%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722011604+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722011604+01'00') /Title (On Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Considered as One of the First Authors of the Revolution) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4735 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(On Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Considered as One of the First Authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(of the Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The average historian steps with some trepidation into the murky territory that lies on the borderlands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy and literary criticism. There is often a feeling here that at any moment a gang of deconstructive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brigands will leap from the intellectual undergrowth, strip you of your disciplinary garb, and leave you )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposed as a naked empiricist in a wilderness of thorny questions. There were moments, as I read this book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it felt like that had indeed happened. One passage in particular from this work, where Swenson cites an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anecdote from the )] TJ ET BT 123.656 280.451 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Confessions)] TJ ET BT 181.664 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, left me feeling distinctly bare. The young Jean-Jacques constructs a machine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to poke through the window of his master's storeroom, cut up apples inside, and withdraw them through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small aperture available. He splits an apple, but it falls to the floor, and the authorial voice interjects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Compassionate reader, share my suffering.' As Swenson notes, the verb 'partager' is used for both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(splitting and the sharing. And from here come some five pages which take us back to Ovid, the Hesperides, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(St. Augustine and the Fall, and include such statements as 'The two senses are not compatible and the word )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot be simultaneously understood in both ways; a choice is necessary. More precisely, to choose or not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choose is already a choice... To read partager as an act of reading would seem to exclude the purely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentimental reaction, whereas to read the story in an emotive fashion requires a totalisation rather than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division, an identification rather than an understanding. Rousseau's story separates the two senses or two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kinds of reading and narrates a movement from the one to the other, mediated by the loss of the apple.' [p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(130])] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, struggling past the occasional literary thicket of this type, there is much in this text which is worth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the attention of historians. The author is at pains to make his central theme an historical one - he uses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(word three times in his first paragraph. Swenson takes his title from a 1791 work by Louis-Sbastien )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mercier, which he reads as establishing a claim for Rousseau to have been an 'author' of the Revolution in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(158)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 December, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Swenson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stanford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stanford, CA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dave Andress)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7589 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the widest possible sense, not only as cause of the Revolution, but as 'the ground and guarantee of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligibility of the Revolution.' [p. 15] As Swenson goes on to elaborate, there are serious reasons to take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this claim seriously. The ultimate argument made here is that the thought of Rousseau had penetrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political debate by the early months of the National Assembly so profoundly that the revolutionaries could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only think in terms laid down by that thought. However, that thought was radically discontinuous, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictory even, and the Revolution found itself forced to live with the enormous tension this provoked: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Not any one discourse but what they share in their division, indeed, the combination of a passionate longing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for unity and a rigorous experience of division, represent the Revolution's greatest fidelity to Rousseau.' [p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(226])] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Before getting to the heart of his argument, Swenson elaborates a history of histories of the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution, showing the extent to which all significant interpretations have necessarily taken a view on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship of Enlightenment to Revolution. Such interpretations began with the revolutionaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves - Mercier was far from alone in focussing on Rousseau, and the view of the Revolution as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('offspring of philosophie' seems to have been taken for granted in the 1790s. The view was sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradoxically reversed, as Jean-Joseph Mounier noted from a survivor's perspective in 1801, that it was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution itself that produced the influence of Enlightenment, and especially Rousseauist, principles. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Chartier has more recently expressed this in terms which might seem to encapsulate a double )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradox - the Revolution retrospectively created the corpus of works from which it sought to take its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimacy, while it was such works, in Chartier's words, that made the Revolution 'possible because it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceivable.' [p. 15])] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swenson reads further into the historiography of the Revolution's 'intellectual, cultural and ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins', and charts a sophisticated critical analysis of the emergence of a range of contradictions. Both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chartier and Robert Darnton are shown to have problematic approaches to the relationship between text and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader, while Jurgen Habermas's well-known observations on the public sphere are explored through their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deployment, implicit and explicit, in relation to the work of Dena Goodman and Keith Michael Baker. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is perhaps nothing startlingly groundbreaking in this analysis, but it does neatly illustrate that each of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions generates conceptual gaps, and sometimes large holes, in its efforts to equate 'sociological' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('ideological' versions of the late Old-Regime public. For Swenson, the work which comes closest to filling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such gaps is that which focuses explicitly on sentiment and virtue in the minds of this public - the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Maza on the causes clbres is highlighted, and that of Thomas Crow on the salons de peinture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned in passing. And to invoke sentiment, for the readers and actors of late eighteenth-century France, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was, as a great deal of evidence makes clear, to invoke the author of)] TJ ET BT 360.920 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( mile)] TJ ET BT 391.916 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 397.916 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Nouvelle Hlose)] TJ ET BT 495.908 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and , )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latterly, the )] TJ ET BT 91.676 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Confessions)] TJ ET BT 149.684 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(None the less, Swenson's contention is that all such readings are efforts to cover the 'break' between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment and Revolution, between critical thought under an absolute monarchy and the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction of a new order, with the emphasis on 'new'. Here is where Rousseau is the key, and why he is so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable to revolutionary thought, though ultimately he will be the cause of a catastrophic aporia. Rousseau )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generates the illusion of intelligibility through sentimental identification, and will generate, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution, the illusion of an intelligible politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elements of this reading of Rousseau are drawn from a wide range of his texts. For example, his )] TJ ET BT 499.268 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Discourses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(on the Arts and Sciences and on the Origins )] TJ ET BT 248.336 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Inequality)] TJ ET BT 309.332 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are read against the more general trend of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal or speculative Enlightenment histories of humanity. Where others relied on gradualistic notions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the accumulation of abilities, technologies and ways of life to explain the emergence of civilisation from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state of nature, Rousseau refused to be drawn on that subject - the end of the state of nature 'is continually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(displaced in the text' [p. 112], to use Swenson's deconstructive language. By so doing, Rousseau retains a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gap between human nature and human history, and thus the latter remains a matter not of steady, inevitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress, but of sudden shocks and upheavals - revolutions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More painfully, perhaps, for the sensitive reader, Swenson also delves into that abyss of cloying sentiment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is )] TJ ET BT 66.020 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Nouvelle Hlose)] TJ ET BT 164.012 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in search of 'the author of nature'. As has been observed quite frequently, we are )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7759 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rarely further from the inhabitants of the late eighteenth century than when confronting their favourite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading-matter. The story of Julie and Saint-Preux is so dreadfully overdone that a truly post-modern sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of irony is necessary to restrain one from throwing it across the room, and on this score alone, Swenson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserves commendation for revisiting it. Within it he finds Rousseau offering up the idea of an 'author of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature' as a necessary fiction to account for the intelligibility of creation. And thus the Revolution, too, can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be read as having needed to create Rousseau as its author, 'in order to assure its intelligibility by providing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figurative representation of it.' [p. 158] To the literal-, as opposed to literary-minded, there is somewhat of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leap here from what Jean-Jacques constructed in a single text to what the revolutionaries made of him as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author of their politics, but it is a stimulating idea, none the less.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having encountered Rousseau through his earlier philosophical writings, and his literary effusions, Swenson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally comes to the tangled knot that is the relationship of the Social Contract to the Revolution. One point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he makes particularly well is the refutation of the charge that the Social Contract was unread before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1789. More detailed scrutiny of publishing records indicates that it was widely reproduced, quite frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in editions of Rousseau's collected works, but also as a free-standing volume. Swenson suggests that we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should see readers' interest in this text before 1789 as a measure of their interest in Rousseau as the author of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mile)] TJ ET BT 62.012 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and)] TJ ET BT 82.340 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( La Nouvelle Hlose)] TJ ET BT 183.332 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Reading the Social Contract, or at least possessing a copy, was a sign of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire to own all that this 'author' had produced, obtuse and irrelevant as some of it may have seemed to pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolutionary readers. Once this point has been established, we are led admirably through the convoluted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography of Rousseau's revolutionary influence, and through close and persuasive readings of key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates in 1789 and 1793. The key term here is popular sovereignty, which is, or becomes, associated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'indivisible, inalienable, infallible' [p. 174] General Will. As Swenson shows, Rousseau had established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this list of absolute features for the General Will, and then said very little about what this was supposed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mean in practice. The General Will, being general, is supposed to operate only in matters of legislation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which affect the whole citizen-body equally, and where therefore there is the least possible chance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factious division arising. Rousseau had further complicated matters by suggesting two different readings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether or not particular wills and interests intervened in the voting process. Regardless of this, he had also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blithely suggested that issues of government were almost entirely technical ones, hence his famous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestion, much noted by critics of republicanism in the Revolution, that a large state was better ruled by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarch.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, of course, the Revolution would swiftly develop a growing aversion to monarchy, and would also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prove increasingly unable to separate matters of legislation from matters of government. It would remain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nonetheless, bound by the conceptions of sovereignty it had absorbed, and by their contradictions. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swenson pointedly observes, an orator like Vergniaud could at one point defend the sovereignty of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislature, and at another call for an appeal to the people, using precisely the same language: both sides in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such debates took from Rousseau what they needed at the time, but could not step outside his paradigm. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Indivisibility and inalienability are two terms that cannot appear without the other, but can no longer appear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the same place.' [p. 220] Ultimately, then, we are left with a Revolution hopelessly entangled in its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse, in the things which it is possible for it to think, an entanglement deriving largely from the abrupt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discontinuities present within the discourse produced by Rousseau, upon which the revolutionaries had come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to rely under the impression that it made their situation intelligible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the end of what is, eventually, a thoroughly persuasive and well-written book, the historian is brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back, nonetheless, to certain disciplinary questions. It is one thing, after all, to reproduce letters that show )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the besotted devotion of readers to the author of the )] TJ ET BT 284.636 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nouvelle Hlose)] TJ ET BT 366.956 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or to cite speeches which clearly rely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a Rousseauist vocabulary of political possibilities. This has all been done before. It is quite another to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establish a decisively new view of the influence of Rousseau upon the broader political culture of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary decade. It is almost a commonplace of historical writing on the subject that revolutionaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could find grounds in Rousseau's writings for believing almost anything they chose. At the same time, it has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also long been evident that, in choosing to define national sovereignty in a unitary fashion, the National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Assembly was storing up ideological trouble for the future. But to attribute that decision to the centrality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rousseau's thought is to neglect the wider belief in the unity of reason and 'public opinion' which pervaded )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7527 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the later eighteenth century \(that Swenson has himself noted through Habermas and Baker\), the equally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong sense that sovereignty was inconceivable other than as unitary, and the concrete political reasons for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the belief that the 'balance' of a 'balanced' constitution, if one were attempted, would be forever tipped in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favour of interest groups which, since the Night of 4 August, no longer seemed to have a place in the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Swenson himself would probably be the first to say that this book does not set out to address such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical issues - his model of the relationship between the Revolution and Rousseau is not 'a logic of linear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(causality but rather... a shared constitutive instability' [p. 225]. Thus he posits that the Revolution and Jean-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacques share 'their practice of "deconstruction"', and that together they all illustrate the 'radically fragile' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of political systems [p. 226]. This radical fragility is, in Swenson's parting shot, defined as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('revolutionary'. To a humble historian, there seems rather an inverted logic to this proposition. Rousseau's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorial wiles aside, this reviewer strongly doubts whether the abb Sieys, let alone the many less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophically inclined architects of revolutionary political thought, was capable of 'deconstruction'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly, they produced texts which are amenable to being deconstructed, but then don't we all? And quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly, they did not set out to demonstrate how fragile political systems were, but rather to set a new one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on what they thought were firm bases. If, on the other hand, what Swenson means when he labels the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution as deconstructive is that events undermine theories, then that is a rather trite point on which to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end such an interesting book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately, Swenson is to be congratulated for confronting head-on what is undoubtedly the central and still-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unanswered \(perhaps unanswerable\) question of eighteenth-century historiography - how do ideas make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutions? He illustrates the intensity with which this issue is debated, and one might add that it continues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on an even wider canvas than he paints: the contributions to H.T. Mason \(ed.\) the )] TJ ET BT 427.952 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Darnton Debate: Books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Revolution in the Eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 195.008 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Century)] TJ ET BT 233.672 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Oxford: The Voltaire Foundation, 1998\) demonstrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental disagreement over the particular contribution to this question of the works of one eminent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researcher. Overall, perhaps, this issue is an object lesson in the problem of historical categories. 'The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment' \(or 'Rousseau'\) and 'The Revolution' have to be reified in order to be placed into a question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this type, how did x cause y? But neither label really attaches to a thing. The harder one studies the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment, the more it goes away: towards oppositions between rationalising state reform and claims of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutionality, sentimentalised morality and materialistic anticlericalism, liberal economics and the rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of corporations, salon sociability and the literary marketplace, and so on. The cult of Rousseau in the 1780s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was no doubt in part due to his apparent 'authenticity', but the response to this, as W.M. Reddy has recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggested \(')] TJ ET BT 90.500 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sentimentalism and its Erasure: The role of emotions in the era of the French Revolution)] TJ ET BT 518.480 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Modern History, 72, 2000, pp. 109-52\), may have been simply an expression of a wider learnt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language of emotion that would end by clouding the ability of revolutionary actors to tell the sincere from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mendacious.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even beyond such considerations, we must recall that 'the Revolution' was not, in practice, one thing. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arena of political thought is almost the only one in which it is possible to show filiation from Old Regime to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary era. The context of that thought was, however, changed out of all recognition. Revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events emerged out of a crisis that precipitated popular involvement in politics on a scale and of a kind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which were inconceivable, even to the most ardent Rousseauist - Jean-Jacques himself had spoken of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('beggars' as the 'friends of tyranny': between that class and the 'rich', 'the public liberty is always put up to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(auction'. \(Social Contract, Book II, chapter 11, note to second paragraph.\) Tens of thousands of the poor and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uneducated, in city and countryside, would transform the political landscape in 1789, while being repeatedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labelled as beggars, vagrants and brigands by Old Regime and revolutionary authorities alike. Meanwhile, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(give just one other central example, the issue of privilege would shift from being the accepted underpinning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of all social advancement to the definition of a fundamental rupture in the body-politic. Unprecedented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political circumstances, generated out of a multi-faceted social and economic crisis, would render any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straightforward linkage between political thought before and after 1789 impossible - things had happened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which no-one had thought thinkable, and the history of ideas had to yield to the history of events.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 652 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 791.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 773.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 773.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/158)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 772.569 m 322.316 772.569 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 747.592 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/801)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 772.8835 322.3157 784.7635 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/158) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000592 00000 n 0000000674 00000 n 0000005461 00000 n 0000005570 00000 n 0000005680 00000 n 0000005789 00000 n 0000009350 00000 n 0000009478 00000 n 0000009562 00000 n 0000009627 00000 n 0000017269 00000 n 0000017334 00000 n 0000025146 00000 n 0000025211 00000 n 0000032791 00000 n 0000032875 00000 n 0000033579 00000 n 0000033707 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33802 %%EOF