a constant revolving-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(door scenario, in which the merest hint of racial or political unorthodoxy could lead to a swift end to one?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career \(the fate of Reinhard Sunkel or Helmut Bojunga being a case in point\). Much could depend on who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one?s contacts or sponsors were, and whether the Party Chancellery, which had power over all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appointments, was in one?s favour. Nagel then goes on to provide a detailed catalogue of the Ministry?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemies, including the Amt Rosenberg, which was trying to gain more and more influence over cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics and academia, as well as planning to establish a competing system of ?Party universities?, the Stab )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hess, which insisted on vetting all university appointments, and the )] TJ ET BT 361.340 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parteiamtliche Prfungskommission)] TJ ET BT 536.336 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which wanted to gain powers of censorship over all school textbooks \(this is where Nagel?s former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbour is given the limelight\). The worst of Rust?s foes, however, was indubitably Goebbels, who was so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embittered by Rust?s having gained the position which he had coveted that he took every possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity, no matter how banal, to stymie him, attempting to turn the Propaganda Ministry into a rival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture ministry, until the two institutions existed in a more-or-less perpetual state of war and mutual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distrust. The controversy reached its most ludicrous proportions when Rosenberg and Goebbels briefly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooperated in trying to ban an academic )] TJ ET BT 228.968 314.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Festschrift)] TJ ET BT 280.304 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( presented to Hitler by the Ministry?s ?Amt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wissenschaft? for his 50th birthday \(p. 145ff.\). All in all, then, this chapter provides us with a textbook )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scenario of the constant factional infighting between the Ministries and other organisations, tellingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four focuses on Rust?s scholastic reforms, detailing conflicts of interest with the Nazi Party, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted to make secondary education as brief, cheap and utilitarian as possible, and was unsympathetic to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rust?s view of himself as a ?forester? who could not raise a new, Nazified generation in the blink of an eye )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 153\). Whilst Rust was still concerned to saturate schools with National Socialist ideology, he did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wish to ?break education over his knee?, and Nagel stresses continuities between Rust?s ideas and previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pedagogical thinking \(p. 154\). The chapter goes on to catalogue developments in various types of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educational institution, including the reduction in the number of types of secondary school, the introduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the compulsory four-year )] TJ ET BT 171.980 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Grundschule)] TJ ET BT 233.972 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(private primary education was no longer permissible\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes in teacher-training and vocational education. Meanwhile, the fifth chapter analyses the state of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affairs in universities and other academic institutions such as the )] TJ ET BT 346.640 116.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft)] TJ ET BT 485.960 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft)] TJ ET BT 201.656 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which were forced \(more or less willingly\) to accept the Ministry?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control and focus upon military rather than purely scholarly priorities. Nagel nicely captures the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mephistophelian pact which academics made with the regime; despite the fundamental lack of respect for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectualism in the Third Reich, and the fact that all early-career academics had to attend political training )] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj [35 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 155.9837 541.0375 169.9757 552.9175 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 43 0 R ] /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 7679 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(camps \()] TJ ET BT 71.672 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dozentenlager)] TJ ET BT 142.328 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), it was possible to gain a university position at an earlier age than ever before, due to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dismissal of politically and racially undesirable professors, and the pay-scale was also substantially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased. Most interestingly, Nagel argues that recent research disproves the idea that National Socialism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was wholly anti-academic ? since large amounts of funding were apparently readily available even for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanities disciplines, and smaller universities, or esoteric subjects such as Oriental Studies, were retained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because destroying them would damage Germany?s international prestige. Both Rust and Hitler himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were convinced that humanities subjects should still be accorded some value; this is probably the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason why tertiary education did not fall victim to industrial pragmatism, with universities reduced to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status of mere technical or vocational schools. Still, the idea that medicine courses could be shortened so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much that trainee doctors were no longer expected to know the names of various nerves and muscles because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they could ?read up on that afterwards?, whilst they were nevertheless forced to participate in compulsory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?healing herb expeditions? \(p. 218\), hardly builds confidence in the regime?s intellectual credentials.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter, ?The Ministry at war?, skates quickly over the effects of the Anschluss with Austria and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the occupation of the Sudetenland, before touching very cursorily on the Ministry?s role in the occupied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territories during the Second World War \(the subheading ?In the greater German Reich? is something of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misnomer here\). Conditions soon deteriorated ? both in terms of the circumstances in which the Ministry?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever-decreasing cohort of civil servants had to work, the public?s loss of respect for cultural and academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endeavours, and the reduction of university teaching to the bare minimum to allow for military service. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meanwhile, the Party sought to interfere ever more frequently in educational matters, leading to absurdities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Hitler?s demand that schools should only start lessons at noon, or that all secondary schools should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow the Austrian system. Martin Bormann increasingly attempted to spread hostile rumours about Rust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and have him replaced, though Hitler was never actually persuaded to do so until he drew up his last will and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testament. However, despite being chronically overworked, and hampered by lack of resources and constant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(air-raid damage, the civil servants in the Ministry continued in their posts until March 1945 ? and most of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them also lived on and were able to continue their careers in the post-war period. Rust, however, fled to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schleswig Holstein, where the second of his two suicide attempts succeeded ? the local pastor then refused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to bury him, claiming that he was ?a godless and unchristian man? \(p. 363\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nagel stressed at the work?s beginning that she aimed to challenge existing assumptions, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing the first comprehensive history of one of the Third Reich?s most important institutions. In both of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these aims, she has succeeded, and she should undoubtedly be congratulated for making an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to the scholarly literature. Nevertheless, there are certain criticisms which can be made of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hitlers Bildungsreformer)] TJ ET BT 155.684 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Most of these are structural, and concern choices about material which has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included or excluded from her survey.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For instance, it is often unclear why some incidents, meetings, or unfulfilled proposals are granted a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable amount of space, at the expense of others which seem equally, if not more, important. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extreme example of this tendency is the nugatory treatment of education in the occupied territories ? only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three pages are devoted to primary and secondary education in Austria, and four to Bohemia, Moravia and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Sudetenland )] TJ ET BT 114.008 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in toto)] TJ ET BT 145.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; the rest of the Eastern and Western territories are then dismissed in two paragraphs.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 217.347 m 48.008 217.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Indeed, matters such as the Ministry?s blackout measures are often treated in more detail than this ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which can make the account seem strangely unbalanced. Sometimes, one also has the feeling that one has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learnt more about the Ministry's unsuccessful attempts to put policy into practice than about those measures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which they actually managed to put through.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, the chronology within the different sub-sections is not always as straightforward as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation of the chapters might suggest, with frequent skipping forward and backward in time which can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be rather disconcerting)] TJ ET BT 143.984 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 149.984 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is particularly apparent in chapter four, where Nagel traces the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each different type of primary, secondary and vocational school separately; the details soon become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repetitious. Similarly, the first section in chapter three can sometimes resemble a mere catalogue of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personnel and potted biographies, without always containing quite enough spice in the biographical details )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to hold one?s full attention.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 42 0 obj [40 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 217.6615 48.0077 229.5415 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 9635 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In general terms, )] TJ ET BT 117.992 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hitlers Bildungsreformer )] TJ ET BT 242.660 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is very much an )] TJ ET BT 321.980 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(institutional)] TJ ET BT 380.000 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( history, and has to be understood in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this light ? this focus explains \(at least partially\) the lack of attention to the victims of Rust?s policies, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Jewish children and the infirm, which distressed the H-Soz-u-Kult reviewer; more attention is given to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disadvantaged civil servants instead. Nevertheless, this means that one can easily regret the lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information on how decisions taken at Ministry level had a real impact on people in the classroom or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lecture theatre \(if and when they did so\). Often, it is hard to grasp the full implications of the legislation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Rust and his army of civil servants brought into being. Perhaps this is an unfair point; a book which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused on such consequences of the Ministry?s activity would necessarily have been completely different. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And yet, one of the most compelling passages in the entire book, a description of a Nazi specialist music )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(school \()] TJ ET BT 72.344 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Musisches Gymnasium)] TJ ET BT 182.660 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) established in Frankfurt, includes exactly those personal touches \(reasons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why fathers refused to let their sons audition; reminiscences about a tour to Switzerland\) which could have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlivened and humanised other aspects of Nagel?s narration \(pp. 199?202\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the end, though, many of these quibbles could come down to the fact that there may just have been too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much material to deal with, and a selection had to be made somehow in order to prevent the book from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turning into a monster monograph, rather than a friendly Fischer black-jacket aimed at a popular audience. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether such problems could have been alleviated if the publishers had seen fit to allow the author another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(couple of hundred pages? grace must remain an open question.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To conclude: this is an enlightening and extremely well-written book, as well as a ground-breaking study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the Third Reich?s key institutions. Structural flaws or no, it repays careful appraisal, and will most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably remain the standard work on the Ministry for many years to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.707 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 424.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, see reviews in )] TJ ET BT 201.320 424.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Daily Telegraph)] TJ ET BT 301.316 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/historybookreviews/9103580/The-Spanish-Holocaust-by-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 408.435 m 544.304 408.435 l S BT 64.016 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul-Preston-review.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 394.179 m 187.004 394.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 190.004 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 203.996 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 22 January 2014], )] TJ ET BT 352.052 395.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wall Street Journal)] TJ ET BT 467.048 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303302504577325594229771470.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 379.923 m 488.372 379.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 491.372 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 505.364 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> )] TJ ET BT 64.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([accessed 22 January 2014], and )] TJ ET BT 222.632 367.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education )] TJ ET BT 343.628 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(<)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/419372.article)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 351.411 m 326.660 351.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 329.660 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 343.652 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 22 January 2014].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 488.708 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 488.708 351.411 m 542.696 351.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 338.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gerhard Kluchert, ?Rezension zu Nagel, Anne Christine)] TJ ET BT 334.616 338.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(: Hitlers Bildungsreformer. Das )] TJ ET BT 64.016 324.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reichsministerium fr Wissenschaft, Erziehung und Volksbildung 1934?1945)] TJ ET BT 435.680 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, )] TJ ET BT 447.008 324.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(H-Soz-u-Kult)] TJ ET BT 511.004 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 21 May )] TJ ET BT 64.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013 <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 97.784 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://hsozkult.geschichte.hu-berlin.de/rezensionen/2013-2-124)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 97.784 308.643 m 402.080 308.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 405.080 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 419.072 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 22 January )] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2014]. Ultimately, however, the book never fulfils its ?provocative? promise to explore forward-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking continuities, even if some of these can be extrapolated. We are only granted one speculative )] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paragraph at the end ? hardly what the blurb \(or Kluchert?s review\) might have led us to expect...)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 531.236 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 531.236 265.875 m 558.896 265.875 l S BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 251.619 m 90.344 251.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 238.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See )] TJ ET BT 84.344 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die NS-Gaue: Regionale Mittelinstanzen im zentralistischen ?Fhrerstaat?)] TJ ET BT 446.996 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. John, H. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mller, and T. Schaarschmidt \(Munich, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 288.320 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 288.320 223.107 m 342.308 223.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 210.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though one might wonder if the description becomes excessively minute at times ? for instance, is it )] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential for the reader to know that the faade of the edifice on Unter den Linden was formed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically of Wesselburg sandstone and Silesian granite?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 345.296 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 345.296 180.339 m 399.284 180.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 167.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact, the first part of the title of this chapter is ?More than just a name?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 418.616 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 418.616 166.083 m 472.604 166.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 153.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Ministry was even supposed to have had its own ?anthem?, which Rust?s aides allegedly sang )] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when having a drink at the )] TJ ET BT 194.660 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft)] TJ ET BT 333.980 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: ?Wir sind die Rustika, wir sind die Rustika, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sowas war niemals da, sowas war niemals da!? \(loosely: ?We are the Rusticans?, no one?s seen our )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like before?!?\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 137.312 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 137.312 109.059 m 191.300 109.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 96.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even if one accepts Nagel?s contention that ?one can hardly speak of planned control of educational )] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and academic politics in the territories occupied by the Third Reich? \(p. 341\), there is no excuse for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not providing the reader with a reference to some further reading on the topic ? e.g. G. Hansen, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Schulpolitik als Volkstumspolitik: Quellen zur Schulpolitik der Besatzer in Polen 1939?1945)] TJ ET BT 508.676 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Munich, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 408.7495 544.3037 420.6295 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/historybookreviews/9103580/The-Spanish-Holocaust-by-Paul-Preston-review.html) >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 394.4935 187.0037 406.3735 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/historybookreviews/9103580/The-Spanish-Holocaust-by-Paul-Preston-review.html) >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 380.2375 488.3717 392.1175 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303302504577325594229771470.html) >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 351.7255 326.6597 363.6055 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/419372.article) >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 488.7077 351.7255 542.6957 363.6055 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 97.7837 308.9575 402.0797 320.8375 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://hsozkult.geschichte.hu-berlin.de/rezensionen/2013-2-124) >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 531.2357 266.1895 558.8957 278.0695 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 251.9335 90.3437 263.8135 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 288.3197 223.4215 342.3077 235.3015 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 345.2957 180.6535 399.2837 192.5335 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 418.6157 166.3975 472.6037 178.2775 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 137.3117 109.3735 191.2997 121.2535 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 37 0 R >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R ] /Contents 72 0 R >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Length 2108 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1994\) and H.-C. 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