%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721114457+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721114457+01'00') /Title (Enoch Powell and the Making of Postcolonial Britain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4242 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Enoch Powell and the Making of Postcolonial Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would be all too easy to cast aside Camilla Schofield?s book, )] TJ ET BT 340.988 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enoch Powell and the Making of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Postcolonial Britain)] TJ ET BT 131.696 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, with an assumption that there is little new to say on the subject. The Conservative MP )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Wolverhampton and his infamous 1968 ?Rivers of Blood? speech have long served, after all, as a potent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbol of post-colonial Britain: the moment at which popular prejudices and fears regarding immigration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from former colonies to the British metropole exploded on the national stage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schofield pushes well beyond the obvious and the accepted, however, and situates 1968 in a broad but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuanced portrait of Powell?s ideological development. Identifying his formative years as those spent in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various locales of empire ? Australia, North Africa, and India ? she argues that Powell developed in his late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20s and early 30s a thoroughly Tory vision of Britain and the world, which he then sought to defend and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserve as global politics and Western society changed around him in the postwar period. In this regard, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schofield urges her readers to understand Powell )] TJ ET BT 272.300 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(generationally)] TJ ET BT 342.296 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: a man born at a particular moment of time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a particular set of beliefs and values about the social and political order, who then needed to confront )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and react to seismic shifts in national and international affairs. From this angle, Powell becomes more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the figure who voiced and thereby legitimized racist sentiment in 1960s Britain. He emerges as both member )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1586)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 May, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Camilla Schofield)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781107007949)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(381pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/asia/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9781107007949&ss=ind)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amy Whipple)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6953 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and spokesman for a segment of an inter-war generation that witnessed the unmooring of its nation from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial strength and certainty. Powell addressed its fears and frustrations by posing a new conservatism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one which claimed to jettison the imperial past once and for all and instead refocused allegiance on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical community of Britain itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A belief in hierarchy, Schofield emphasizes, was at the core of Powell?s Toryism. Born into a lower-middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class family, Powell was particularly attuned to the way in which specific historical institutions, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university and then the army, created hierarchy, and thereby order, in British society at home and abroad. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Race was every bit as central as class to Powell?s conception of hierarchy, evidenced by his enthusiasm for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial power in India, where he served from 1943 to 1946. Countering characterizations of Powell as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberal committed to the eventual independence of Indians, Schofield notes his refusal to acknowledge either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ability of Indians to articulate a national community of their own or the reality of anti-colonial sentiment. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Becoming a researcher for the Conservative Party after the war, Powell remained so committed to ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unique and necessary role of the Englishman in India? that, when predicting widespread violence in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wake of independence, he recommended martial law as the means by which Britain could reassert authority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the subcontinent \(p. 70\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While it is commonplace to note this wartime service in India as securing Powell?s devotion to the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raj, Schofield identifies his preceding stint in North Africa from 1941 to 1943 as an equally significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(element of his ?imperial? war and his ideological development. Working amidst Americans, Powell became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deeply apprehensive of United States power ? specifically, the harsh duality of American foreign policy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(casting countries as either free/unfree and American/anti-American. The British Empire did not fare well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from this perspective, and Powell was shocked by the openness with which Americans spoke of seeking its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end. The United States, he stated in 1943, would be Britain?s next ?enemy?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this sense, it was not simply the altered geopolitical landscape that frustrated Powell in the decade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following the war; it was also the domestic and international discourses that emerged to explain and govern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that landscape. Labour?s recasting of Britain?s moral leadership to colonies and dominions via ?welfare, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development and multiracial partnership? \(p. 80\) was a far cry from the blunt hierarchical authority Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had asserted in the Raj. Moreover, Powell did not believe that any sort of unity in purpose existed across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire and Commonwealth to sustain this supposed partnership, and he became critical of the imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project as a whole. The idea that Britain could simply plant its political ideals and system elsewhere was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(false: Parliament was ?the historical )] TJ ET BT 210.320 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(embodiment)] TJ ET BT 268.976 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of British history and national values? \(p. 90\). He was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less disenchanted by the international discourse of human rights that took hold in the wake of the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War. He rejected ?human rights? as a mere abstraction, lacking the meaning and substance of rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed within a national community over time. Accordingly, he was wary that initiatives to promote and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defend human rights would challenge the sovereignty of nation-states.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By tracing Powell?s responses to these discourses, Schofield also casts fresh eyes on one of his most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorable Parliamentary moments: his powerful denunciation of the beating of 11 Kenyans to death at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hola Camp in 1959. Some have used the speech to challenge, labeling Powell as a racist, but Schofield )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincingly argues that the speech was not really about the victims at all. Powell neither made an ?appeal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to any universal principle of decency or justice? nor any indication ?of general opposition to state-led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence against colonial disorder? \(pp. 127, 130\). Indeed, just one year later, Powell would criticize the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States? condemnation of police violence against pass law protesters in Sharpeville, South Africa as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an inappropriate interference in another state?s affairs. Powell was instead concerned with denouncing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hola episode as an abnegation of British political responsibility; Kenya remained a British colony, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episode betrayed the standards of British rule. Ironically, then, Powell was able to praise Britain and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?civilized? traditions by portraying the massacre as a shameful moment. ?Rather than a picture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decolonization as the British guard ordering the beating to death of a starving Kikuyu man?, Schofield )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptively concludes:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7065 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Powell?s speech offered a picture instead of moral outrage and moral rectitude back in London )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which asserted a divide between Britain?s ?civilized way of life? and the actions of white and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black Africans \(p. 134\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 717.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With reference to other scholarship, Schofield notes that Powell?s speech also made leaders in his party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cognizant of the ongoing political liabilities in the remaining colonies. The Hola Camp murders would not, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in other words, be the last incident to transgress the supposed standards of British rule. But even as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan subsequently encouraged the ?Wind of Change,? Powell pushed further than his Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colleagues to end definitively any sense of British authority or responsibility in former colonies. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth was meaningless: Britain had not produced nation-states which mirrored her own political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions and practices, and they would not be looking respectfully and loyally to her for guidance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schofield is not, of course, the first to highlight Powell?s critique of the Commonwealth, but she does again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer new insight by explicitly connecting his stance on foreign policy in the 1960s to his developing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic agenda. As he cast aside the Commonwealth as a delusional grasp at continued global significance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she argues, Powell simultaneously sought to construct a ?new patriotism? that turned inward to celebrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British national identity and, in particular, its ?entrepreneurial spirit?. The free market was central to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision, and he criticized economic planning as just as much a sign of governmental delusion as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth. Powell accepted some social welfare as standing respectably within the tradition of Tory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paternalism, but he rejected faith in economic policy as a way to produce a better, more equal society. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Humanity was imperfect, and inequality was natural; no economic policy could change those basic realities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He therefore posited the free market as an ideologically-free community, shaped only by national tradition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and custom, which allowed an organic social hierarchy to exist. Moreover, morality was rightly understood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an arena of individual choice and behavior in this community, and the government could make no claims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to pursue moral action itself via progressive social and economic policy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schofield demonstrates that Commonwealth immigration and, more pointedly, race relations legislation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antagonized Powell in the 1960s because it perpetuated both the delusion of a meaningful post-colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community and the delusion that government should, much less could, regulate the moral behavior of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizens. In this regard, Powell saw the whole postwar consensus falling apart: the ruling elite no longer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged the limits of Tory paternalism and was responding to demands that were beyond its ambit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power. The state thereby became the enemy for Powell, and he contributed to a new narrative of recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history in which the ?People?s War was retold, not as a resolution of the class war of the interwar years, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an assertion of self-reliance ? ?the people? against the liberal state? \(p. 210\). According to this narrative, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wartime sacrifices of the British people had been for naught: after fighting valiantly against foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemies, they were now being attacked by their own government. It was not a story, Schofield notes, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struck a chord among very many when Powell discussed economic policy alone, but it appealed to many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more when deployed as an excoriation of the governing elite?s support for racial and cultural diversity. With )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantive use of the correspondence Powell famously received in the wake of the Birmingham speech, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates the ways in which many supporters echoed this narrative. Many referred to familial sacrifice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and loss borne during the war as a way to express frustration with a governing elite that did not represent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their interests anymore. They were angry at immigrants, Schofield observes, but also angry at the elites who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were now asking them to cede the very homes and communities they had fought to protect in the war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Immigrants did not, in other words, just represent the colonial past to Powell?s supporters; they represented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the perceived failure of the governing elite to rule on behalf of the people, as promised by the post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consensus.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As his stance on immigration and race relations legislation sidelined him in the Conservative Party, and as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the threat of student protests led to cancellations of his speaking engagements at universities, Powell became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly obsessed with the political protests of the 1960s and 1970s as a threat to national authority and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order. Ultimately, he perceived the ?politics of protest? ? be it the student movement, Black Power, or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil rights movement in Northern Ireland ? as a perversion of the appropriate relationship between the state )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4968 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the individual. The ?modern, liberal state? had produced a generation that believed the government was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its ?servant?; individual wants and needs were now demanded as rights \(p. 275\). Schofield observes how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those making or supporting such demands ? students, left-wing clergy, the media, political elites ? coalesced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into one monolithic ?enemy? for Powell by 1970. This enemy was threatening national authority and order, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and he identified ?race? as one of its primary weapons. While this enemy demanded racial equality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(envisioned racial harmony, Powell himself saw race as ?itself carrying the seed of disorder,? with ?ethnic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities? serving ?as the corrosive agent which broke down the old forms of social life? \(p. 287\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?new patriotism? of which Powell had dreamed was not, from his view, compatible with Commonwealth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigrant communities. They would never be British; they could never share in the common heritage and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions that provided the foundation of the nation?s unique social order and political authority.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schofield identifies Powell as a key figure in shaping the right-wing political discourse of the late 1970s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1980s, but she is also careful to distinguish between Powellism and Thatcherism. Powell did contribute, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, to helping the public make sense of the social ?crisis? of the 1960s and 1970s in new ways that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenged the existing political order and shifted the language of class politics to a more populist rhetoric. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher drew on these changes, but she also diverged from Powell in that her emphasis on the free market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected the political moralism of the post-war world that he so completely rejected. Classical economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberalism was, Schofield argues, a moral crusade for Thatcher: a means by which the government could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make Britons better, more virtuous citizens.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an engaging, thought-provoking book ? but also a dense one that will not be easily digested by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader unfamiliar with Powell?s full career. Schofield is to be commended for bringing a fresh approach to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject often associated with a single event. Her account of Powell situates him firmly in the international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and domestic matters of the post-war period as a whole and demonstrates the ways in which he came to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articulate the fears and anxieties of those equally disturbed by a changing nation and world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Statesman)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.newstatesman.com/politics/2013/12/empire-state-mind)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 376.419 m 355.340 376.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 358.340 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Institute of Race Relations)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.irr.org.uk/news/schofield-review/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 347.907 m 252.320 347.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 255.320 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 344.575 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 326.795 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 326.795 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1586)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 325.401 m 328.316 325.401 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 300.424 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 286.024 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/85383)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.624 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.newstatesman.com/politics/2013/12/empire-state-mind)] TJ ET BT 34.016 257.224 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.irr.org.uk/news/schofield-review/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 376.7335 355.3397 388.6135 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.newstatesman.com/politics/2013/12/empire-state-mind) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 348.2215 252.3197 360.1015 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.irr.org.uk/news/schofield-review/) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 325.7155 328.3157 337.5955 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1586) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000554 00000 n 0000000636 00000 n 0000004930 00000 n 0000005039 00000 n 0000005149 00000 n 0000005258 00000 n 0000008819 00000 n 0000008947 00000 n 0000009031 00000 n 0000009096 00000 n 0000016102 00000 n 0000016167 00000 n 0000023285 00000 n 0000023383 00000 n 0000028404 00000 n 0000028531 00000 n 0000028645 00000 n 0000028772 00000 n 0000028868 00000 n 0000028996 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29092 %%EOF