%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221120022+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221120022+00'00') /Title (Practicing Stalinism: Bolsheviks, Boyars, and the Persistence of Tradition) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4111 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Practicing Stalinism: Bolsheviks, Boyars, and the Persistence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Tradition)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Recent developments in Ukraine and Crimea have raised a number of questions about Russia and her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political machinations. Some of the most perceptive reports have noted that Vladimir Putin?s inner circle, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his decision-making core, appears to have shrunk or concentrated over recent months; now centring around a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyal contingent of hardliners, including friends and former classmates of Russia?s ber male leader dating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back to his years at the KGB Higher School in Leningrad. The implication being that where Putin once acted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a mediator between the different factions of his power network, those that owed their position and/or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth to his patronage, he is currently aligning himself with the )] TJ ET BT 346.652 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(siloviki)] TJ ET BT 381.320 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(?strong ones?\) ? formed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominantly from his connections with former Soviet security personnel, many of whom tend to consider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fall of the USSR as a national disaster for Russia and continue to maintain genuine suspicion of the West.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These unspoken connections and informal networks of power are key to understanding the various twists and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turns of Russian policy. Russia is a country where institutions often seem to matter less than clientism. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functioning and historic links of network-based governance forms the focus of J. Arch Getty?s latest book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Practicing Stalinism: Bolsheviks, Boyars, and the Persistence of Tradition.)] TJ ET BT 394.340 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Here he argues that while we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1587)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 8 May, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Arch Getty)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300169294)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(384pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://yalebooks.co.uk/display.asp?K=9780300169294)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andy Willimott)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7787 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must acknowledge distinct periods and breaks in history, we should not ignore the persistence of certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political practices. It is striking, suggests Getty, that despite various efforts to introduce rule-bound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucracy and formal systems of authority, personalised structures remain integral to Russia?s political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operations. ?The clientism of rulers Khrushchev, Brezhnev, and Putin?, notes Getty, recall ?patterns not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under Stalin but from the nineteenth century and earlier? \(p. 4\). Where the history of ?Great Men? once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated, Getty seems to be saying, we now attribute too much to the power of ideas over )] TJ ET BT 476.288 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(habitus)] TJ ET BT 511.628 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice. This book challenges reductive readings of Weber that emphasise the distinction between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(premodern and modern. ?Modern ideology?, stresses Getty, ?does not guarantee modernity? \(p. 21\). Instead, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Russian example seems to support the notion that old and new ? the residual and the emergent ? will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often intersect, together forming the world around us. Stalinism ? no exception ? is thus presented as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(product of modern socialism and traditional patrimonial structures.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Getty?s opening two chapters provide a thematic overview of Russian political conventions. He uses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples of petitioning, patron-anointed awards, kinship, and personality cults to highlight the ?deep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures? and ?personalisation? of Russian politics \(p. 25\). Not without provocative intent, some of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices are traced back to 16th-century Muscovy. Be it a letter sent to a Grand Prince or the voice of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizen partaking in one of Putin?s televised call-in sessions, Getty notes the same patrimonial language and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of power. Typical rhetorical features and the formula for redress include fulsome salutations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis of the subject?s lowly position, the faceless nature of their injustice \(the improper workings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noble or bureaucratic systems\), and the notion that justice is ?a gift based on mercy and power? \(p. 33\). This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speaks to the Russian tradition of viewing the tsar as )] TJ ET BT 289.328 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Batiushka)] TJ ET BT 337.328 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(?little father?\), an omnipotent yet just figure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not associated with daily travails and the failings of government; a caring father that would solve all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems, if only he were made aware of them! Getty demonstrates that the form and content of Soviet-era )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters, with their appeals to ?Kindred Father Iosif Vissarionovich [Stalin]!? \(p. 28\), often exhibited the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristics as their pre-revolutionary counterparts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Likewise, we are shown that the Bolsheviks were not able to escape traditional Russian assumptions about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governance. From their roots in the political underground of late imperial Russia, the Bolsheviks operated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through loyal connections and local associations. Despite Lenin?s attempts to establish a new rational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanism of government in 1917 \(he even suggested the German Post Office as an example of a modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucratic structure\), the Old Bolsheviks, those with experience of clandestine politics and pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary habits, continued to exercise power through established patronages. Again, Getty cites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparisons with Muscovy, suggesting that the Old Bolsheviks resembled early Russian boyars \(barons or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobles\), who, like little tsars, stood atop a patrician network of clients, relatives, and supporters. This was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system of )] TJ ET BT 83.348 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(who you know)] TJ ET BT 152.012 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which revolved around loyalty, protection, and the physical embodiment of power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within individuals. To get things done in medieval Russia one had to mobilise these networks, invoking the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implicit promise of reciprocal favour and greater proximity to power. The Bolsheviks were not unaware of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these parallels. As Nadezhda Mandelshtam recalled, ?the [Soviet] state encouraged people to behave like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boyars in medieval Russia who fought each other over their place at the Tsar?s table? \(p. 53\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Old Bolsheviks did not model themselves on Russian nobility, and as committed Marxists most would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have certainly denied any such comparison, but the practices of the past are hard to shake off. In the end, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Getty affirms at various points in the book, power remained as it always had, a personalised affair. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries, he explains, ?patrimony had been as much a part of Russia as speaking the Russian language?. So )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much so, that when Gorbachev tried to change the nature of Soviet politics in the 1980s, we are told, ?he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may as well have been speaking Swahili? \(p. 95\). Taking heed of his own assessment, Getty continues to use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vocabulary of Russian patrimony ? ?noble?, ?clan?, ?chief?, ?courtier?, ?prince?, ?knight?, and ?boyar? ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the book as a means of illuminating the patrimonial practices of Stalinism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapters three and four attention turns to the detailed assessment of party structures, personnel allocation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the everyday workings of the Soviet system during the Stalin period. After years of working his way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the old Party Archive in Moscow, Getty has come to the conclusion that at every level there was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implicit understanding ? ?but no written rules, at least none that were consistently followed? ? about how to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proceed with any given query or dispute. What particular committee or Bolshevik grandee should hear or )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7280 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decide certain cases remained ill-defined; party officials ?knew it when they saw it? \(p. 99\). In this reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the three highest party bodies ? Politburo, Orgburo, and Secretariat ? functioned as a symbol rather than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(channel of power. An indeterminacy in the agenda and competence of official bodies developed because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional structures masked a continued reliance on informal networks. In addition, personal references )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the recommendations of a Bolshevik ?boyar? seemed to matter just as much, if not more, than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualification or skill when it came to job allocation. Unsurprisingly, errors were frequent. On one occasion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1935, the lowly subject of dental education found its way onto the agenda of the highest organs, alongside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a proposal to sentence a group of Trotskyists to death \(p. 107\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Getty strikes upon a central tension at the heart of the Soviet system: the visible insufficiencies of patrimony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were not enough to end Russia?s inexorable reliance on informal procedure. Those that operated at the lower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levels, including Orgrasred personnel charged with drafting orders and managing party communication, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bemoaned the lack of rule-bound regularity. But the higher echelons preferred to work with the devil they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knew, maintaining personal networks and their own positions within the existing system. The end result, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Soviet system gradually evolved, was an infamously complex and sprawling bureaucracy that only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secured the necessity of informal channels.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five brings the ?clans? of Soviet Russia into sharp focus. It shows individual power, pride, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(honour permeating every crack of the Soviet Union. Personal networks are shown to have developed at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(every level, from Moscow to the provinces; inside the central committee and police services. In this vein, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power struggle of the 1920s cannot be understood without first acknowledging the role of ?clan politics?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But this was not a simple story about Stalin?s ruthless ability to manipulate rivals. To those in the provinces, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with their own entrenched patronages, the power struggle in Moscow caused alarm. As Getty insists, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns about ?oppositionists? and instability were genuine, which helps to explain why Stalin received so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of their votes before going on to secure his place as the unrivalled leader of the party. In this scenario, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalin represented the status quo, in contrast to figures such as Trotsky, Zinoviev, and Kamenev, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threatened to democratise procedures and break up established cliques.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Centre-periphery clan relations remained an issue throughout the Stalin period. From the 1920s, Moscow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had found itself bargaining with regional networks, or ?chiefdoms?, in an attempted to secure stability and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implement party policy. Even as the leader of the party, argues Getty, Stalin still had to ?move carefully to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduce the power of the provincial clans? \(p. 179\). At the same time, the self-serving police networks and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful clans developing around figures such as Iagoda, demanded constant attention ? enough to drive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone to paranoia! As such, Getty?s Stalin is not the omnipotent devil of the old totalitarian literature. We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(get the sense that he was as much prisoner as perpetrator in this particular system.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Extending on the theme of ?clan? management, the final three chapters of the book chart Stalin?s epic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle to secure Moscow?s dominance over the regional party bosses. Each chapter marks a distinct stage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this battle of attrition. With the introduction of rapid industrialisation and the national imperatives of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First Five-Year Plan, centre-periphery relations had become increasingly strained. While regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations had been permitted the use of force and terror to see through policy objectives, there was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern that they had become too powerful. And despite Stalin?s best efforts to call them to heel, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional ?barons? and ?chiefs? proved remarkably resilient during these years. Looking to the mid-1930s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Getty notes that Stalin struck upon the idea of infiltrating the regions with his own inspectors and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plenipotentiaries. Referring to these representatives as the ?king?s men?, Getty equates these actions to that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an early modern monarch, such as Ivan the Terrible or Louis XIV, seeking to reduce ?the power of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional aristocracies? \(p. 183\). However, it appears that local party leaders managed to fend off these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advances too. Occasionally co-opting the ?king?s men? into their own clans, to boot.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shedding new light on the much-discussed topic of the Great Terror, Getty then draws our attention to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year 1936 and the Stalin Constitution. While this document is usually seen as an example of Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda ? announcing the country?s democratic credentials to a West looking for a plausible ally to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confront Nazi Germany ? Getty notes that the constitution actually carried with it real political effects. Stalin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself said that the electoral reforms proposed in the Constitution were designed to curb the power of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7994 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional leaders. From this perspective, the Constitution marks part of a second wave in Stalin?s attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rein in the regions. Nevertheless, local leaders continued to resist reform, simply ignoring certain orders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and/or failing to organise effective discussion of the Constitution. In the process of negotiating constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reforms, we see Stalin as a figure frustrated by regional ?clan politics? ? a politics that persisted with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal rivalries and denunciations seen at the start of the 1930s. Getty also adds some weight to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument that the terror spiralled beyond original intentions, explaining that while regional powers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventually had to swallow the Constitution, they managed to retain the right to deploy lethal violence, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributed to the ?excesses? and mounting horror 1937?8.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalin had tried penetrating the regional barons, as well as ?holding their feet to the fire with electoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns? \(p. 261\). The final attempt to temper these networks saw Moscow engage in the verbal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public reproach of local leaders. This was a tried and tested, yet dangerous tactic. It signalled permission for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(open criticism from below. Many Bolshevik grandees were forced to defend their positions, and at times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they struggled to protect their supporters. But while Moscow succeeded in destabilising the regions amid a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maelstrom of accusations, it failed to oust the regional leaders themselves, many of whom, insists Getty, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proved willing to hold on to power at any cost. It was perhaps the very instability of the situation, plus the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack of immediate results, that eventually persuaded Stalin to take the most destructive and bloody option )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available to him: beheading the networks.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In these latter chapters, arguably the strongest in the book, Getty proffers the idea that the key to explaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Great Terror lies in the personal politics and centre-periphery clashes of Russian patronage. From his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first book, )] TJ ET BT 86.348 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Origins of the Great Purge)] TJ ET BT 216.344 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(s )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 224.012 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 224.012 500.211 m 238.004 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 238.004 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Getty has highlighted the ad hoc nature of Soviet government, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as the relative autonomy enjoyed by local officials in the 1930s. This book adds a new and significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimension this vision of Stalinism and the Terror. Not all will attribute as much weight to patrimonial forces. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, all the same, Getty?s assessment makes an important contribution to our understanding of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly brutal episode in Soviet history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the end, )] TJ ET BT 88.004 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Practicing Stalinism )] TJ ET BT 189.344 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brings the Soviet political world to life through tales of intrigue and personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(animosity. It adds momentum to a growing literature determined to more accurately reflect, even to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanise, the realities of the Russian and Soviet political experience. Getty himself acknowledges the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Alena Ledeneva, who has shown that informal networks are still at the heart of contemporary Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and business operations. And while Getty?s approach to Soviet history might differ from many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent studies, including David Brandenberger?s )] TJ ET BT 270.632 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Propaganda State in Crisis)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 404.648 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 404.648 345.651 m 418.640 345.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 418.640 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which looks at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictions inherent in the Soviet Union?s indoctrination programme, it nevertheless shares in a desire to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlight the indeterminacies of the system. This is not the perfectly controlled, efficient killing-machine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that one might associate with the accounts of early Sovietology; it is a far more chaotic system, fuelled by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human interactions and the unacknowledged weaknesses of institutional establishment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book will not be without critics and queries, however. Some may find that it brushes aside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties of Russia?s modernisation narrative, or that it is too reliant on generalisations when explaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-revolutionary practices. After all, scholars, such as Steve Smith, have begun to question the veracity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the claim that late imperial Russia was beholden to the societal norms, reciprocal loyalty, and patron-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worship that define the ?moral economy? model. It is also fair to say that Getty?s account underplays the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of ideology. Indeed, the book sometimes privileges cases of patronage at the expense of broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts. Others may ask: how )] TJ ET BT 184.664 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russian)] TJ ET BT 222.668 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is this? It would be naive to suggest that such practices are specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Russia, or worse, to claim that this is what makes Russia ?exotic?. Similar happenings might be observed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for instance, in the political cabals of pre-democratic Europe, or much closer to home, the informal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections and networks that sustain British public life today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But Getty, an experienced and entertaining practitioner of his craft, will not have been ignorant of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions. This is an historian that has compared the workings of Stalin-era politics with that of the Thatcher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cabinet. Ultimately, his approach and selection of cases, mostly thematic in nature, only make for a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherent, direct, and lively argument. While he advocates a view of history as the intersection or blend of old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and new, it is clear that Getty?s prime objective here is to emphasise traditional factors and human )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 224.0117 500.5255 238.0037 512.4055 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 404.6477 345.9655 418.6397 357.8455 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 3629 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interactions as ballast to a historiography that has recently privileged the untethered power of modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology. Getty encourages us to open our eyes to the hidden and dirty world of personal politics, writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patrimonial practices back into the political culture of Soviet history, while challenging some of our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumptions about the development of Stalinism and the Great Terror in the process. Accepting this book on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its own terms, it offers a fascinating and highly readable account that will challenge scholars to complicate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their understanding of the Russian and Soviet political world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 690.291 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Arch Getty, )] TJ ET BT 134.336 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Origins of the Great Purges: The Soviet Communist Party Reconsidered, 1933?1938)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1985\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.336 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.336 644.019 m 212.324 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Brandenberger, )] TJ ET BT 173.648 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Propaganda State in Crisis: Soviet Ideology, Indoctrination, and Terror under )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stalin, 1927-1941)] TJ ET BT 150.020 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, 2012\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 272.324 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 272.324 615.507 m 326.312 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author \(like all authors\) is pleased to read a fair review by someone who actually read the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoroughly. He does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 550.133 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Insurgent Notes)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://insurgentnotes.com/2014/01/review-getty-stalinism-bolsheviks-boyars/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 520.227 m 405.008 520.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 408.008 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sean's Russia Blog)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://seansrussiablog.org/2013/12/19/stalinist-patrimonialism/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 491.715 m 335.708 491.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 338.708 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 488.383 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 470.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 470.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1587)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 469.209 m 328.316 469.209 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 444.232 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 429.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/92336)] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://insurgentnotes.com/2014/01/review-getty-stalinism-bolsheviks-boyars/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.032 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://seansrussiablog.org/2013/12/19/stalinist-patrimonialism/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 158.3357 644.3335 212.3237 656.2135 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 272.3237 615.8215 326.3117 627.7015 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 520.5415 405.0077 532.4215 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://insurgentnotes.com/2014/01/review-getty-stalinism-bolsheviks-boyars/) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 492.0295 335.7077 503.9095 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://seansrussiablog.org/2013/12/19/stalinist-patrimonialism/) >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 469.5235 328.3157 481.4035 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1587) >> endobj xref 0 38 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000584 00000 n 0000000666 00000 n 0000004829 00000 n 0000004938 00000 n 0000005048 00000 n 0000005157 00000 n 0000008718 00000 n 0000008846 00000 n 0000008930 00000 n 0000008995 00000 n 0000016835 00000 n 0000016900 00000 n 0000024233 00000 n 0000024324 00000 n 0000032371 00000 n 0000032401 00000 n 0000032529 00000 n 0000032565 00000 n 0000032595 00000 n 0000032723 00000 n 0000032759 00000 n 0000032871 00000 n 0000036553 00000 n 0000036681 00000 n 0000036736 00000 n 0000036864 00000 n 0000036919 00000 n 0000037046 00000 n 0000037173 00000 n 0000037300 00000 n 0000037415 00000 n 0000037543 00000 n trailer << /Size 38 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37639 %%EOF