%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140724110637+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140724110637+01'00') /Title (Guano and the Opening of the Pacific World: A Global Ecological History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4094 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Guano and the Opening of the Pacific World: A Global Ecological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gregory Cushman?s preface opens with some bold claims. He suggests that the Black Death, the African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Slave Trade, the Second World War and the harvesting of bird excrement deposits from islands in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pacific oceans were of equal importance in world history. The Peruvian Government?s efforts to conserve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guano birds were central in the development of Aldo Leopold?s ecological thinking, while the extraction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(huge quantities of guano from small Pacific islands enabled the rapid development of Australia and New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zealand?s economies. The opening pages foreshadow this impressively vast book, which follows guano )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through time and space and intertwines environmental, social, intellectual, economic and climate histories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the history of colonialism, science, migration and global development. The book spans the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, and most of the 20th, and links the history of Peru, Banaba, Easter Island, the Christmas Islands and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous other islands in the Pacific Ocean with the history of Britain, the United States, Australia, New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zealand and Japan. Cushman extends Alfred Crosby?s ecological imperialism thesis, by demonstrating that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the creation of neo-European agro-ecological systems in North America and Australasia were only sustained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the mass transfers of soil nutrients, mostly sourced from exploited regions in the Pacific world. As if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1589)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 8 May, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gregory T. Cushman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781107004139)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(408pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/gb/academic/subjects/history/regional-history-after-1500/guano-and-opening-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pacific-world-global-ecological-history)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jim Clifford)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6627 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these topics were not ambitious enough, Cushman also traces the influence of technocratic governance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neo-Malthusianism at both the national \(Peruvian\) and global scales. The book is all the more noteworthy as, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite the massive breadth of the book?s subject matter, Cushman remains attentive to the people in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. The book introduces numerous individuals, from explorers, scientific experts, technocrats and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial administrators through to the workers who mined the guano, nitrates and phosphates and members )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the island nations displaced by the mining. All round, this is one of the most impressive books published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the emerging field of global environmental history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leading environmental historians, including J. R. McNeill, an editor of the series in which this book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published, have been calling for a global turn in recent years. They argue that many environmental problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extend well beyond the local, regional and national scales upon which most environmental histories focus. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, the ideas and technologies that have influenced our relationships with the environment were just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as transnational as the water pollution, acid rain and carbon emissions that regularly ignored national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries. There is much to be gained by situating local and regional environmental histories within a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global framework. This globalizing trend, however, is not without its pitfalls and it becomes increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenging to keep humans at the centre of a global environmental history. Some of the best global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental histories rely primarily on secondary sources and seek new insights by synthesizing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing literature to provide comparative and transnational perspectives. These are very important books, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but something is lost when history focuses on global scale transformations. Gregory Cushman has produced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an exemplary book confirming the necessity of this globalizing trend and demonstrating a powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative method of blending transnational with local analysis through a number of interconnected global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives. Cushman labels his approach the ?following? methodology, though he indicates he learned of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(label long after embarking on his research. This label doesn?t quite encapsulate Cushman?s methodology, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is really an example of deeply eclectic historical research at its best. Following guano was the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(step, but it took a wide array of methods and sources to connect the history of guano with labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploitation, colonial displacement and climate fluctuations, or the conservation of guano birds with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicated political history of Peru.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book traces the development of the guano, nitrate and phosphates industries in Peru and on a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(islands spread throughout the Pacific Ocean. Through these various local studies, Cushman pays close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to core social history questions. He interweaves the history of race, class and gender, along with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devastating relationship between colonialism and the story of mined soil nutrients. This provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative framework to explore the different variations of informal economic and direct imperialism as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guano and nitrates developed into crucial global commodities beginning in the mid 19th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The one major criticism of the book is the deficiency of maps for an audience of potential readers unfamiliar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with this part of the world. This unfamiliar geography is even more confusing when there are two Christmas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Islands discussed in the book. It would really help the reader if each chapter that introduced a new region )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included an appropriate map that traced guano and other nitrates around the world. I created a web map, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using Google Map Engine Lite, which identifies most of the major geographic locations discussed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book and which might help others as they read the book - )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(https://mapsengine.google.com/map/edit?mid=zcYbIluB78iw.k0mK1SOAqdcc)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 217.347 m 416.432 217.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 419.432 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 433.424 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The basic narrative of Peru?s guano boom during the mid 19th century and its relationship with farming in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England is well developed in both environmental and agricultural history. Bird excrement built up on islands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(off of the coast of Peru and retained high nitrogen concentrations due to the dry climate. This first imported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source of nitrogen, commoditized decades before the Haber?Bosch process, helped significantly increase )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural yields during the mid 19th century.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 217.6615 416.4317 229.5415 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (https://mapsengine.google.com/map/edit?mid=zcYbIluB78iw.k0mK1SOAqdcc) >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7335 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cushman?s book starts with a detailed reexamination of the guano boom from the Peruvian perspective, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before detailing the exports crash in the early 1870s, from which the country never recovered. In Peru, guano )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained an important source of nitrogen for Peruvian agriculture until the mid 20th century and the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(went on to exploit numerous other guano and phosphate rich islands throughout the Pacific Ocean in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades that followed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cushman follows the guano trade, the people involved and a number of key ideas across the world in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remaining eight chapters of this book. Chapter three links the guano trade with agriculture in the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States, develops the argument that the soil fertilizer trade constituted a crucial second stage in the process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecological imperialism and traces the role of soap manufacturers in colonizing Pacific islands for coconut )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plantations. Chapter four continues with these themes and explores the colonization and exploitation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Banaba and Nauru in the early 20th century. Chapter five returns to Peru and focuses on technocratic efforts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to manage the guano industry in the decades after the collapse of the boom, while at the same time situating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this national history within the global history of development studies. The chapter explores the close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections between the development of authoritarian and oligarchical governance with technocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management of economies and environments in Peru and in many other countries around the world. Chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(six continues with this theme and focuses on the successful efforts of the Compaa Administradora del )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guano \(CAG\) to revive the guano bird population between 1909 and 1956 and the unequal distribution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the benefits of this success to wealthy export-orientated agriculturists. Chapter seven and eight focuses on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neo-Malthusian concerns including anxiety related to the global food supply before the Second World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the role of conservationist technocrats and scientists in the development of an overtly ecological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective of population growth. The final chapter returns again to Peru to explore the devastating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences of the ?Blue Revolution? when a growing demand for animal protein in affluent post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North America and Western Europe created a demand for fishmeal from Peru and the carefully managed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guano bird ecosystem collapsed as the result of intensive fishing. The book ends with a strong conclusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where Cushman pulls together the many divergent themes and arguments in the previous ten chapters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout this book, Cushman makes a persuasive argument that the Pacific World played an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in the development of global industrial-capitalism. Building on Alfred Crosby?s )] TJ ET BT 443.324 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ecological Imperialism)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Cushman argues that productive neo-European agricultural systems could not have been maintained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without the guano and phosphates extracted from South America and Pacific islands. The ecological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation of Australia and New Zealand, for example, required large quantities of fertilizer to maintain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their rural economies. The development of these settler colonies relied directly on the exploitation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonization of Banaba and Nauru islands \(pp. 128?9\). Chapter four opens with an illustrative quote from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raobeia ?Ken? Sigrah, whose family was displaced from their homeland before he was born in the 1950s: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Where is Banaba? ? Banaba?s all over Australia, New Zealand and everywhere else in the world. Been used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as phosphate. So where is my country? Where is my island?? \(p. 109\) With this quote, Cushman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges that Ken and other indigenous individuals understood this central thesis of his book, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental imperialism relied on a steady flow of soil nutrients extracted from their home islands, long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before he came to study this topic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cushman traces the evolution of Malthusian ideas, from the beginning of the 19th century through to Paul R. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ehrlich?s )] TJ ET BT 82.340 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Population Bomb)] TJ ET BT 166.676 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the formation of the Club of Rome in 1968. He demonstrates the ongoing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern that human population might outgrow the environment?s capacity and how this often justified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruthless actions against whole groups of people or species of animals in order to provide food security for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, the United States or Japan. This narrative reaches a climax with the sacrifice of the guano bird )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies off Peru in the interest of the fishmeal industry, which was used to feed the chickens and pigs that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed Western diets in the decades after the Second World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The transnational exploration of technocratic governance and Malthusian ideas allows Cushman to challenge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the standard narrative that people failed to question environmental destruction before the 1960s. He finds a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing awareness of the delicate ecological balance that allowed guano birds to flourish and supply a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constant supply of fresh guano fertilizer for Peruvian farms decades after the collapse of the export industry. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5118 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He also points to Aldo Leopold?s awareness that agricultural abundance increasingly relied on ?biotic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital? extracted from islands south of the equator and his concern that the ?pooling? of global ?biotic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital? might led to significant environmental consequences. Leopold was in close communication with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Vogt, an American, who spent time studying guano birds and worked for the Conservation Section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Pan American Union, before publishing his neo-Malthusian best seller, )] TJ ET BT 408.968 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Road to Survival)] TJ ET BT 489.632 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1948.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Close scientific study and the development of government policy to protect the ecology of the sea birds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributed to a transnational conservation network, with William Vogt as its linchpin. This network )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributed to the growth of a global conservation movement in the decades leading up to the publication of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rachel Carson?s )] TJ ET BT 117.332 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Silent Sprint)] TJ ET BT 177.008 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1962. However, the history of technocratic governance had a much darker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(side and Cushman finds that technocrats and other elites understood environmental limitations and made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choices to secure enough guano, nitrates, corpra, or fishmeal to preserve their country?s or class? self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests. Throughout the book focuses on the reductionist tendencies of technocratic officials who could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see the complexity of the ecosystems that supported guano birds and allowed them to produce a vital supply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of nitrogen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition to all of the narratives and themes mentioned above, Cushman also makes an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to climate history. Using a combination of existing data and his own climate reconstructions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cushman remains attentive to the importance of climatic fluctuations for the people, birds and fish in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guano extraction regions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s strength, the amazing span of material and geography covered, is at times a flaw. It is not an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easy book to set down and pick up a few days later. Some chapters move across vast geographies and time. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cushman demands an attentive reader. Despite this and the lack of maps, I have been talking about this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and recommending it to others since I started reading it. It is a model for future research in global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental history and I hope that others continue to provide a comparable level of insight into our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective history as they follow other commodities around the world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Science)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://esp.ku.edu/professor-cushmans-book-reviewed-science)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 376.419 m 328.616 376.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 331.616 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Literary Supplement)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.the-tls.co.uk/tls/public/article1348385.ece)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 347.907 m 293.336 347.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 296.336 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 344.575 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 326.795 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 326.795 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1589)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 325.401 m 328.316 325.401 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 300.424 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 286.024 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/97481)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.624 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] https://mapsengine.google.com/map/edit?mid=zcYbIluB78iw.k0mK1SOAqdcc)] TJ ET BT 34.016 257.224 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://esp.ku.edu/professor-cushmans-book-reviewed-science)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.824 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.the-tls.co.uk/tls/public/article1348385.ece)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 376.7335 328.6157 388.6135 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://esp.ku.edu/professor-cushmans-book-reviewed-science) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 348.2215 293.3357 360.1015 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.the-tls.co.uk/tls/public/article1348385.ece) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 325.7155 328.3157 337.5955 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1589) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000574 00000 n 0000000656 00000 n 0000004802 00000 n 0000004911 00000 n 0000005021 00000 n 0000005130 00000 n 0000008691 00000 n 0000008819 00000 n 0000008903 00000 n 0000008987 00000 n 0000015667 00000 n 0000015794 00000 n 0000015914 00000 n 0000015979 00000 n 0000023367 00000 n 0000023465 00000 n 0000028636 00000 n 0000028763 00000 n 0000028873 00000 n 0000029000 00000 n 0000029106 00000 n 0000029234 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29330 %%EOF