%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 31 0 R 48 0 R 65 0 R 97 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723061754+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723061754+01'00') /Title (Disunited Kingdoms: Peoples and Politics in the British Isles: 1280-1460) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4582 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Disunited Kingdoms: Peoples and Politics in the British Isles: 1280-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1460)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Brown?s latest book, )] TJ ET BT 180.332 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disunited Kingdoms: Peoples and Politics in the British Isles: 1280?1460)] TJ ET BT 536.000 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines the socio-political development of Britain and Ireland during the late medieval era. The 1280?1460 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time-frame encompasses the later reign of Alexander III \(1241?86\), and the series of wars against Wales )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 538.868 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 538.868 207.777 m 552.860 207.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Scotland )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 99.344 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 99.344 193.521 m 113.336 193.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 113.336 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conducted by Edward I \(1239-1307\)extending to the end of the reign of James II )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1430?60\). Particular focus is placed upon the diplomatic affairs and border conflicts between England and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland, placing Wales and Ireland into the picture. The military aspects of these wars are considered in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tandem with their political ramifications and cultural impact. This time-frame has been selected as due to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transitional nature it constitutes a crucial period in the history of England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to the author, until the latter part of the 13th century the aforementioned regions and nations were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(united under the rule of the English King, Edward I, who reigned from 1272 until his death in 1307. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the prospect of a unified kingdom did not materialise as a consequence of various elements which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged during the early 14th century and which were intensely felt during the 15th century throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Isles. Michael Brown provides a critical analysis of this escalating crisis, examining the complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conjunction of factors contributing to further divisions within Britain and Ireland as well as to the formation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1580)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 24 April, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Brown)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781405840590)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(344pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9781405840590/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katherine Basanti)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 538.8677 208.0915 552.8597 219.9715 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 99.3437 193.8355 113.3357 205.7155 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5773 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of distinct cultures and national identities, and astutely addressing key issues regarding not only the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingship and unity, but also border strife and civil discord. Such co-existing yet contrasting phenomena of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unities and disunities are further examined within a \(continental\) European framework, particularly with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regard to the Hundred Years War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author uses four charts \(detailing the sovereigns of England \(1272?1461\), Scotland \(1292?1460\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic inheritances in the 14th century, and an outline of the Clan Donald Lords of the Isles\) to provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further insight into the intricately intertwining events in Britain. Moreover, eight helpful maps provided prior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the chapter development. The author adopts a chronological approach and this is maintained via the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective use of a thematic sub-structure underlining key issues of sovereignty, national identity and anxiety, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as the formation and shifting of aristocratic societies between 1280 and 1460. In the introductory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter and chapter one proper, the notions of ?warlords and sovereign lords? \(pp. 1?9\) are elucidated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regard to their nuanced linguistic meanings as well as their political context. The author studies how Edward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I, via the use of primary source material, was perceived either as a unifier of nations or a breeder of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(malcontent \(pp. 10?33\). Aspects of unity and kingship are defined, via the commemoration of Edward I by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English texts, in terms of firm legislation, effective administration, and military prowess. Brown develops an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting point stating that Edward I epitomised piety, fidelity to Christian unity, and reason in matters of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sound governance, as commemorated by English chroniclers.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 328.628 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 328.628 554.979 m 342.620 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 342.620 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Whilst emphasis is placed on the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception of Edward I, it would have been interesting to juxtapose this with Scottish, Welsh, and Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives as well, so as to offer a comparative approach to the controversial character of Edward I. 14th- )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 15th-century Scottish chronicles, in particular Walter Bower?s )] TJ ET BT 357.620 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scotichronicon)] TJ ET BT 430.280 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, provide an extensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series of )] TJ ET BT 77.336 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(exempla )] TJ ET BT 120.320 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and opprobrium against Edward I; Bower compares the King to a tyrant whose fidelity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pan-Christian crusade cause was a cover for hypocrisy and the embezzlement of crusade proceeds \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Terre Sancte Subsidium)] TJ ET BT 148.676 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) instead of his \(self-\)professed fidelity to )] TJ ET BT 350.972 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(deus vult)] TJ ET BT 393.968 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 396.968 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 396.968 469.443 m 410.960 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter two, on Robert Bruce \(1274?1329\), Brown describes the residual influence of traditional values of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingship and lordship which permeated the era from the late 13th to 15th centuries. He argues that, during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1270s, the lands in Britain and Ireland neither constituted nor resembled a military realm; the power of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the English sovereigns, in particular, was a product of ideological claims to empire and sovereignty.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 514.280 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 514.280 400.419 m 528.272 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 528.272 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspect is further explored via the comparative analysis of governance and diplomatic tactics deployed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward I and his contemporaries in the 1280s, Alexander III and Llewelyn ap Gruffydd. Brown then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proceeds, maintaining the chronological approach, to delineate the lineage of the Bruces of Annandale, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culminating in the military conflicts of the 1306?28 Wars of the Bruces. The latter are used as a springboard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to develop his analysis of the Franco-Scottish alliances in the context of Anglo-French and Anglo-Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tensions during the 14th century.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 328.6277 555.2935 342.6197 567.1735 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 396.9677 469.7575 410.9597 481.6375 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 514.2797 400.7335 528.2717 412.6135 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 9012 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three, entitled ?Sovereignty and war? is one of the most intriguing sections of this book, drawing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the concept, logistics and ramifications of the term )] TJ ET BT 307.316 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(imperium)] TJ ET BT 353.312 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p. 59\). In it, Brown provides an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting explanation of the Gough Map )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 237.992 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 237.992 754.563 m 251.984 754.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 251.984 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, whose purpose, irrespective of its sophisticated visual and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographical representation, was ?ideological rather than navigational? \(p. 55\). The Gough Map presents the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Isles as a single entity without setting geopolitical boundaries which would signify individual nation-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states or cultural divisions. The paradox with this map is that while it provides a detailed geographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation of southern England and Wales, this detail lessens with regard to the north and especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland, the latter depicted as mere woodland. Brown presents a convincing case that the fully defined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern part represents Welsh subordination to the English, whereas the uncharted territory of Scotland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signifies )] TJ ET BT 77.684 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(terra incognita )] TJ ET BT 153.020 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as an unharnessed wilderness beyond any conqueror?s reach \(p. 55\). Apart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from cartography, the English sovereigns used historical narratives and advisory literature in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confirm their imperial position in the British Isles. Brutus the Trojan and the Arthurian legend are the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renowned examples of such rhetoric. This chapter details further the rhetorical mechanisms deployed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scots and English alike during the 1301?c.1306 Anglo-Scottish Pleadings at the Curia. Using literature and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lore, chronicles )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.996 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.996 583.491 m 124.988 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 124.988 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, canon law, and legal \(secular\) documents, both Scots and English were intent on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promoting their own case as convincingly as possible to the pope, asserting their own rightful place and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above all, distinct national identity on the geopolitical map.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 319.340 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 319.340 554.979 m 333.332 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapters four to ten, the author takes a thematic as well as chronological approach to address and delve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further into the aforementioned key issues surrounding kingship and sovereignty, as well as nationalism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political upheaval and rebellion. Nonetheless, Brown refrains from resorting to mainstream and often gross )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misinterpretations of )] TJ ET BT 136.676 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(propagandist)] TJ ET BT 200.684 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( language. Instead, he explores the depths of activity and the flexible use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of imperial rhetoric in matters of state, in particular, legislation, governance, and diplomacy. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptual models are used to analyse the legacy of Edward I?s expansionist policies and imperial language )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the subsequent reigns of Edward II \(1284?1327\) and Edward III \(1312?77\). In chapter four, Brown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrates on Edward III?s Statute of Treason from 1352, which sought to calm the political turbulence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which had been a feature of the reigns of his predecessors, as well as to dampen any rebellious spirits against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the \(English\) king \(pp. 88?9\). The author makes an astute point, interpreting this statute as a means to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subdue any form of rebellion, even on a grand-national scale, by officially declaring it illegal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituting an act of high treason. Indeed, this statute legitimises and endorses state-enforced violence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against all forms of political insurrection and military insurgence threatening the English crown \(pp. 88?9\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter five, Brown brings forth an intriguing document, )] TJ ET BT 322.976 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Irish Remonstrance)] TJ ET BT 438.296 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which was a letter sent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the pope in 1317 on behalf of Ireland as a state as well as a nation-community. This analysis becomes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even more compelling when this letter is juxtaposed with and compared to the 1320 )] TJ ET BT 439.304 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Declaration of Arbroath)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. However, Brown clearly specifies that comparisons between these two documents should be made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cautiously, irrespective of certain )] TJ ET BT 196.976 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(attractive )] TJ ET BT 245.972 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarities which could, nonetheless, lead to erroneous and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inconclusive parallels \(pp. 108?11\). Nevertheless, the common denominator between them is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opprobrium which they display against the English crown for its military aggression as well as political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transgressions against their nations. Irrespective of the attempts of the English crown to establish and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintain a single undisputed English entity, these two documents constitute indisputable testimony that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither the Irish nor the Scots conformed to this imperial norm.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 337.652 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 337.652 215.091 m 351.644 215.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown resumes with the analysis, if not deconstruction, of the papal bull )] TJ ET BT 385.316 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cum Universi)] TJ ET BT 449.636 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 456.632 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 456.632 188.835 m 476.624 188.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 476.624 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in chapter six, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focusing on the impact of ecclesiastical and aristocratic authorities within the British Isles. Again, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological approach is maintained in this chapter, the epicentre being the analysis of Plantagenet rule )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(c.1324?c.1381\). The author shows convincingly the influence of the upper echelons of British and Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society upon the socio-political affairs within and amongst these regions. In particular, the influence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergy as well as regional magnate powers contributed to the formation and subsequent proliferation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist, anti-\(English\) imperial propaganda. Brown moves into further detail referring to the 1306 case of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two episcopal supporters of Robert Bruce being accused of equating the Scottish Wars of Independence to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pan-Christian global crusade against Islam. From 1306 until 1324, a series of monitions and motions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(censure had been issued against the Scottish prelates, in particular, the administrator and bishop of St )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 237.9917 754.8775 251.9837 766.7575 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 110.9957 583.8055 124.9877 595.6855 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 319.3397 555.2935 333.3317 567.1735 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 337.6517 215.4055 351.6437 227.2855 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 456.6317 189.1495 476.6237 201.0295 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 51 0 R 54 0 R 57 0 R 60 0 R 63 0 R ] /Contents 49 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Length 8571 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrews, William Lamberton for \(allegedly\) having preached such blasphemy against the Church and Holy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cause.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 66.344 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 66.344 780.819 m 86.336 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter seven moves within a more regional context. The author contends that intricate regional and private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jurisdictions crucially affected matters of kingship and governance, and the establishment of civic unity. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, Brown refers to the borderlands between England and the Anglicised societies, as well as those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Gaelic-speaking communities. Brown draws attention to the limitations of the terms )] TJ ET BT 457.652 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regional)] TJ ET BT 498.320 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 504.320 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(marginal)] TJ ET BT 548.324 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 54.344 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(peripheral)] TJ ET BT 105.008 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; he contests that these terms ought to be dispensed with when examining border interactions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and conflicts in order to avoid over-simplifications and, above all, misinterpretations \(p. 165\). Using the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hebrides, the border shires of England and Scotland, and the western parts of Munster as characteristic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples, the author argues that such mainstream approaches and generic labelling have no place in the in-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depth study of these communities individually and as a whole. According to Brown, these areas were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(remote )] TJ ET BT 70.340 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since they had been dynamic contributors to the centres of legitimate and administrative powers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within Britain and Ireland. Arguably, this chapter is one of the most distinct in the book, as it places )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis upon an often ignored or under-researched aspect of historiography concerning the dynamics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic powers within smaller communities and social groups. Particular focus is placed upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Douglases and Percies in this chapter.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.984 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.984 569.235 m 235.976 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The epicentre of chapter eight is the Hundred Years War. Apart from regional conflicts and border strife, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown provides further insights regarding the co-existing and intertwining phenomena of concord and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discord within a European framework. The implications of the )] TJ ET BT 336.632 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Auld Alliance )] TJ ET BT 405.296 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1295?1560\) in Anglo-French-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish affairs emerge at the forefront. In the last two chapters of the book, nine and ten, the author attempts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to connect the three main aspects of his overall analysis: the region, the border, and foreign \(continental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European\) relations as they affected the political evolution of the British Isles. He brings together the British, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish and European perceptions of British sovereignty, characteristically drawing upon the way Philippe de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mezieres addressed Richard II in his diplomatic correspondence in 1395; the king is addressed as the)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(King of Great Britain, Prince of Wales and North Wales, Lord of Great Ireland and King of Cornwall)] TJ ET BT 523.712 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 526.712 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 526.712 428.931 m 546.704 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown expounds upon the widespread European idea of the English monarch as supreme ruler of the entire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Isles, despite this clearly not always being the case, especially during the 14th and 15th centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown also compares and contrasts the government of Edward III with that of Richard II and appraises the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements as well as failures of Scottish and English sovereigns alike during the late 14th and early 15th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries, namely Richard II, David II, Robert III, Henry IV, and Henry V. Indeed, it took a rare breed of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereign to manage and maintain the balancing act of socio-political equilibrium, and the aforementioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kings were seldom able to do this. Brown concludes with a brief analysis regarding the repercussions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War of the Roses \(1455?87\) as well as the regicide of James I \(21 February 1437\), examining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detrimental effects of civil discord and political upheaval on England and Scotland.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 434.624 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 434.624 288.627 m 454.616 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 454.616 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the final section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this book, the author refers to Walter Bower?s views on the Scottish civil discord which led to James I's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assassination. This regicide had a profound effect on Bower as it signified treason against the king and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above all, the welfare of the state.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 195.968 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 195.968 245.859 m 215.960 245.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Brown ends this most thought-provoking book by providing further issues to probe and ponder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning late medieval and early modern British and Irish history. Briefly referring to the rise of Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VIII as well as the emergence of the Protestant Reformation, Brown implies that the political unities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disunities he has detailed endured and worsened, especially during the Reformation, in England and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland alike. Although intended for undergraduate students, as stated on the back-cover, this book will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have far wider appeal. It is a wide-ranging text drawing together a wealth of primary and secondary sources, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(albeit heavily reliant on published rather than unpublished texts, deriving from the Continent, Britain, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland. Using chronicles, state documents, parliamentary records, and diplomatic correspondence, Brown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of the volatile and often turbulent nature of sovereignty. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite dealing with mutable and intricate concepts, the author ingeniously elucidates the developing ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of national identity and sense of community via a nuanced political and linguistic perspective. )] TJ ET BT 488.300 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disunited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kingdoms )] TJ ET BT 85.688 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a significant addition to the promising historiography encompassing late medieval and early )] TJ ET endstream endobj 50 0 obj [48 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 66.3437 781.1335 86.3357 793.0135 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj [48 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.9837 569.5495 235.9757 581.4295 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj [48 0 R /Fit] endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 526.7117 429.2455 546.7037 441.1255 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 59 0 obj [48 0 R /Fit] endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 434.6237 288.9415 454.6157 300.8215 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 62 0 obj [48 0 R /Fit] endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 195.9677 246.1735 215.9597 258.0535 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R 89 0 R 91 0 R 93 0 R 95 0 R ] /Contents 66 0 R >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Length 11609 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern European, British and Irish socio-political affairs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 761.571 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 730.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See further on Edward I?s conquest of Wales \(1274?84\): M. Prestwich, )] TJ ET BT 409.604 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Edward I)] TJ ET BT 454.604 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, CA, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1988\), pp. 170?201.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 160.340 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 160.340 715.299 m 214.328 715.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See with regard to the )] TJ ET BT 172.328 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Great Cause)] TJ ET BT 233.324 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the Scottish Revolt \(1286?97\), Prestwich, )] TJ ET BT 459.644 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Edward I)] TJ ET BT 504.644 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(356?75; and regarding the Scottish Wars \(1296?1307\), ibid, pp. 469?516.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 416.972 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 416.972 686.787 m 470.960 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See further concerning the concepts of )] TJ ET BT 251.960 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pax Dei )] TJ ET BT 292.616 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 312.944 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pax et unitas )] TJ ET BT 377.276 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning the role of the sovereign )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the battlefield and within one?s own realm: T. Mastnak, )] TJ ET BT 369.320 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crusading Peace: Christendom, the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Muslim World, and Western Political Order)] TJ ET BT 276.008 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, CA, 2002\), pp. 1?9, 27, 34?7, 93?6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 503.972 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 503.972 644.019 m 557.960 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The demonization of Edward I in late medieval Scottish historical narratives was first found in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronicle formerly attributed to John of Fordun: )] TJ ET BT 297.656 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(C)] TJ ET BT 305.660 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hronicle of the Scottish Nation)] TJ ET BT 452.336 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, eds F. Skene and W. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Skene \(2 vols, Lampeter, 1993\), ii, 300-301; source interpolated and expanded in )] TJ ET BT 456.620 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scotichronicon)] TJ ET BT 529.280 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walter Bower, )] TJ ET BT 137.660 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scotichronicon: Volumes I-IX, Books I-XVI)] TJ ET BT 345.944 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. D. E. R. Watt \(Aberdeen and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edinburgh, 1987?98\), v, pp. 415?17. Castigations against theEdward I are ubiquitous throughout both )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronicles as well as subsequent 15th- and 16th-century Scottish historical literature.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.960 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.960 558.483 m 524.948 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See E. L. G. Stones and G. G. Simpson, )] TJ ET BT 258.344 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Edward I and the Throne of Scotland: 1290?1296: An Edition )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of the Record Sources for the Great Cause )] TJ ET BT 271.328 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1978\), i, pp. 137?62, 222?4. Moreover, Tyerman )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stresses the importance of the crusade loyalty of sovereigns in late medieval and early modern )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England in maintaining sound diplomatic relations with the Roman Catholic Church; see C. Tyerman, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England and the Crusades: 1095?1588)] TJ ET BT 252.680 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Chicago, IL, 1988\), pp. 329?30. Prestwich provides an in-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depth analysis of the significance crusade diplomacy as well as military involvement had in Edward )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I?s relations with Rome and the Continent: Prestwich, )] TJ ET BT 326.336 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Edward I)] TJ ET BT 371.336 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 66?86, 312?36.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 468.992 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 468.992 458.691 m 522.980 458.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 445.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Gough Map is estimated to have been produced around 1360, reliant on an earlier model produced )] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the reign of Edward I; R. A. Pelham, ?The Gough Map?, )] TJ ET BT 373.964 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Geographical Journal)] TJ ET BT 501.956 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 81 \(1933\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(34?9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 90.344 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 90.344 415.923 m 144.332 415.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 403.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See C. Given-Wilson, )] TJ ET BT 172.340 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Writing of History in Medieval England )] TJ ET BT 388.004 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2004\), pp. 65?9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 513.656 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 513.656 401.667 m 553.652 401.667 l S BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 387.411 m 78.008 387.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 374.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The following newly published article provides perceptive insight into the political and legal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications of the 1301?06 Anglo-Scottish Pleadings at the Curia culminating with the 1320 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Decalaration of Arbroath)] TJ ET BT 187.352 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: S. Tebbit, ?Papal pronouncements on legitimate lordship and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formulation of nationhood in early fourteenth-century Scottish writings?, )] TJ ET BT 417.644 331.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Medieval History)] TJ ET BT 553.964 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40 \(2014\), 44?62.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 149.336 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 149.336 316.131 m 203.324 316.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 303.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See further concerning the socio-political ramification of the )] TJ ET BT 357.956 303.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Declaration of Arbroath)] TJ ET BT 475.292 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: G. G. Simpson, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The Declaration of Arbroath revitalised?, )] TJ ET BT 270.620 289.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scottish Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 397.952 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 56 \(1977\), 11?33; E. Stones, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Appeal to history in Anglo-Scottish relations between 1291 and 1401?, )] TJ ET BT 413.648 274.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Archives)] TJ ET BT 455.636 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 9 \(1969\), 11?21, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(80?3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 90.344 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 90.344 259.107 m 144.332 259.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 246.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown provides extensive analysis of )] TJ ET BT 246.992 246.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cum Universi)] TJ ET BT 311.312 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, issued in 1192, in his book: )] TJ ET BT 452.324 246.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wars of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 231.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scotland: 1214?1371 )] TJ ET BT 170.012 231.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Edinburgh, 2004\), pp. 123?7, 192.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 338.996 231.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 338.996 230.595 m 398.984 230.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 217.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 217.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See further with regards to this case: )] TJ ET BT 242.312 217.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chronicle of Lanercost, 1272?1346)] TJ ET BT 413.648 217.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. and trans. H. Maxwell )] TJ ET BT 64.016 203.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Glasgow, 1913\), pp. 165?6; )] TJ ET BT 204.332 203.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Documents and Records Illustrating the History of Scotland)] TJ ET BT 492.656 203.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. F. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 189.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave \(London, 1837\), pp. 330, 347?48; A. MacQuarrie, )] TJ ET BT 352.628 189.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scotland and the Crusades: 1095?1560 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 174.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Edinburgh, 1985\), p. 71; ?The idea of the Holy War in Scotland, 1296?1330?, )] TJ ET BT 445.292 174.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Innes Review)] TJ ET BT 508.940 174.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 32 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 160.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1981\), 83?92.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 134.336 160.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 134.336 159.315 m 194.324 159.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 146.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 146.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See further on the Douglases: M. Brown: ??Rejoice to Hear of Douglas?: The House of Douglas and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 132.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the presentation of magnate power in late medieval Scotland?, )] TJ ET BT 365.960 132.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scottish Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 493.292 132.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 76 \(1997\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 117.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(161?84.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.344 117.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.344 116.547 m 162.332 116.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 103.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 103.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown refers to the following source: )] TJ ET BT 247.316 103.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Philippe de Mezieres? Letter to)] TJ ET BT 401.636 103.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Richard II: A Plea Made in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 89.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1395 for Peace between England and France)] TJ ET BT 281.984 89.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. G.W. 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