%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221135256+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221135256+00'00') /Title (Antisemitism and the American Far Left) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4013 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Antisemitism and the American Far Left)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first thing to note about this book is that it is about the American far left?s \(that is by what Norwood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sees as the American far left after 1920\) engagement with Antisemitism and it is not about, or at least not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just about, Antisemitism by the American far left. His definition of far left seems to be focused almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely on Communists, Trotskyists, and their close allies for most of the book, expanding only when he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(takes the New Left and its allies into consideration after 1960. There was, however, a far left in the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States long before 1920 and it would have been interesting if Norwood had taken a longer perspective. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, his limited time frame and focus still makes for a very interesting history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book opens with an introductory section on ?Promoting a socialism of fools? that takes off from Bebel?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famous definition of Antisemitism in these terms. Norwood begins by identifying a series of incidents in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which clearly Antisemitic stereotypes that were used by some New Leftists and some of their allies from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African-American freedom movement in the 1960s and 1970s. One of his prime exhibits starts with a 1967 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article by the editor of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee \(SNCC\) Newsletter on ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palestine problem? which, among other things, attributed the origins of the conflict to ?the Rothschilds ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1582)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 24 April, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen H. Norwood)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781107036017)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(324pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/gb/academic/subjects/history/twentieth-century-american-history/antisemitism-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and-american-far-left?format=HB)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stan Nadel)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5732 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([who] long controlled the wealth of many European Nations? along with ?much of Africa?s mineral wealth?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a classic Antisemitic formulation. It was accompanied by an illustration showing a hand marked with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish star enclosing a dollar sign pulling on a lynch rope tied around the necks of Egyptian leader Gamal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nasser and United States boxing champion Muhammad Ali. While mainstream Civil Rights leaders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denounced the SNCC article and cartoon, the Trotskyist Socialist Workers Party \(SWP\) as a whole and some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders of Students for a Democratic Society \(SDS\) jumped to the defense of the SNCC. Norwood follows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this with numerous other examples from SDS and its splinter successor groups, the SWP, the Black Panther )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Party, and some leaders of the radical pacifist movement, most of which, like the SNCC article, started from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerations of developments in the Middle East ? where far leftists and Third Worldists in general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified politically with the then self-proclaimed ?leftism? of the leading Palestinian and Arab anti-Israel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activists \(a ?leftism? which is no longer evident, though this is a development which seem to have had no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on the current strains of the American far left\). And Norwood demonstrates that along with their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwillingness to recognize any Antisemitism in their own writings, these groups consistently denied the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear Antisemitism of the Palestinian and Arab organizations and states that they were promoting \(along )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a tendency to deny the existence of Antisemitism in the Soviet Union, a long standing stance of the pro-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet part of the far left\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwood follows this with a short discussion of ?the roots of far left Antisemitism? that more or less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summarizes some of Robert Wistrich?s publications on the subject ? starting with Karl Marx? essay ?On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish Question? and extending to Antisemitic campaigns in the Soviet bloc countries after the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War. Norwood?s summary is far too short to engage properly with the subject, but it does provide an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important context for the American experience that is the focus of this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is when Norwood turns to the conflation of anti-Zionism and Antisemitism that he introduces the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic element of the book. He starts with the clearly correct proposition that ?Anti-Zionism is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily antisemitic, but it often is?, and he outlines the ways he will demonstrate that in the rest of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. It would be hard for a fair minded reader to deny that he is often right on target when he shows how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leftist anti-Zionism has often used themes and imagery taken wholesale from traditional Christian anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judaism and right wing Antisemitism ? as we saw with the SNCC newsletter incident referred to above. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem is that Norwood seems to forget the first part of this proposition when he also takes up left wing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critiques of Zionism that are based on classic leftist analyses based on class, which dismissed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnic/national/religious issues as epiphenomena and which had nothing obviously to do with Antisemitism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He doesn?t necessarily attribute each of these critiques to Antisemitism, but by throwing them into the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pot without making a distinction explicit he leaves the impression that they are all somehow rooted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antisemitism. That?s too bad, because a more rigorous analysis distinguishing between purely Antisemitic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes versus those which mix non-Antisemitic themes with Antisemitic ones, and both of these from anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zionist critiques which have no Antisemitic components would have been especially useful and which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have strengthened his argument when it comes to the first two sorts of critique. Instead we are left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the inclusion of material which opens him to the charge that he does indeed treat all anti-Zionism as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antisemitism, a charge which will enable some critics to dismiss the reality that far left anti-Zionism has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often involved Antisemitism.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7292 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unable to resist the chance to bash Communists, Norwood opens his chapter on ?American Communists? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tangled responses to Antisemitism and Nazism, 1920?1939? with an extended review of the Bolsheviks? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeal to Muslims at the Baku conference in 1920 that had no American aspect ? though it did reaffirm the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolshevik opposition to Zionism on the grounds that it was inherently bourgeois nationalist and a front for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British imperialism \(a fairly consistent leftist theme which has only been modified by substituting American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism for British\). Norwood makes some telling criticisms of the Bolshevik line here, but he makes no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to link this to Antisemitism. Similarly his description of the Bolshevik suppression of Zionism in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(USSR in the 1920s makes no attempt to demonstrate that it was based on Antisemitism rather than being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of an attempt to suppress all non-Bolshevik ideologies. The closest he comes is when he cites the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation for their suppression of Hebrew as a dead language in terms that had overtones of Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supersessionism and shows that this was picked up by American Communists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwood?s argument finally returns to solid ground when he turns to the Communists? response to the 1929 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-Jewish pogroms in Palestine. When the Jewish Communists? Yiddish language newspaper, the )] TJ ET BT 514.640 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Morgen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Freiheit)] TJ ET BT 72.680 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, condemned the pogroms it was itself condemned as counterrevolutionary by the Communist Party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership ? and it quickly reversed course. Norwood shows how the Communist press claimed the pogroms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were class uprisings by Arab peasants, campaigning against ?Zionist-Fascists? and even claimed it was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews who were launching pogroms against Arabs. But Norwood shows that even while the Communists in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United States and the Soviet Union were supporting Arab Antisemitism in Palestine, labeling socialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zionists as 'Pink Nazis', and refusing to support the anti-Nazi boycott of German goods, they were actively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promoting an alternative Jewish Autonomous Region in Soviet Birobidzhan. In 1934 Communist leaders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appealed to American Jews at a mass rally in Madison Square Garden with the claim that Birobidzhan was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proof that the Soviet Union was a bulwark against Antisemitism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwood shows that it was the Communist International?s abandonment of its ultra-leftist phase in response )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Nazi Germany?s military build up that transformed American Communists into active opponents of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antisemitism. With Antisemitism such a prominent part of Nazi ideology Communists took on this role as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of their new focus on promoting a united front against Fascism and threw their cadres into the struggle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against American and European Antisemitism, including the movement to boycott the 1936 Berlin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olympics. They highlighted the Antisemitism elements of the American right wing, monitored their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organizations and publications, and organized events to counter Antisemitism propaganda. But as Norwood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out, they maintained a class based analysis of Antisemitism that denied any widespread existence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antisemitism in the working classes and they continued to support Arab outrages against Jews in the Arab )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolt of the late 1930s ? which they defended as a ?rising revolutionary movement? that they denied was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motivated by Antisemitism despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary. Norwood points out that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also denied any Antisemitic component to the Soviet purge trials of the 1930s even as Soviet authorities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlined the Jewish origins of leading defendants by constantly repeating their original Jewish names and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drew upon some traditional Antisemitic themes. He notes that they held up Birobidzhan as demonstrating a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet commitment to Jewish life to counter the charge of Soviet Antisemitism ? and ignored the purge?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elimination of Birobidzhan?s leadership for ?fomenting Jewish nationalism?, a purge which effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ended the Soviet experiment there when further Jewish migration to Birobidzhan was prohibited.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwood shows that even as the American Trotskyists drew attention to Antisemitism in the Soviet purges, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their class based analysis of Antisemitism caused them to downplay its significance in Nazi Germany and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they insisted that the German working class was immune to its influence. They did campaign for opening the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States to refugees from Nazi Germany, including Jews, and condemned the Soviets for being equally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwilling to receive them. They stuck to the line that the conflict with Nazi Germany was between two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equally evil imperialisms and that there was no reason for leftists to take either side. They also continued to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denounce Zionism as counter-revolutionary and opposed any effort to open any African territories to Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refugees.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course that was also the line of American Communists between the signing of the Hitler-Stalin pact in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1939 and the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. When American Jews rallied in protest against )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7254 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany?s invasion of Poland and its accompanying massacres of Jews, Communists booed them at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter-rally and called for non-intervention ? with Party leader Earl Browder claiming that ?the Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people have nothing to gain from an Allied victory?. Norwood notes the irony when the Communists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suddenly switched ground and denounced Britain for restricting Jewish immigration to Palestine in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equate Britain?s Jewish policies with those of Nazi Germany. Norwood is unable to resist outlining the anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ally, anti-intervention policies of the Communists during these nearly two years of Nazi-Soviet alliance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even when they have nothing to do with Antisemitism ? though it does make it clear that the Communists? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier campaigns against Antisemitism were due more to the interests of the Soviet Union than to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principled opposition to Antisemitism. And Norwood notes that the American CP suffered mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resignations, especially by its Jewish members, and lost a majority of its members as a result of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disillusionment when the Party reversed course so drastically.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwood doesn?t argue that these stands by American Communists and Trotskyists stemmed from any form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of leftist Antisemitism, but rather that even at the height of left-wing opposition to Antisemitism in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s their analysis of Antisemitism was fundamentally flawed and they consistently underestimated its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance even as the near annihilation of Europe?s Jews loomed on the horizon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the Communists reversed course after the invasion of the Soviet Union, the Trotskyists continued to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintain that there was nothing to choose between the two sides in the Second World War. The Trotskyists? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division into two hostile parties only produced two parties that competed with each other in the extent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their opposition to the war effort and their downplaying of the problem of Antisemitism ? both claiming that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialist revolution was the only solution and that the Jews would just have to suffer its consequences until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then. Norwood documents this extensively and shows how the Trotskyists even denounced the allied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bombing campaign against Germany in terms taken straight from German propaganda while they continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to deny that German workers had ever supported Hitler and to downplay German Antisemitism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwood shows how the Communist volte face allowed them to rediscover the usefulness of campaigning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against Antisemitism when such a campaign could be useful in defense of the Soviet Union, though they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to oppose Zionism as a response to European Antisemitism, as like the Trotskyists they saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialism as the only solution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwood follows with a chapter on ?Communist resistance to Antisemitism and celebration of Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture in the immediate postwar period?. Here he documents in detail numerous instances when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American Communist Party and its activists engaged in the struggle against Antisemitism in the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States and often took the lead. These ranged from police brutality against Jewish teenagers in Coney Island )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the campaign against the Antisemitism of the New York )] TJ ET BT 319.988 306.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily News)] TJ ET BT 375.656 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Norwood points out that the CP )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even used the news about the Antisemitic pogrom in Kelice, Poland, as evidence for the need to create a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish homeland in Palestine. And it denounced the policy of the American government of limiting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers of Holocaust survivors allowed into the United States at the same time as it admitted large numbers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of anti-Communist refugees from Eastern Europe ? refugees who were often linked to groups that had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murdered thousands of Jews \(the Communist press reported that some of them were even engaging in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violent attacks against Jewish leftists in the United States\). Here Norwood presents the most positive side of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the American far left?s engagement with the issue of Antisemitism. Norwood also shows how the CP and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Progressive allies became vigorous promoters of Jewish culture and history during those years and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abandoned their earlier advocacy of Jewish assimilation into a working class melting pot.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwood follows this with a chapter devoted to the Communists? support for Palestinian partition and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support for Israel in its war of independence. Of course they were following the lead of the Soviet Union, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the genuine enthusiasm they displayed for this cause can?t be denied and Norwood shows how ?they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed pride in the Soviet bloc?s shipment of ? armaments to the Haganah?. Norwood points out that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their Trotskyist would-be rivals in the Socialist Workers Party remained committed to a pro-Arab )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?revolutionary? line that ignored or denied the Antisemitism of the Arab forces fighting to drive the Jews out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Palestine and into the sea. The rival American Trotskyist Workers Party supported Jewish self-defense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the circumstances, though they too called for opposing ?Zionism or the government? \(though there is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7183 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no grounds for attributing this opposition to Antisemitism\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When the Soviet Union began to shift toward a pro-Arab tilt, American Communists and their allies were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes slow to follow and Norwood points out that some prominent African-American leaders close to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Communists, like W. E. B. DuBois, remained strong supporters of Israel all through the 1950s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwood then devotes a chapter to the CP?s difficulty in dealing with Antisemitism when the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign against Jews in the Soviet sphere took off. Soviet support for Jewish culture was shut down: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish writers and intellectuals were attacked as ?cosmopolites?, Yiddish books were no longer published ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and then Jewish writers and intellectuals were arrested and killed. All this was followed by campaigns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against leading Jewish Communists in the Soviet bloc, campaigns that were extremely Antisemitic in tone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and which generally led to the executions of their targets. Norwood shows at length how the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communist Party followed the Soviet line in denying that there was any Antisemitism involved in these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions and supported the charges in the show trials which followed. CP organs endorsed the charges that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these Communists had engaged in a Zionist conspiracy to overthrow the Peoples? Democracies of Eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe \(charges that resembled those made against the Jewish defendants in the Moscow show trials of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s when they had been charged with conspiring with Nazi Germany, but this time with allegations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zionism thrown in\) and leading American Jewish Communists were mobilized to support the Soviet line. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwood?s extensive exposition here is enlightening and reading this would be a useful exercise for anyone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclined to buy into more recent denials of Antisemitism in some other leftist supported movements. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwood goes on to explore the ways in which Jewish Communists were pressured to suppress and deny )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their growing concern about Soviet Antisemitism until Khrushchev?s denunciation of Stalin?s crimes broke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down their defenses. At that point the majority of the remaining Jewish Communists, like most of their non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish comrades, broke away from the CP and began to acknowledge their concerns. The American CP )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never recovered from this second mass defection and never again played the leading role in the American far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwood then turns his attention to various Trotskyist groupings and individuals like Isaac Deutscher in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1950s. For the most part they remained consistently anti-Zionist and anti-Israel ? though Deutscher, who had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lost many close relatives in the Holocaust, modified his opposition for while and even expressed regret for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having opposed emigration to Palestine at a time when it might have saved many lives. What Norwood fails )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to do here is to link this to the issue of Antisemitism except when he quotes the SWP leader?s claim that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns about persecution of Jews in Arab countries was merely ?demagogic hullabaloo?, a clear denial of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any legitimate concern about Antisemitism in the region.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the CP was a shadow of its former self after the mid-1950s exodus, Norwood reports that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remainder continued to deny the existence of Soviet Antisemitism even as Khrushchev blamed the failure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Birobidzhan on an alleged inherent unwillingness of Jews to work hard or collectively. The Trotskyists had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(field day with this one and continued to highlight Soviet Antisemitism as part of their campaign against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet leadership and American Communists. Norwood points out that having dismissed any Communist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims to leadership, and being unwilling to get bogged down in old left internecine conflicts, the rising New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Left of the 1960s paid little attention to the issue of Soviet \(or other\) Antisemitism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwood attributes the end of this neglect to the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. While much of the older generation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of opponents to America?s war in Vietnam supported Israel, the Trotskyist SWP predictably denounced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israel and even condemned Martin Luther King Jr. for supporting Israel?s position. The leading New Left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organization, SDS, failed to take any official position, but a series of proposed resolutions showed that SDS )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was moving towards adopting the long term positions of anti-Zionist socialists, Communists and Trotskyists. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwood explores the growing debate in New Left publications over Israel/Palestine. Some New Leftists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted anti-Zionist positions that essentially called for the elimination of Israel as a colonial outpost of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism, while others supported Israel?s continued existence ?though they too often placed the burden of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ending the conflict on Israel alone. Norwood draws attention to Paul Jacobs as one of the few New Left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders who raised the issue of Arab Antisemitism as a crucial issue in the conflict ? though even he adopted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Antisemitic rhetoric of his Black Panther Party allies when he referred to a Cadillac as a ?Jew-canoe?. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 6608 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwood does point to some other New Leftists who dissented from the developing anti-Zionist theme, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he disassociates them from the far left and calls them moderate leftists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwood shows that by the end of the 1960s and early 1970s some far leftists around )] TJ ET BT 446.624 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ramparts)] TJ ET BT 493.292 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( magazine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were stating their increasingly anti-Israel positions with themes that closely echoed traditional Antisemitic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formulations, referring to Jews? ?awesome power? to suppress criticism. In an influential )] TJ ET BT 465.932 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Politics)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article Hal Draper denounced Zionism in familiar terms and denied any significant Arab Antisemitism. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fellow anti-Zionist Bernard Rosen argued in the same publication that for all its mistakes Israel faced a real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem with Arab anti-Semites and their determination to wipe out the Jewish state, but Draper doubled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down ? and seemed to carry the day as the American far left gave increasing deference across the ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(board to their militant African-American allies from SNCC and the Black Panther Party. This tendency was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemplified in 1967 when the National Conference for New Politics allowed its Black Caucus to dominate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its proceedings and refused to allow Robert Scheer to even propose calling on Israel to withdraw to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous borders in exchange for Arab recognition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwood shows how some elements of the far left went over to promoting fully fledged Antisemitism in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970s, citing the SWP?s 1970 publication of Abraham Leon?s book on )] TJ ET BT 378.656 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Jewish Question)] TJ ET BT 478.652 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a prime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example. Norwood shows that among other things Leon repeated classic medieval charges against the Jews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as usurers who were inherently drawn to moneylending, and how Leon denied any Antisemitic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discrimination against Jews in Europe. The Vietnam War led to the far left?s adoption of guerilla fighters as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heroes and Palestinian guerillas were soon adopted into the pantheon. Norwood cites the Antisemitic screed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the leftist editor of the Wayne State University newspaper that combined an attack on Israel with charges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Black Detroit was under ?Jewish occupation?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwood finishes off with a chapter about developments since 1973 which piles on more evidence for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persistent far left Antisemitism. He covers the Communist Party?s expulsion of Paul Novick and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denunciation of the )] TJ ET BT 129.668 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Morgen Freiheit)] TJ ET BT 209.324 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for allegedly slandering the Soviet Union by discussing Antisemitism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there. And he covers some of the newer organizations of the far left towards the end of the century and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extreme anti-Zionism. Here again he often fails to distinguish clearly between anti-Zionism based on or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mixed with Antisemitism from anti-Zionism that wasn?t clearly Antisemitic. And again, that?s a pity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because he has enough instances of the former to make his case. Explicit support for virulently Antisemitic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organizations like Hamas and Hezbollah provide some telling examples and there is no shortage of others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here. Norwood?s critique here is weakened by his tendency to treat all anti-Zionism as Antisemitism and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendency do define the far left as only those who promote this sort of extreme anti-Zionism ? joining its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocates in reading those leftists who disagree out of the far left by definition and making for a somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circular argument.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All in all, however, despite its weaknesses this book makes an important contribution to the history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American left and to discussions about anti-Zionism and Antisemitism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(https://networks.h-net.org/node/2645/discussions/9853/interview-jewish-press-stephen-norwood-)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 207.603 m 501.308 207.603 l S BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antisemitism-and-american-far)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 193.347 m 181.976 193.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 184.976 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 190.015 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 172.235 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 172.235 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1582)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 170.841 m 328.316 170.841 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 145.864 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 131.464 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/79928)] TJ ET BT 34.016 117.179 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] https://networks.h-net.org/node/2645/discussions/9853/interview-jewish-press-stephen-norwood-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antisemitism-and-american-far)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 207.9175 501.3077 219.7975 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (https://networks.h-net.org/node/2645/discussions/9853/interview-jewish-press-stephen-norwood-antisemitism-and-american-far) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 193.6615 181.9757 205.5415 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (https://networks.h-net.org/node/2645/discussions/9853/interview-jewish-press-stephen-norwood-antisemitism-and-american-far) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 171.1555 328.3157 183.0355 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1582) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000555 00000 n 0000000637 00000 n 0000004702 00000 n 0000004811 00000 n 0000004921 00000 n 0000005030 00000 n 0000008591 00000 n 0000008719 00000 n 0000008803 00000 n 0000008868 00000 n 0000014653 00000 n 0000014718 00000 n 0000022063 00000 n 0000022128 00000 n 0000029435 00000 n 0000029500 00000 n 0000036736 00000 n 0000036834 00000 n 0000043495 00000 n 0000043622 00000 n 0000043796 00000 n 0000043923 00000 n 0000044097 00000 n 0000044225 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 44321 %%EOF