%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150701073446+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150701073446+01'00') /Title (Hostages in the Middle Ages) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4287 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Hostages in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The word ?hostage? might immediately bring to mind hostile situations: the entrapment of a wealthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(businessman?s daughter in exchange for money, a terrorist incident )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 360.620 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 360.620 243.417 m 374.612 243.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 374.612 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or a manifestation of domestic abuse.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 229.161 m 48.008 229.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, the meaning of hostageship has undergone many transformations over time, some of which are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought under the microscope Professor Adam Kosto as he dissects the development of this phenomenon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Middle Ages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In attempting to emphasise the distinction between the modern perception of hostageship and that of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval era, Kosto argues that in the past hostageship was seen as not simply a legal issue, but also as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political one. This distinction between the modern sense of the term and the medieval one is something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kosto continually addresses in his bid to avoid the historian?s most cardinal sin, anachronism. The pitfalls of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linguistic interpretation in history are evident and Kosto is very good at putting the medieval usage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('hostage' in context. However, aside from a few pages at the end of the book \(p. 220?6\), he seems to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlook the modern use of the term and only makes reference to it, briefly, in terms of the Hostage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Convention of 1979, the US Lieber Code or the Nuremberg Trials. Kosto somewhat understates the variety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of modern hostageship and could have emphasized this further. But essentially, this is a deeply historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1579)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 24 April, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Kosto)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199651702)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(63.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(300pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199651702.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shavana Musa)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 360.6197 243.7315 374.6117 255.6115 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 229.4755 48.0077 241.3555 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6674 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation and the parts of the book where it deals with the modern period are not central to its thesis. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drawing on the work of Ascan Lutteroth, Kosto also identifies the modern distinction between hostages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forcibly taken and hostages given as a result of negotiation, which has been seen as a product of modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international law \(p. 5\), although it also existed in an exceedingly multi-facetted way in the Middle Ages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is very clear in his claims: firstly, medieval hostageship was not only a guarantee as such, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was firmly embedded in contemporary politics. Secondly, as society changed, so did the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostageship. And finally, despite the societal progress made in key areas such as law and governance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?physical control over people remained crucial? in the politics of this time, though one also sees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international law and economics coming to the fore.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In first providing a general overview of the history of hostages, hostage precursors are revealed in Rome and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Persia, and even pre-Islamic Arabia. Nonetheless, the Middle Ages are selected as the main focus of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, due to the practice of hostageship being at its peak in this period and, as the author puts it, featuring in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?every major politico-military development or event between the fifth and fifteenth centuries? \(p. 4\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, it is also interesting to discover that hostages were not only used in the context of armed conflict, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also in endless financial transactions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is indeed true that medieval hostageship has been ? perhaps quite intentionally ? overlooked. Many studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on hostages have used a much broader and extensive time frame, covering only briefly developments in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages. Kosto recognizes this, and also criticizes the common but mistaken conflation of hostageship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with suretyship, and the confusing distinction between, yet simultaneous intertwinement of, hostages on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one hand and captives on the other.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s concern, however, is to investigate the contexts of hostageship rather ?than with tracing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional genealogies? \(p. 7\). And the contexts undoubtedly seep through, cementing the whole book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together in an extraordinary fashion. This contextualization is necessary to understand a concept that is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only complex but also medieval to its core. Not limiting himself to legal history, Kosto is quick to emphasise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the social and political history of hostageship, and that does wonders for our understanding of the notion as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(held in medieval society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book lays out the varieties of medieval hostageship. In essence, regardless of the kinds of situation a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostage would be required in, the common thread was the existence of a promise, with or without a temporal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deadline. Open-ended agreements were more frequently used in the Middle Ages to display submission by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vanquished side, as a substitution for released captives, and to ensure the loyalty of a ruler?s subordinates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and even allies \(p. 25?8\). However, finite agreements on hostages were not uncommon either and could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come in the form of a truce, even for safe passage, such as Otto I?s use of a hostage in Mainz to ensure the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(safety of his son and son-in-law. By far the most common, however, were ransom agreements. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter two, a distinction between true and conditional hostageship is made and we learn of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preference for appointing sons as hostages, given their position within the family. This is evident in the story )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Thietmar of Merseburg, or that of Magnus I of Norway?s success in Denmark \(p. 32?4\). The use of sons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows how hostageship was based largely on family ties. In fact, family and alliance, according to Kosto, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?defined early medieval political action? \(p. 54\). The chapter also explores the logic behind medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostageship, explaining that the question of exactly who a hostage was in the Middle Ages was in fact part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and parcel of the question of what the structures of power were.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A thread running throughout the book is the story of William Marshall. This could wear a little thin for those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very familiar with the topic, who might welcome more variety in the examples provided ? though Kosto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does provide these in other parts of the book. However, for the reader new to the topic, the repeated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to Marshall could assist with understanding the practice of hostageship. With Marshall?s story in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind, the reader is able to comprehend the intricacies of each aspect of hostageship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A study of the Middle Ages would not be complete without a gruesome dimension. On this, Kosto does not )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 6919 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fail to deliver. Including stories of the mistreatment and gory decapitation of hostages certainly adds to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drama of the work, though voyeurs should not get too carried away, as we find that these fatal situations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were in fact rarities in the Middle Ages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Saxons infamously executed on Charlemagne?s orders have always stood out as the best known group )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of hostages. However, the Carolingians took many other groups as hostages too, including Iberian Muslims, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bohemians, Moravians, Lombards, Danes, Bretons and so on. Furthermore, the Carolingians were not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only ones to make use of hostageship in the early Middle Ages. Rulers from around the globe, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Islamic Emirs, utilised hostages and this practice became a means of political communication, a sign of good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faith. In this sense, hostageship was a common ? perhaps universal ? language in itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But if hostageship was a language then it also possessed many dialects, with political communication not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being the only one. Romans used hostages as a means of religious communication, and hostageship could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also be a technique of religious conversion \(p. 68\). It was therefore not always negative, being comparable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes such as child oblation, commendation, fosterage or even sponsorship \(p. 72?7\). Hostages were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to provide a guarantee, but these parallels could well have encouraged the continued use of hostages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the 11th century, an almost new era of hostageship emerges. Hostages were subject to an exponential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increase, not only in number but also in the variety of contexts in which they were used. This was as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection of what was going on in society as a whole. Noticeable changes included the increased use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(females as hostages and of hostages as representatives following changes in political geography. Conditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respite and ransom, with their links to the Crusade \(p. 114\), also had connections to hostageship. Hostages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were deemed to have significant, if not substantial, economic worth in a ransom market \(p. 118\) and were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also used in many financial transactions. The laws of war also played a huge role in the formalisation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal position of hostages at this time, which became enforceable through formal court processes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five discusses conditional hostageship, as the more judicial nature of the practice evolved, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislation on it widespread by the 13th century \(pp. 131; 161\). Hostageship was now deemed to be based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mutual trust between two parties, one of which could guarantee the appearance of the hostage when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required to do so. The use of hostages was also being integrated into international affairs, as reflected in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international peace treaties. Additionally, money had much more of a role to play at this time, and could now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be an object of the agreement as well \(p. 157\). Moreover, conditional hostageship could also be used as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contractual tactic \(p. 160\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the recorded accounts of royal ransom hostageship, it is only natural that the author should consider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the King?s ransom, not merely because the sources are accessible, but also because of its importance to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functioning and development of political life. Hostages were frequently used to acquire royal ransom. Kings, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Richard I of England, would become useful pawns in endless diplomatic games. Other kings, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles of Salerno, who was released by the Treaty of Canfranc, royal ransom hostages in the Anglo-French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War and even James I of Scotland, whose particular innovative hostage situation demonstrated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metamorphosis of captive and captor roles in hostage situations concerning royal ransom, go a long way to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show the trends in royal hostageship throughout the Middle Ages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition, the book details the negotiations that went into hostageship and uses evidence that shows that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval contemporaries were not as concerned with technicalities and formalities as they were with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?behaviour and status? \(p. 200\). Despite evidence implying a disdain for the practice, it is clear that the use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of hostages did not diminish until much later. Although Kosto cites theoretical writers such as Belli, Vitoria )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Grotius and their views on hostageship, it is clear that this is the weakest part of the book. Why these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers thought the way they did about the use of hostages is not made clear, and more connections could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been made to previously documented sources.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, the contextual approach taken in this book is still remarkable; as has already been suggested, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not limited to a survey of familiar work on this topic, but also looks at crucial archival material, showing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how comprehensive an enterprise this study actually was. This research could well have been a never-ending )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 5584 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endeavor and Kosto has already, his own words, been ?at it for so long?, probing into some very important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and wide-ranging points. Needless to say, there is sufficient information in the book to provide a more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well-balanced picture of hostageship in the Middle Ages. Furthermore, Kosto should also be admired for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condensing such dense and complex material into a book of only 226 pages. Communicating complicated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material can sometimes be a struggle for academics, but this is evidently one of Kosto?s strengths.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An impressive range of sources is used, including primary materials that go beyond the usual Eurocentric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus that studies like this often suffer from. The author uses Arab, Slavonic, Hebrew and Syriac sources, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as the usual European ones, and digs into not only the Christian sphere, but also the Islamic one. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should open the floodgates and appeal to other researchers working in the fields of peace studies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international legal history, the laws of war and so on, drawing their attention to primary sources that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may previously have been unaware of.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the book, we are introduced to numerous real examples, and their implications and relevance for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the understanding of the hostage in the Middle Ages, which help bring this study to life and transport the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader. We are, in addition, given the pleasure of getting to the heart of the author?s thought-process in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawing his conclusions. Parts of the book are almost lessons in historical methodology themselves, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kosto warns of the danger of any historical document being a forgery. How can any document be perceived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as neutral? This level of methodological transparency is unique and adds a sense of sincerity to the work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately, there was no single model of a hostage in the Middle Ages and it was precisely the ever-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing contexts in which hostages could remain useful to both the hostage-giver and the hostage-taker that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made hostageship a widely-used tool in peacemaking in a range of different societies and cultures. Kosto?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear and systematic work is testament to his brilliance, not only as a historian, but also as a storyteller. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book itself is packed with wonderfully illuminating material on the medieval hostage, but also the analogous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of medieval power structures and society. The versatility of this book means that it would not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only be of interest to a well-established historian \(legal or otherwise\), but also to a non-historian, or someone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starting out in the field.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.427 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 352.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph J. Lambert, )] TJ ET BT 157.004 352.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Terrorism and Hostages in International Law: A Commentary on the Hostages )] TJ ET BT 64.016 338.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Convention 1979)] TJ ET BT 146.348 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 243.668 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 243.668 337.155 m 297.656 337.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 324.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vincent B. Van Hasselt, John J. Flood, Stephen J. Romano, Gregory M. Vecchi, Nathalie de Fabrique, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vincent A. Dalfonzo, ?Hostage-taking in the context of domestic violence: some case-examples?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Family Violence)] TJ ET BT 195.668 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 20, 1 \(2005\), 21.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 281.660 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 281.660 294.387 m 335.648 294.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author thanks the reviewer for the careful review of his work and for her constructive observations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestions.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 238.543 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 220.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 220.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1579)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 219.369 m 328.316 219.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 194.392 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 179.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/54358)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 243.6677 337.4695 297.6557 349.3495 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 281.6597 294.7015 335.6477 306.5815 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 219.6835 328.3157 231.5635 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1579) >> endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000530 00000 n 0000000626 00000 n 0000004965 00000 n 0000005074 00000 n 0000005184 00000 n 0000005293 00000 n 0000008854 00000 n 0000008982 00000 n 0000009066 00000 n 0000009095 00000 n 0000009223 00000 n 0000009259 00000 n 0000009288 00000 n 0000009414 00000 n 0000009450 00000 n 0000009515 00000 n 0000016242 00000 n 0000016307 00000 n 0000023279 00000 n 0000023377 00000 n 0000029014 00000 n 0000029142 00000 n 0000029197 00000 n 0000029325 00000 n 0000029380 00000 n 0000029508 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29604 %%EOF