%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 39 0 R 56 0 R 99 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150629170518+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150629170518+01'00') /Title (Practical Predestinarians in England, c. 1590-1640) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4200 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Practical Predestinarians in England, c. 1590-1640)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Preaching before James I early in his reign, Anthony Maxey told the King that predestination ?containeth the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole summe of our religion? \(p. 1\). The 17th article of the Church of England?s doctrinal statement, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thirty-Nine Articles, had been statutory since 1571, and outlined a belief in predestination. In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting book, Leif Dixon is keen that the historian leaves their modern assumptions at the door of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical investigation. The idea of predestination is one which leaves many people today feeling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theologically cold, and it has become fair game to presume that those who attended Church of England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(services at the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries probably felt the same, especially given that their parish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minister probably not only believed in the doctrine, but actively preached it too, at least in some form. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 526.964 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 526.964 157.881 m 540.956 157.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dixon, though, does not believe this, and boldly proclaims in his introduction that rather than predestinarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beliefs resulting in a generation of spiritually anxious English parishioners, the doctrine and its promotion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually had much potential for providing spiritual comfort \(p. 7\). Indeed, the Jacobean preacher Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crakanthorp told a congregation at St. Mary?s church in Oxford that predestination was ?the chiefest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comfort which can enter into the heart of a mortall man? \(p. 2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To outline very briefly a definition of predestinarian theology in pre-Civil War England \(Dixon does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1588)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 8 May, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leif Dixon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781409463863)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(80.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(396pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ashgate.com/default.aspx?page=637&title_id=&edition_id=12861&calcTitle=1)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Farnham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Mawdesley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 526.9637 158.1955 540.9557 170.0755 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7958 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide the reader with any concise definition\), the 17th article of the Thirty-Nine Articles \(passed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament in 1571\) speaks of individuals being predestined by God to salvation, but is silent on the idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the double decree?, promoted by many advocates of predestinarian theology during the reigns of Elizabeth I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and James I, that God essentially decreed both ways, to damnation \(reprobation\) as well as to salvation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(election\). Most of the writers explored by Dixon believed that whilst humans? statuses in the afterlife were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decreed before birth \(and some would even have said before the Fall\), they would only gain the means to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fulfil their election after being ?regenerated? by the Holy Spirit, granting the individual the gift of true, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saving faith, prompting the individual to repentance, whereupon different writers placed varying emphases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the extent to which individuals could experience ?assurance? \(or a certainty of salvation\) in their earthly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives. Despite the lack of a concise definition of predestination, Dixon does throughout the book provide an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admirable attempt to unravel the various strands of what he labels as ?practical? predestinarianism, a term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he prefers to the longer established ?experimental?, which he believes over-stresses the extent to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which those whom we might term as ?predestinarians? were worried about securing assurance of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(election \(pp. 10-1\). Rather, ?practical? predestinarian writers consciously set out to ?tackle problems which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troubled believers? \(p. 98\). Nonetheless, it is fair to observe that most of Dixon?s writers were concerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about assurance in some form, even if \(like Robert Sanderson\) their main interest was to point out that it led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dangerously towards assertions of one?s own salvation \(p. 223\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I should make explicit here that I found this book to be a really stimulating read, and it has much to offer the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian, with Dixon having a talent for clarifying and explaining dense theological ideas. My review will, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though, be biased towards the second half of the book, where I think that there are some issues to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressed. These issues by no means detract from the broad success of the book, but they are issues which I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have liked to have seen Dixon engage with.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter one acts as both a chronological overview of predestinarian doctrine up to and including John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Calvin, and also continues from the introduction to outline Dixon?s statement of intent for the book. Dixon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is keen throughout the book to argue that doctrinal issues did not exist in some kind of vacuum in the upper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(echelons of the Church or at the universities, but rather had a practical pastoral dimension which responded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the reality that by the late 16th century those who primarily needed conversion in England were no longer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholics, but ?lukewarm Protestant[s]? \(pp. 24, 27\). Particularly relevant to this pastoral view is what might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be seen as the reinvigoration during the 16th-century reformations of predestinarian doctrines, which had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long tradition in Christian theology dating back to Paul?s epistles and Augustine of Hippo \(pp. 20-1\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emerging out of what Dixon points to as the epistemological crises which followed the Black Death in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid-14th century, when a grievous punishment from God prompted questioning of precisely how a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficient repentance worthy of salvation could be obtained, predestination, with its focus upon God?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mercy, offered some comfort that salvation could be obtained even if the repentance offered was by no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means worthy of salvation \(pp. 40-3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters two to five of this book analyse the works of five individual theologians to explore the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their practical predestinarianism. Chapter two focuses upon the thought of William Perkins, a Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic who was arguably Elizabethan England?s most famous theologian. For Perkins, the regenerated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual had come into knowledge of the Holy Spirit \(p. 82\). Thus, in terms of sin, and to borrow Perkins? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own metaphor, the regenerate individual may set off from London to Berwick, and may stray off course en )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(route, but their God-given propensity is to return to the correct route, and to reach eternal life \(p. 122\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite Perkins? obvious fame, historians have sometimes been guilty of neglecting his influence, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dixon provides much to ponder. Rather than being a Church of England apologist \(as William Patterson has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recently claimed\), Dixon argues that the reasons which Perkins advanced for non-separation from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church of England in his )] TJ ET BT 157.676 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exposition upon the Whole Epistle of Jude)] TJ ET BT 361.664 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(written in the 1590s and printed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(posthumously in 1606\) were actually framed by an implicit caveat.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 355.304 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 355.304 117.555 m 369.296 117.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 369.296 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( When predestinarian preaching was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(banned in 1626 \(Dixon mistakenly says 1628, when university disputations on the topic were banned\), a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation of ministers brought up on Perkins must have been acutely aware that one of his reasons for non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separation was that the Church of England taught predestinarian theology \(p. 90\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 424.952 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 424.952 74.787 m 438.944 74.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 438.944 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This theological context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps makes it all the more remarkable that generally speaking, the imposition of ?Laudian? ceremonial )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 355.3037 117.8695 369.2957 129.7495 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 424.9517 75.1015 438.9437 86.9815 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 8306 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies during the 1630s under Charles I and Archbishop William Laud was typified more by compliance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than by resistance.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.996 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.996 780.819 m 136.988 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Discussed together in chapter three are two writers and ministers, Richard Greenham and Richard Rogers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who, like Perkins, are often banded together under the label of ?puritan? \(p. 133\). From the outset of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, Dixon follows Peter Lake?s well known definition of puritanism as being ?a distinctive style of piety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and divinity?, and it can be comfortably asserted that Perkins, Greenham and Rogers all fit to some degree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within Lake?s definition \(p. 14\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 189.332 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 189.332 697.539 m 203.324 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 203.324 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, whilst Greenham spent most of his clerical career labouring at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dry Drayton, just outside of Cambridge, Rogers was a lecturer at Wethersfield in Essex, who had come to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rest somewhat awkwardly within the Church of England after the failure of the Elizabethan classis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movements \(pp. 124-30\). It is fair to observe that in terms of advanced protestantism, Dry Drayton was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wethersfield, and whilst Greenham dedicated his written works to providing comfort to anxious souls, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trying to point towards potential signs of election \(pp. 132-3\), Rogers was confident that he was addressing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only an elect but an assured readership, who just needed some help in ensuring that they could enjoy the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blessings of their assurance that could be enjoyed in their earthly lives \(pp. 147, 153-5, 157\). The obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem with Rogers? )] TJ ET BT 143.672 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seven Treatises)] TJ ET BT 218.660 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is that for those who doubted that they were elect, Rogers? advice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was simply to attend sermons and pray \(p. 153\). At least Rogers? editor, Stephen Egerton, was able to offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some hope by suggesting that the fact that the reader had chosen to purchase and read Rogers? treatise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered a good indication that they were heading down the correct path \(p. 171\). Thus, right at the heart of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English reformed protestantism, we are confronted with what Bob Scribner memorably called ?a distinctive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant form of sacramentalism?, and even Rogers? editor believed that those ?who )] TJ ET BT 451.604 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(are in Christ)] TJ ET BT 512.948 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( already? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Rogers? phrase, p. 130\) might have needed a little extra prompting to reach the assurance which Rogers all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but took for granted.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 132.668 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 132.668 483.699 m 146.660 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The relatively short chapter four offers an interesting discussion of the Canterbury preacher Thomas Wilson, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who believed that those who had been regenerated could not be anything other than assured of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(salvation, and thus denied the position of Richard Greenham, who saw dealing with affliction as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important part of an elect life \(p. 190\). One of the strengths of these individual case studies is how Dixon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(links the ideas of each new theologian back to those already discussed, and whilst he observes that Wilson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theology sounds very much like that of Richard Rogers, there was a crucial difference in that Wilson was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more pastorally aware than Rogers, believing that even the reprobate had a right to receive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compassionate pastoral care from their minister \(p. 196\). This pastoral concern is perhaps manifested most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obviously in the final printed work of Wilson?s lifetime, his )] TJ ET BT 325.004 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Saints by Calling)] TJ ET BT 407.684 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1620\), where Dixon suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Wilson moved away from his earlier position that the elect could not be anything other than assured, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead focused on helping those with weak faith transform it into a strong, assuring faith \(p. 200\). Unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greenham, though, whose elect still held fear of reprobation, Wilson?s elect continued to hold no such fears, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and any lack of assurance stemmed from temporary feelings of separation from God, rather than from any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuine doubts about their election \(p. 202\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The remaining three chapters of this book are the ones with which I would most like to critically engage. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter five, Dixon explores the much studied career of Robert Sanderson, a Lincolnshire rector who rose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the first decade of Charles I?s reign to become a royal chaplain, and who, after the Restoration, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became bishop of Lincoln. As Dixon acknowledges, he broadly follows the argument advanced by Peter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lake in his important article about Sanderson, that Sanderson enjoyed preferment during the 1630s \(when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laudian ideas of ceremonialism and sacramentalism were being imposed upon the Church\) without ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abandoning his predestinarianism \(p. 211\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 239.324 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 239.324 160.323 m 253.316 160.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 253.316 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By clinging to the 17th article?s definition of predestination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(so avoiding the double decree\), he was able to preach predestinarianism \(banned since 1626\) before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King without rebuke, and by holding an approach to ecclesiology broadly in tune with the late Elizabethan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archbishop of Canterbury, John Whitgift, he could accommodate himself to the regime by accepting that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceremonies were essentially matters indifferent \(pp. 238, 243\). Perhaps most pertinently, Sanderson shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Laudians? view of puritans being subversives \(p. 239\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I think that another look is needed at Sanderson?s sermon at Boston in 1619. The vicar there was John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cotton, who, by covenanting together in 1615 the more religious members of his parish, had effected a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 122.9957 781.1335 136.9877 793.0135 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 189.3317 697.8535 203.3237 709.7335 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 132.6677 484.0135 146.6597 495.8935 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 239.3237 160.6375 253.3157 172.5175 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R 45 0 R 48 0 R 51 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 8824 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separation of the likely elect from the likely reprobate. In his sermon, Sanderson essentially separated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evangelical qualities from the more iconoclastic \(and subversive\) elements of puritanism, thus creating a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrow definition of puritanism which he could wield against Cotton?s congregation \(pp. 215-21\). Two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observations may be made. Cotton later admitted \(or boasted\) that the situation at Boston was ?more than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old Non-conformity?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 138.668 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 138.668 738.051 m 152.660 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 152.660 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( What Sanderson was tackling, in effect, was a caricature of puritanism, and Lake )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlights that Sanderson \(like keen Laudians\) had no real conception of moderate puritanism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 487.616 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 487.616 723.795 m 501.608 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 501.608 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( If we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be cynical about Sanderson, it is worth noting \(as neither Lake nor Dixon does\) the context in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boston sermon was printed in 1622 at the height of the crisis about Prince Charles? proposed marriage to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish Infanta, with Sanderson conveniently presenting a view of puritanism with which James I must have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(felt increasing sympathy.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 155.000 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 155.000 666.771 m 174.992 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 174.992 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Perhaps significantly, the printed version was dedicated to George Montaigne, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sanderson?s former diocesan bishop at Lincoln who had recently benefited from the shifting political sands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by being translated to London.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 181.004 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 181.004 638.259 m 200.996 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 200.996 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( At the time of print, Sanderson was thus being rather clever, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriating a Calvinist vision which James would surely have approved of, and turning it against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subversive nature of puritanism. As is well known, such a view of puritanism became one of the pillars of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laudian policy during the 1630s. My second point is more theological, in that I think that Dixon misses what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is one of Lake?s most interesting points about Sanderson?s Boston sermon. The theology which Sanderson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advanced at Boston was essentially taken from William Perkins. The point which Lake makes well, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Dixon misses, is that the predestinarian world had moved on from Perkins \(who had died in 1602\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Cotton?s close friend John Preston \(who is only discussed very superficially by Dixon\) recently arguing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the assured could be confident that they were saved, thus essentially providing the theological backdrop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Cotton?s covenant.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 138.344 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 138.344 509.955 m 158.336 509.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 158.336 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Sanderson, in returning to Perkins? somewhat more nuanced approach, was thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trying to rewind the theological clock, and though Dixon muses upon what a stir Sanderson must have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prompted at Boston that day, one cannot help but wonder if any stir was more one of wandering glances at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hearing a sermon preached at least a decade too late \(p. 216\). It is worth saying here that Dixon downplays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English predestinarians? interest in assurance, but if that is the case, the writers whom he studies certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wasted a lot of breath and ink over its relative merits and demerits.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I will consider chapters six and seven together, as \(though both chapters contain much interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion\) I think that they both ultimately suffer from the same problem. Chapter six attempts to uncover )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nature of predestinarian preaching during the reign of James I \(1603-25\), and Dixon follows Arnold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hunt?s conclusion that predestination was widely preached \(p. 262\). In explaining to their parishioners the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentially testing situation that effort did not necessarily equate to a saving faith, the case of Christ?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(betrayer, Judas Iscariot, provided a handy example that choosing to repent did not necessarily mean that one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was elect \(pp. 269, 273-4\). In terms of the topics of their sermons, Dixon points out that amongst the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preachers discussed in this book, Richard Rogers was unusual in not believing that salvation should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preached to all, and thus, whilst sinners were often the target of sermons, the issue of reprobation was largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left to God?s secret will \(pp. 281-2, 289\). The dissemination of predestinarian ideas is also the implicit focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of chapter seven, about funeral sermons, the printed versions of which were often cheap to purchase, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written in a more accessible style than theological treatises \(p. 312\). Interestingly, Dixon points to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing popularity in a belief in the importance of the )] TJ ET BT 309.320 242.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ars moriendi)] TJ ET BT 370.988 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a reflection of a good death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflecting a settled state of mind \(p. 340\). Dixon also argues that preachers were much more likely to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pronounce states of election upon the deceased than of reprobation. Whilst this may have been tactful, on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other hand, printed sermons tended to focus on deceased individuals whom the reader would suspect was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elect, and if the workings of the Holy Spirit ensured that the godly were brought together, as they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably would have been at the funerals of godly individuals, then Dixon?s observation that ministers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not dwell upon the intricacies of predestination in their funeral sermons becomes something of a self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fulfilling prophecy, as at such occasions, they probably did not need to focus on such matters \(pp. 339-40\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I do think that there are some problems with these two concluding chapters. The most pressing is that whilst, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in fairness to Dixon, he does explicitly state that the book is not attempting to examine the reception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predestinarian sermons or writings, this does sometimes create a feeling \(particularly noticeable in chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(six and seven\) that only half a story is being told \(pp. 7-9\). The failure to cite any non-printed contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources further adds to the impression that a broader context is lacking. At one point, Dixon envisages the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 138.6677 738.3655 152.6597 750.2455 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 487.6157 724.1095 501.6077 735.9895 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 154.9997 667.0855 174.9917 678.9655 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 181.0037 638.5735 200.9957 650.4535 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 138.3437 510.2695 158.3357 522.1495 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 59 0 R 62 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R 89 0 R 91 0 R 93 0 R 95 0 R 97 0 R ] /Contents 57 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Length 10907 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-consciously godly as outwardly burying simmering differences, but in private thinking of each other in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather Perkinsesque terms as ?hypocrites?, but much evidence aside from theological treatises and sermons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points to the fellowship which the self-consciously godly drew from each others? company \(pp. 292-3\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 531.272 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 531.272 766.563 m 551.264 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This lack of a broader context can be linked back to the point which I made at the conclusion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preceding paragraph, that in 1642, the Lancashire minister John Angier recorded in his diary that he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleased that most of his late wife?s ?friends? had been able to attend her funeral, where her kinsman, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Horrocks, had preached to the presumably godly congregation on a suitably uplifting text from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(St. Paul?s epistle to the Romans, that ?the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 511.652 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 511.652 695.283 m 531.644 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 531.644 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further small point is that Dixon does not refer to John Ley?s famous funeral sermon for the godly Chester )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widow, Jane Ratcliffe. Whilst it may seem churlish to pick on the omission of one sermon, it is a particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notable printed sermon in that in his preface, Ley labels Lady Brilliana Harley and Lady Alice Lucy as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Elect Ladies?, and the addressing of individuals as ?elect? during their own lifetimes is a potentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting topic sadly rather neglected by Dixon, particularly as pointing to certain godly individuals as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being elect presumably had some pastoral purpose.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 278.972 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 278.972 609.747 m 298.964 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To conclude, Dixon has produced a book of much worth, and has obviously spent much time thinking about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many printed works which \(to be blunt\) are sometimes not the easiest for the modern mind to comprehend. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He deserves great credit for the way in which he has unravelled these strands to produce some thought-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoking arguments, and I think that the case studies of individual theologians, where Dixon allows his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talent for exposition its full expression, are the strongest parts of the book. I hope that other scholars will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(build upon this work to further uncover one of the most important psychological impulses during this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating half-century in English history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 464.451 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Haigh, ?The taming of the Reformation: preachers, pastors and parishioners in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabethan and Early Stuart England?, )] TJ ET BT 255.980 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 291.980 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 85 \(2000\), pp. 572-88.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 405.968 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 405.968 418.179 m 459.956 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. B. Patterson, ?William Perkins as apologist for the Church of England?, )] TJ ET BT 429.980 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Ecclesiastical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 100.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 57 \(2006\), pp. 252-69.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 214.004 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 214.004 389.667 m 267.992 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Tyacke, )] TJ ET BT 150.992 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anti-Calvinists: The Rise of English Arminianism, c. 1590-1640)] TJ ET BT 458.000 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1987\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(77, 167.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 103.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 103.016 361.155 m 157.004 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 348.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This impression of broad compliance is mine. For an overview of ?Laudian? policies, see Andrew )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foster, ?Church Policies of the 1630s?, in )] TJ ET BT 267.668 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conflict in Early Stuart England: Studies in Politics and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religion 1603-1642)] TJ ET BT 159.680 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, eds. Richard Cust and Ann Hughes \(Harlow, 1989\), pp. 193-223.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 478.304 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 478.304 318.387 m 532.292 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 305.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Lake, ?Defining Puritanism ? again??, in )] TJ ET BT 290.972 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Puritanism: Transatlantic Perspectives on a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seventeenth-Century Anglo-American Faith)] TJ ET BT 275.312 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Francis J. Bremer \(Boston, MA, 1993\), p. 6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.956 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.956 289.875 m 550.952 289.875 l S BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 275.619 m 78.008 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert W. Scribner, ?The Reformation, popular magic, and the ?Disenchantment of the World?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Interdisciplinary History)] TJ ET BT 236.348 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 23 \(1993\), p. 484.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 328.340 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 328.340 247.107 m 382.328 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 234.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter G. 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