%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150226212052+00'00') /ModDate (D:20150226212052+00'00') /Title (Sacred Scripture, Sacred War: The Bible and the American Revolution) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2012 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Sacred Scripture, Sacred War: The Bible and the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1577)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 10 April, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James P. Byrd)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199843497)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199843497.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benjamin M. Guyer)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7810 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last decade has seen a rapid rise of interest in the religious contours of the American Revolution. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons for this are diverse. Within the United States, there are continuing debates over the separation of ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, conversely, the relationship between ? church and state. On a broader, global level, 9/11 and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second Gulf War have brought to the fore questions concerning the interrelationship of religion, violence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and imperialism. Historical study obviously has something to say concerning each of these. One can now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peruse multiple monograph-length surveys concerned with the place of religion in the developments that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proceeded from 1776. One can also find more specific studies which focus on the relationship of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary patriotism to both particular religious communities ? whether Catholic, Anglican, or Dissenter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? as well as particular locales ? notably Virginia and New England. And, as one might expect, there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost no shortage of material published on the diverse religious views of the Founding Fathers. Happily, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historiography has grown to such an extent that topical studies are now also being published. Among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these is James P. Byrd?s short but potent )] TJ ET BT 233.012 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sacred Scripture, Sacred War: The Bible and the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolution)] TJ ET BT 86.012 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Consisting of an introduction, six chapters, an epilogue, and an appendix, this is the first work to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigate the interpretation and application of the Bible in revolutionary America.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the second paragraph of the introduction, Byrd observes that ?the Bible has been a constant presence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American wars? \(p. 1\), oftentimes because of the view that America is ?a blessed nation on a divine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mission? \(p. 2\). Byrd then takes an unexpected turn. Rather than citing any of a number of colonial preachers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or revivalist ministers, he ponders the use of the Bible in the radically heterodox writings of Thomas Paine. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paine?s use of the Bible was not like that of most 18th-century believers; John Adams recognized the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and criticized Paine for his interpretations of Scripture. However, Paine recognized that, in Byrd?s words, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work such as )] TJ ET BT 99.668 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Common Sense)] TJ ET BT 173.324 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?had to make biblical sense? to its readers. )] TJ ET BT 383.948 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sacred Scripture, Sacred War)] TJ ET BT 527.924 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many ways, about the ability to use a religious text to justify desired political ends, regardless of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodox those intents may or may not have been. As Byrd briefly surveys uses of the Bible between 1675 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1800, he shows that it was used to vindicate war against Native Americans, attacks upon the French and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially their Catholicism, and eventually opposition to the British government. ?The vast majority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolutionary-era Americans ? were hardly biblical skeptics? \(p. 7\). No less importantly, they lived and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fought in a colonial context that already had a long history of using the Bible to interpret and rationalize both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conquest and war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byrd?s first chapter is the longest. He begins by looking at 1776 and pays especial attention to the preaching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture in New England, where ?Congregationalist ministers alone preached over 2000 sermons each week? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 16\). In this chapter, sermons ? always spoken, and oftentimes printed ? are the primary media under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation. Regrettably, Byrd does not make clear whether sermons and the Bible should be understood as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separate )] TJ ET BT 76.328 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(topoi)] TJ ET BT 101.000 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( under shared consideration; most of the time, the medium seems to fuse the message and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biblical sources together. Perhaps this should be expected, given that sermons are live interpretations of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bible. But surely just as the colonies had different political cultures, they had different preaching cultures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which preached different understandings of the Bible. Some reflection on this would have been welcome. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The bulk of the chapter is concerned, however, with the development and afterlife of ?martial preaching? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 20, 27\), which Byrd dates to King Philip?s War \(1675\). Militant American uses of the Bible thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(originated in the intertwined contexts of Restoration England and Puritan conflict with Native Americans in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the New World. Not all uses of the Bible were intellectual; some were borne of popular religion, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed that the Bible could protect soldiers who carried it with them into battle. Here too we see that armed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict was the impetus for these beliefs. Byrd avers, ?It is no accident that New England was both the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sermon-saturated and the most militant region in colonial North America? \(p. 20\). This remained true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the end of the 18th century. It can be seen during the Seven Years? War, when preachers used the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bible to denounce Roman Catholicism, France, and their Native American allies in one fell swoop. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also evident in opposition to the Stamp Act and reactions to the so-called ?Boston Massacre?. Throughout, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emphasis is on sermons, but the chapters which follow reveal that, insofar as the history can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstructed, the best way to understand colonial interpretations of the Bible is by studying the preached )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and subsequently printed word.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second, third, and fourth chapters deal with three of the most popular Biblical themes in Revolutionary )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7771 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America. Chapter two looks at Exodus, chapter three studies the prophetic narratives of Deborah and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeremiah, and chapter four outlines uses of the Israelite king David. These chapters are not arranged in order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of popularity. The Song of Deborah was ?the most cited passage in over a century of colonial war sermons? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 73\). Exodus, particularly its 15th chapter, was the third most popular Biblical narrative \(p. 51\), while six )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 20 most frequently referenced Bible stories were concerned with David, who became ?the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution?s most versatile biblical character? \(p. 95; citing p. 115\). The topical organization appears to be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concession to contemporary readership. However historically inconvenient, this was probably a wise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pedagogical move on Byrd?s part. The Song of Deborah occurs in one lone chapter of the Old Testament )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book of Judges, but one suspects that many people have heard of Moses and the Exodus story. Chapters two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and three thus work by beginning with something more familiar before moving on to what is more foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and less well known. In looking at David, the fourth chapter follows a similar pattern, beginning with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story of David and Goliath before continuing with an analysis of the difficulties which beset the Davidic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy ? stories which patriots used as a sign that monarchy was inherently corrupt, but which many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers today may be less knowledgeable about.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fifth chapter analyzes several texts, all of which were concerned with how Christians should approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy. Among these is Romans 13, ?the most widely cited Biblical text in Revolutionary America?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byrd argues that this is a ?surprising fact? because the historiography has traditionally spent most of its time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyzing uses of either the Old Testament or apocalyptic works \(p. 117\). This does not mean that Byrd has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fully broken with the general trend; as already noted, three chapters in this book are concerned with the Old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Testament, and chapter six looks at the use of apocalyptic texts. But by tabulating the popularity of Biblical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passages and then using these results to inform his conclusions, Byrd is able to illuminate the ubiquity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherwise little-studied texts, the meaning of which challenged impassioned patriots. In Romans 13 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related passages, most notably 1 Peter 2, colonists encountered a significant problem: these letters repeatedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhorted the first Christians to respect the reigning political powers. Furthermore, as the patriotic preacher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Mayhew recognized, no New Testament text ever encouraged Christians to revolt against a tyrant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 125\). There was no easy way out of this conundrum; the plain meaning of the text was elided in various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways, such as by distinguishing between kings and tyrants, or by appealing to reason. The results of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter are both discerning and fresh. The sixth and final chapter nuances the received historiography with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two theses. On the hand, Byrd suggest that patriots appealed to apocalyptic texts far less than is often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognized; on the other hand, he persuasively argues that they were relied upon ?more to stress militant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity than an American millennium? \(p. 162\). Standard apocalyptic episodes such as the attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decipher the meaning of ?666? are mentioned but are not central to these pages. Instead, Byrd uses this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter to detail colonial debates over pacifism, many of which appealed to apocalyptic texts not as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity for apocalyptic speculation, but as a justification for war. Here again, the narrative is genuinely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulating.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the epilogue, Byrd proposes that in the American Revolution, ?the Bible was arguably its most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential book? ? and yet, this does not mean that ?the Bible was the key to understanding the Revolution, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or that the Bible was the main source of revolutionary politics?. Rather, the Bible ?became patriotically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American? \(p. 164\). This raises an interesting question given his later statement that ?most revolutionaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimed to be fighting a just war, and not an outright holy war? \(p. 166\). If the Bible was so influential, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if it was so persuasively and consistently joined to the patriotic cause through the mass dissemination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?martial preaching?, might one conclude that many if not most colonial Americans were encouraged to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceive the American Revolution as a religiously-motivated war? Is this really different than ?an outright )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holy war?? These are questions about popular perception, and they need not deny that for most colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans, the American Revolution was also concerned with freedom, taxes, the right to steal Native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American land, and a wide variety of other matters. But these are questions well worth asking. The epilogue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ends, too soon, with a three-paragraph consideration of ?Legacies? ? but the only topics of consideration are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The American Patriot?s Bible)] TJ ET BT 177.680 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of 2009 and an all-too-brief reference to Biblical interpretation in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American Civil War. This is the only significant misstep in the book. No doubt multiple volumes could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written on the topic of legacies, but because it was broached, a more sustained consideration would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been helpful. Byrd?s )] TJ ET BT 136.664 59.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(foci)] TJ ET BT 154.664 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are, however, good illustrations of how deeply rooted his and other such books are )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7139 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the distinctly American legacy of the American Revolution. British legacies do not appear to have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even an afterthought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The appendix is two pages long. In it, Byrd explains his method: the creation of a database covering 543 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, including most of the sermons and major pamphlets published between 1674 and 1800. Together, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these yielded 17,148 Biblical passages. A table conveniently lists the eight most-cited passages from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolutionary Era \(1763? 800\), along with the number of times that the passage appears in the database, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chapter of the book in which it is discussed. Byrd offers a telling insight when he writes, ?The texts cited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most frequently were not always well-developed by colonists? \(p. 170\). Using as his example Psalm 124, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventh most popular Biblical pericope, Byrd explains that this text was popular because its second and third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(verses could be used as a proof text for the view that God was on the side of the American patriots. The use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Psalm 124 was fundamentally rhetorical. Presumably, many other portions of Scripture were used in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar fashion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regrettably \(at least from the standpoint of the present reviewer\), the book does not contain footnotes but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endnotes ? 62 pages of them, to be exact. They are well worth reading. Time and again, they reveal how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deeply rooted Byrd?s research is in both the historiography of the last several decades and the primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources themselves. They also reveal something else which, although not unique to Byrd?s work, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemingly endemic to the historiography on colonial America. The vast majority of Byrd?s secondary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources are American authors such as Gordon Wood, Mark Noll, and Thomas Kidd. British historians who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work on this same era ? one thinks, in particular, of the work of James B. Bell ? are not taken into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration. A similar observation can be made with reference to the primary source material. Although a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few references are made to ?Tory? critics of the American Revolution such as John Wesley \(pp. 56, 118\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially Charles Inglis \(pp. 120?3\), the narrative is primarily focused upon patriots. Nor are there any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references made to British ?Whig? sympathizers such as Edmund Burke. Insofar as )] TJ ET BT 436.928 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sacred Scripture, Sacred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War)] TJ ET BT 54.680 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is intended to tell the )] TJ ET BT 161.348 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American)] TJ ET BT 208.004 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( side of this story, this is exactly what one would expect, and Byrd )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeds admirably in his task. But one might also question how well this story can be told if one looks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost exclusively at colonial publications. The American Revolution may have happened in the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies, but it took place within the British Empire. Future work in this area should try to bridge the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic, accounting for both American and British primary and secondary sources.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much to be gleaned from )] TJ ET BT 198.980 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sacred Scripture, Sacred War)] TJ ET BT 342.956 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It will be foundational for all future studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Bible and the American Revolution, and it will be of great interest and relevance for broader studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion in late colonial America.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity Today)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2013/july-web-only/preaching-liberty-to-colonists.html)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 276.627 m 477.668 276.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 480.668 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Religion in American History)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://usreligion.blogspot.co.uk/2013/06/religion-and-revolution-review-of-james.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 248.115 m 449.996 248.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 452.996 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian Century)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.christiancentury.org/reviews/2013-09/sacred-scripture-sacred-war-james-p-byrd)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 219.603 m 476.564 219.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 479.564 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michigan War Studies Review)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.miwsr.com/2014-003.aspx)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 191.091 m 219.680 191.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 222.680 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 187.759 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 169.979 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 169.979 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1577)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 168.585 m 328.316 168.585 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 143.608 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 129.208 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/80287)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2013/july-web-only/preaching-liberty-to-colonists.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.408 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://usreligion.blogspot.co.uk/2013/06/religion-and-revolution-review-of-james.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 86.008 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.christiancentury.org/reviews/2013-09/sacred-scripture-sacred-war-james-p-byrd)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.608 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.miwsr.com/2014-003.aspx)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 276.9415 477.6677 288.8215 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2013/july-web-only/preaching-liberty-to-colonists.html) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 248.4295 449.9957 260.3095 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://usreligion.blogspot.co.uk/2013/06/religion-and-revolution-review-of-james.html) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 219.9175 476.5637 231.7975 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.christiancentury.org/reviews/2013-09/sacred-scripture-sacred-war-james-p-byrd) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 191.4055 219.6797 203.2855 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.miwsr.com/2014-003.aspx) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 168.8995 328.3157 180.7795 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1577) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000570 00000 n 0000000652 00000 n 0000002716 00000 n 0000002825 00000 n 0000002935 00000 n 0000003044 00000 n 0000006605 00000 n 0000006733 00000 n 0000006817 00000 n 0000006882 00000 n 0000014745 00000 n 0000014810 00000 n 0000022634 00000 n 0000022746 00000 n 0000029938 00000 n 0000030065 00000 n 0000030207 00000 n 0000030334 00000 n 0000030471 00000 n 0000030598 00000 n 0000030738 00000 n 0000030865 00000 n 0000030951 00000 n 0000031079 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31175 %%EOF