%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 26 0 R 44 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818233855+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818233855+01'00') /Title (Vikings: Life and Legend \(6 March - 22 June 2014\)) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4816 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Vikings: Life and Legend \(6 March - 22 June 2014\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No exhibition can guarantee a museum a popular success, but the Vikings must surely offer a pretty good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shot at it. Where often it is a challenge to establish the identity of an historical culture or phenomenon for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential audience, absolutely no such problem exists for the Vikings, for everyone ? even those who know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing about history ? knows about the Vikings. They have become part of a common mental furniture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their character and behaviour strongly defined in the popular imagination and constantly restated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforced by appearances not just in the rarefied environs of academic history but in the far more accessible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of novels, films, advertisements and television programmes. Vikings, everyone knows, were sailors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and warriors, robust and unruly pagans who terrorised Christian Europe and explored the north Atlantic in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the west and the rivers of Russia in the east. The classic Viking behaviour is the raid: bearded warriors with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(axes leap ashore from their dragon-prowed longships in search of villages to burn and treasure to steal. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pop culture Viking has become a sort of superman, exceptional in all his appetites and a paragon of a violent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and unfettered hyper-masculinity that is at once entirely unacceptable and entirely fascinating to a gleefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horrified modern audience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the curators of an exhibition this creates a challenge. How to harness the enthusiasm created by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overblown fictional Vikings of popular culture into interest in the equally spectacular but far less cartoonish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements of early medieval Scandinavian culture? In 1980, the last time that the British Musem held a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large-scale Vikings exhibition, a hugely successful answer was found as the Vikings were repackaged as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bringers of trade. Some 20 years of reassessment and questioning of the scale and uniqueness of Viking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities since the publication in 1962 of Peter Sawyer?s brilliant and groundbreaking book )] TJ ET BT 478.964 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Age of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vikings )] TJ ET BT 73.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed to be brought to the attention of the public; more recently, campaigns of excavation at Wood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quay in Dublin and Coppergate in York had revealed the vitality of Viking age towns and brought forth a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charismatic wealth of material culture. The result was a clear message of the Vikings as traders as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1578)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 10 April, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Museum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Museum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Trafford)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8546 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raiders, a message later reinforced by the opening of York?s Jorvik Viking Centre in 1984, a move that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped to cement the Vikings in their position as popular favourites.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the 34 years that have elapsed since the last exhibition, the Vikings have, if anything, increased in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popularity, whilst continued research and excavation, together with the far greater availability of material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from eastern Europe, have produced a wealth of new scholarship and understanding. The time is right for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new exhibition to set this before the public and to meet the continuing demand for all things Norse, and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this end the British Museum has unveiled )] TJ ET BT 236.348 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vikings: Life and Legend)] TJ ET BT 357.344 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, displaying its confidence in the Viking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?brand? by giving it the honour of being the first to make use of the museum?s major new exhibition space, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Sainsbury Gallery. Initial press reception of )] TJ ET BT 268.640 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vikings: Life and Legend)] TJ ET BT 389.636 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, however, has proved to be at best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decidedly mixed and in some cases actively hostile.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of the criticisms are, it must be said, wrong-headed: Mark Hudson in the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 418.304 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Telegraph)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 418.304 628.689 m 497.300 628.689 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 500.300 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 518.636 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?baffled? by the absence from the exhibition of the British Museum?s ?terrifying dragon-head boat prow?, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent ignorance of the fact that the prow in question is a minimum of 200 years too early and has nothing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whatsoever to link it with any Viking activity: it may well be late Roman. Brian Sewell in the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 486.332 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Evening)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 486.332 585.921 m 525.656 585.921 l S BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Standard)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 571.665 m 78.020 571.665 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 81.020 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 95.012 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( lambasts the exhibition as a ?disaster? on the frankly ridiculous grounds that it contains too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many ?small things? and that all the larger objects are rusty or decaying; his principal contention appears, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though, to be that the exhibition is too ?swotty? and does not sufficiently indulge schoolboy Viking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fantasies. Other )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 112.328 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more sober commentators)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 112.328 528.723 m 236.972 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 239.972 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 253.964 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, however, have also felt that )] TJ ET BT 395.264 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vikings: Life and Legend)] TJ ET BT 516.260 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( lacks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excitement, joy or a compelling narrative and have taken issue with the staging and presentation. Is this fair?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The exhibition is divided into a number of sections, each expanding upon particular features of early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval Scandinavian culture and society: we have ?Viking homelands?; ?Viking World?; ?Cultures in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contact?; ?International trade?; ?Communicating power?; ?Status and display?; ?The Ship?; ?Way of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warrior?; ?Warriors to soldiers? and conclude with ?Viking belief?. The first few rooms set the scene, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positioning Viking Age Scandinavia in an intellectual, cultural, economic and artistic milieu that was all its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own and yet was also in direct and indirect communication with cultural giants to the south: with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingdoms of Latin Christendom in the west and the distant but looming Abbasid Caliphate far to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southeast. The way in which Scandinavian culture married indigenous and exotic elements is gloriously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrated by silver hoards from the Vale of York and from Lyuboyezha in southern Russia, each of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporates items from India, Ireland, Persia and the Frankish lands as well as Scandinavian material. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bearing the marks of Christianity, Islam and Scandinavian pantheism, these spectacular items demand close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention for their intrinsic quality, for the insight that they provide into the cultural, religious and artistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influences on the Vikings and for what they reveal of the realities of wealth and power in this world. Close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention, however, is very hard to bestow, as this part of the exhibition suffers from appalling overcrowding. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To have a chance of seeing anything at all, the only viable strategy is to grab any opportunity that arises and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dart from case to case whenever a break appears in the press of bodies. It seems extraordinary that the BM )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has failed so spectacularly to manage crowd flow in their prestigious new space, and it is a terrible pity for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the exhibition, for many fine items are easily missed as a result.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The display space is far more successful when it opens out into a large hall with, as its centrepiece, Roskilde )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6, the Viking ship discovered in the mud of Roskilde Fjord in Fyn, Denmark in the late 1990s; at some 37m )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in length, it is the largest ever found. Around a fifth of the original timbers have survived ? mostly the keel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and bottom planking ? but the outline of the complete ship is represented extremely effectively in a ghostly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form by a steel frame. First seen from above, the physical presence of the ship dramatically dominates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second half of the exhibition and rightly places Scandinavian mastery of the sea at its heart. Around it are a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set of displays that put the emphasis much more firmly upon the audience-pleasing classic ?Viking? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities: sailing, raiding and fighting. One of the most visually arresting cases in the exhibition ? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently reproduced in the publicity material ? places a grinning jawbone with elaborately filed teeth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beneath a conical helmet, and surrounds it with weaponry and the paraphernalia of battle. The skeletal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Viking warrior composite is hokey, for sure, and unashamedly played for drama, but arguably in a way to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the Vikings themselves were no strangers. An even more emphatic piece of 11th-century theatre is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embodied in the apparent execution burials from Ridgeway Hill, Weymouth: a large number of males, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 418.3037 628.8295 497.2997 640.7095 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/art/art-reviews/10673076/Vikings-British-Museum-review-Like-watching-The-Killing-in-Stansted-Airport.html) >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 486.3317 586.6663 489.3317 598.5463 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.standard.co.uk/goingout/exhibitions/Vikings-life-and-legend-british-museum--exhibition-review-9172707.html) >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 486.3317 586.0615 525.6557 597.9415 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.standard.co.uk/goingout/exhibitions/Vikings-life-and-legend-british-museum--exhibition-review-9172707.html) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 571.8055 78.0197 583.6855 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.standard.co.uk/goingout/exhibitions/Vikings-life-and-legend-british-museum--exhibition-review-9172707.html) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 112.3277 529.0375 236.9717 540.9175 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/mar/04/vikings-british-museum-ship-story) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 8113 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified by scientific means as Scandinavian, were discovered in 2009, beheaded, stripped of all items of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value and with their heads tossed together. This is a curious find and much could be hypothesized as to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the series of events it chronicles. The surmise is that it represents the execution of the whole crew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a raiding ship after their capture, but there do not appear to be any marks of recent combat on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skeletons and other explanations are possible. Rather than exploring this, however, the case captions instead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour the point that this shows that the Vikings were not invincible: but had any but the most rabid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believers in their superhuman belligerence ever believed that they were?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vikings: Life and Legend)] TJ ET BT 155.012 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( concludes with a small \(too small\) but fascinating section on belief and magic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rightly avoiding too much emphasis on the familiar written accounts of Norse belief, which are late and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show evidence of considerable neatening up under the influence of Christianity, we see in the imagery of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objects displayed here a complex, untidy and syncretic set of ideas and practices, some of which for sure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved Oin, r and the rest, but others of which were animistic and concerned with evoking the spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power of the local natural world, as in a number of pendants from Russia and Finland depicting the teeth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claws of bears. Here we see also the grave goods of a female sorceror, almost the first time that we have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encountered women acting with any degree of independence in the exhibition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There should be no doubt whatsoever that )] TJ ET BT 238.316 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vikings: Life and Legend)] TJ ET BT 359.312 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contains much that is both fascinating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that must deepen our understanding of the life of northern and eastern Europe, not to mention the near )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East, between the 8th and 11th centuries. Perhaps what is most exciting here is how much of this stuff is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new: the overwhelming majority of the objects shown were not known at the time of the last great Vikings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhibition in 1980, either because they had not yet been unearthed or because they were sequestered from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western scholarship in forbidding Soviet-era eastern bloc museums. Maybe, then, one of the best ways to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand )] TJ ET BT 89.672 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vikings: Life and Legend)] TJ ET BT 210.668 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is as a progress report and snapshot of the state of play in study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vikings, with hints that there may be a lot more to come, especially in the east. This may not, though, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely absolve the exhibition from the central charge of its critics: that it lacks a narrative drive, and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the whole manages to be somewhat less than the sum of its parts. 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