%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 40 0 R 51 0 R 59 0 R 72 0 R 122 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930032459+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930032459+01'00') /Title (Brokers of Deceit: How the US has undermined peace in the Middle East) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4880 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Brokers of Deceit: How the US has undermined peace in the Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(East)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Early in his single-term presidency, Jimmy Carter dismissed as ?just semantics? a flap that arose after he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extemporaneously echoed Israel?s position that any peace settlement with its neighbours required )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?defensible borders?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 135.980 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 135.980 207.777 m 149.972 207.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 149.972 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In fact, as his aides quickly clarified, Carter had )] TJ ET BT 385.916 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(actually)] TJ ET BT 424.580 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( meant a return to Israel?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-1967 borders with minor adjustments for security ? a position officially held by previous U.S. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrations.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 111.020 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 111.020 179.265 m 125.012 179.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 125.012 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Carter?s apparently off-the-cuff remarks had gone beyond the language of UN Security )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Council Resolution 242, which called for ?secure and recognized? borders for Israel, and statements made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by American presidents since 1973. The term ?defensible borders,? for Israel, suggested it could retain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control of virtually all of the territories it seized in the 1967 war. Nevertheless, reporters, Israel and Israel?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American supporters immediately seized on Carter?s misstatement, regardless of subsequent White House )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clarifications, leading to some confusion in the negotiations.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 323.660 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 323.660 107.985 m 337.652 107.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 337.652 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As Carter soon came to realise, not least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during his marathon negotiations with Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin at the 1978 Camp David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Summit, language matters deeply in the Israeli-Palestinian peace process. Indeed, it is that very phrase ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?peace process? ? that Rashid Khalidi assails in )] TJ ET BT 265.304 66.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brokers of Deceit: How the US Has Undermined Peace in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Middle East)] TJ ET BT 110.012 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as all ?process? and no ?peace,? with the American role as a ?dishonest broker? as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1593)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 15 May, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rashid Khalidi)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780807044759)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(208pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beacon Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.beacon.org/productdetails.cfm?sku=4475)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boston, MA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Strieff)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 135.9797 208.0915 149.9717 219.9715 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 111.0197 179.5795 125.0117 191.4595 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 323.6597 108.2995 337.6517 120.1795 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 6694 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central culprit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Khalidi, the Edward Said Professor of Modern Arab Studies and director of the Middle East Institute at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Columbia University, has along with Avi Shlaim recently set the standard for perceptive and incisive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship of the erstwhile Middle East conflict. Khalidi, New York-born but descended from a prominent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palestinian family, has authored some of the most meticulously researched analyses of Palestinian politics in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 20th century, including )] TJ ET BT 166.340 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Under Siege: PLO Decisionmaking During the 1982 War)] TJ ET BT 442.640 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 448.640 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Palestinian Identity: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Construction of a National Consciousness)] TJ ET BT 236.708 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 260.036 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Iron Cage: The Story of the Palestinian Struggle for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Statehood)] TJ ET BT 82.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.016 683.283 m 99.008 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 99.008 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( More recently, his )] TJ ET BT 192.656 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sowing Crisis: The Cold War and American Dominance in the Middle East)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed him to step back from the Israeli-Palestinian conflict to offer a fierce analysis of American policy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the region.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.340 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.340 654.771 m 99.332 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since his move from the University of Chicago, where he was a faculty colleague of a young law professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(named Barack Obama, to Columbia University, Khalidi has emerged as a public intellectual in the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States ? a rare voice for the Palestinian cause amid a cacophony of pro-Israel sentiment. Accordingly, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often appears on cable news shows to offer commentary, while his opinions appear as frequently in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages of )] TJ ET BT 77.336 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New York Times)] TJ ET BT 177.008 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 200.336 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Policy)] TJ ET BT 272.660 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as his scholarship in peer-reviewed academic journals. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The recent decision by the head of a prominent Orthodox Jewish school in Manhattan to rescind an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invitation made by a student group to Khalidi to speak about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict because it would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not be ?an appropriate or balanced dialogue? to have at a high school is a case in point.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 451.928 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 451.928 528.723 m 465.920 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brokers of Deceit)] TJ ET BT 118.664 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is less a product of the deep historical research that characterises Khalidi?s earlier studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Palestinian identity and politics so much as it is the work of a public intellectual with extraordinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge at his fingertips. This slender volume does not represent a deep dive into the archives but rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serves as a vehicle for a passionate, highly critical analysis of American policy toward the Israeli-Palestinian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispute. Serious scholars of United States foreign policy and the Middle East may not discover much fresh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary material here. Nor is Khalidi?s argument that American mediation has focused too much on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?process? at the expense of ?peace? wholly new.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 267.932 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 267.932 416.931 m 281.924 416.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 281.924 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Rather, the full-throated urgency with which Khalidi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues his point warrants attention. Khalidi has clearly long felt passionately about this argument, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently only now has he taken the opportunity to articulate it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How is it, Khalidi wonders, that the most powerful country in the world has failed for decades to mediate an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equitable, lasting peace between Israel and the Palestinians? The answer is simple. The United States, too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(busy acting as ?Israel?s lawyer? in negotiations, has never made a good-faith effort \(p. 93\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 471.572 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 471.572 333.651 m 485.564 333.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Khalidi begins the book with a quote from George Orwell and continually returns to the idea that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?reality? of American-backed Israeli policy ?is concealed by a veil of deceitful, Orwellian verbiage, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feeble thought corrupts language, and dishonest language corrupts thought? \(p. 28\). The slippery ways in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which ?terms and tropes? such as ?peace process,? ?terrorism,? and ?occupation? are wielded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiations, Khalidi argues, ?are the essential building blocks of a lofty and solid edifice of denial of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entire narrative, of the existence of an entire people \(the Palestinians\), which is basic to the affirmation of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formidable counterreality? \(p. 120\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.0157 683.5975 99.0077 695.4775 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.3397 655.0855 99.3317 666.9655 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 451.9277 529.0375 465.9197 540.9175 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 267.9317 417.2455 281.9237 429.1255 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 471.5717 333.9655 485.5637 345.8455 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 43 0 R 46 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 7650 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Khalidi sets out two primary objectives. First, he seeks ?to reveal how closely entwined have been the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respective policies of the United States and Israel toward the Palestinian people over recent decades? \(p. xii\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, he examines the consistency of ?certain key elements? of American policy toward Palestine since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before Israel?s establishment \(p. xii\). He subsequently identifies three major patterns in American policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dating back to Harry S. Truman. First, American policymakers paid ?exaggerated attention to domestically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driven political concerns as these were ably articulated by the Israel lobby.? Second, Washington has faced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no genuine pressure for a policy shift by the oil-rich Gulf states, particularly Saudi Arabia, whose own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survival instincts led to dependency on American patronage that trumped their public rhetoric on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palestine question. Finally, United States policy has been characterised by ?an almost complete unconcern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the fate of the Palestinians, by contrast with a consistent and solicitous devotion to the welfare of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israelis? \(p. xxxii\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To achieve this, Khalidi focuses on three ?moments? that in his analysis ?constituted moments of relative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clarity in the fog of obfuscation that has surrounded US policy on Palestine for more than three decades? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(xi\). They consist of the 1982 ?Reagan plan? and the final breakdown of the Palestinian autonomy talks, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Madrid-Washington-Oslo negotiations from 1991?3 \(in which Khalidi took part as an advisor to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palestinian delegation\), and finally the trajectory of Obama?s first-term policy toward Palestine. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moments all represent missed opportunities by the United States to leverage major regional upheaval to push )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forcefully for a permanent Israeli-Palestinian settlement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Khalidi?s first ?moment? is the ?Reagan plan? and its subsequent disavowal by the American government.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 488.211 m 48.008 488.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Khalidi contends that Reagan had an opportunity to stake out a robust American position on Palestinian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autonomy ? to challenge Begin?s insistence that any ?Self-Governing Authority,? as prescribed in the 1978 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Camp David Accords, would be toothless. However, motivated in part by an ideological antipathy toward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the PLO and a corresponding neoconservative-led affinity for Israel, Reagan?s aides failed to seize the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity. Instead, Begin?s rigid and limited definitions of Palestinian autonomy won the day. Moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Begin successfully convinced the Reagan administration that Israel represented a strategic asset for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States amid a turbulent Middle East ? a bulwark against communist expansion, radical Islamism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the spectre, never far off, of international ?terrorism?. For example, from Lyndon B. Johnson to Carter, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrations of all American presidents had officially maintained that Israel?s occupation of Palestinian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lands in the West Bank and Gaza Strip was illegal under international law.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Reagan offered a great gift to the Israeli settler movement, Begin?s government and, indeed, its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successors when he watered down the language, insisting merely that the settlements represented ?an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obstacle to peace?. This has been the public position of each subsequent president, even though none has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officially repudiated the earlier post-1967 United States position that settlements were illegal under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international law.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 118.004 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 118.004 276.627 m 137.996 276.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 137.996 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Indeed, what became enshrined under Reagan was less a pro-Israel policy ? that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already existed ? but rather a complete American unwillingness to challenge Israeli policies toward the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palestinians, and especially on settlements, in any meaningful way.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For his second ?moment,? Khalidi focuses on the 1991?3 Madrid-Washington-Oslo talks. This analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutes the strongest section of the book; it features the freshest original research and the fiercest critique )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of American and Israeli policy. The key point here is that despite various protestations by President George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. W. Bush and his secretary state, James Baker, about Israeli settlements, ultimately Washington allowed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the opportunity presented by the historical convening of the 1991 Madrid Conference to vanish. Instead, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States did not stand up to the Israelis, who continued to build settlements even while negotiating, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thereby dragging out the possibility of any progress while increasing their advantage on the ground. ?Final-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status issues? supposedly stood at the heart of these talks, but American-Israeli teams did not negotiate in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good faith.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 86.012 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 86.012 107.811 m 106.004 107.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 106.004 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?Indeed, process became a substitute for real movement toward peace?, he writes \(p. 65\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American inability or unwillingness to act as an ?honest broker? in the Madrid-Washington-Oslo process, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Camp David Accords that preceded it, allowed its ally, Israel, to perpetuate the status quo on the ground. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That status quo, of course, dramatically favoured Israel and allowed it to further entrench its control over the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 42 0 obj [40 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 488.5255 48.0077 500.4055 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj [40 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 118.0037 276.9415 137.9957 288.8215 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj [40 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 86.0117 108.1255 106.0037 120.0055 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 54 0 R 57 0 R ] /Contents 52 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Length 7323 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupied territories. ?By indefinitely delaying a resolution of any of these core issues, while allowing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uninterrupted expansion of Israeli settlements and of Israel?s control of the occupied territories ? these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accords gravely exacerbated the deepest problems between the two sides?, he writes \(p. 65\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Khalidi?s critique of Obama?s Israel-Palestine policy is slightly more nuanced. Nevertheless, the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expresses deep disappointment with the current president. In this, Khalidi?s analysis bears some resemblance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to other recent works, especially that by Fawaz A. Gerges, whose )] TJ ET BT 351.272 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Obama and the Middle East: The End of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(America?s Moment?)] TJ ET BT 133.664 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( argues that Obama?s presidency might coincide, and even hasten, the relative decline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of American influence in the region after many decades of pre-eminence.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 385.568 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 385.568 683.283 m 405.560 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately, Khalidi faults Obama for a lack of policy imagination or, perhaps, courage. ?Like other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presidents, when Obama faced tenacious opposition on this issue, he eventually did the politically safe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thing,? he writes. ?A pragmatic, cautious politician, he was not willing to risk his limited stock of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital to appeal over the heads of these forces to the American people? \(p. 103\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This argument puts Khalidi on less solid ground, however. He wisely chooses not to embrace Mearsheimer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Walt?s argument that an ?Israel lobby? inside the United States bears overwhelming responsibility for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(U.S. backing of Israel.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 141.992 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 141.992 559.491 m 161.984 559.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 161.984 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Instead, he indicates that blind support for Israel and concomitant lack of concern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the plight of Palestinians has become entirely consistent with American strategic and corporate interests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the region. But any move by an American president ?to appeal ? \(directly\) to the American people? on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this issue would almost certainly fall flat because the United States public has never shown any particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sympathy for the Palestinian cause. The reason for this lack of sympathy remains less than clear, but is likely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intertwined with the same strategic and corporate interests cited by Khalidi, along with a jaundiced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American media narrative that has long portrayed Israel as the plucky underdog facing off against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overwhelming Arab might. The weight of these combined factors, indeed, largely explains the failure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States policy to shift toward any accommodation for Palestinian interests.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, Khalidi offers a creditable critique of Obama?s Israel-Palestine policy. The president made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early gestures toward changing course, but in the final analysis did not have the political capital to affect a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discernible shift. Moreover, in Khalidi?s analysis, Obama?s decision to place such erstwhile pro-Israel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiators as Dennis Ross in key foreign policymaking positions further precluded policy innovation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Obama?s attempt to change the American policy direction on Palestine ?was defeated in part because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances beyond his control, partly by his own mistakes and flawed assumptions, and largely because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the basic political dynamic in the United States as seen from the Oval Office had not changed since the mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1940s? \(p. 103\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nor does the Obama administration look likely to change anything on this front in its remaining months. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(True, Secretary of State John Kerry has done yeoman?s work toward trying to bring the parties together. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Obama has reversed the trend of most two-term presidents. Foreign policy featured prominently in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early part of his first term, but in his second term he appears more focused on his domestic agenda. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Health care, the United States economy, equal rights for minorities and women ? these are his political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperatives now.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Khalidi clearly places the onus for the stalemate in the ?peace process? on the United States and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israel, he does not spare completely Arab actors from criticism. ?The disunited and weak Arab regimes?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in the Gulf, have been primarily concerned with retaining power and staying in Washington?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?good graces? \(p. 114\). As a result, they have failed to take a bold and unified stance on Palestine.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Palestinian leadership also bears considerable blame. For too much of its recent history, it has concerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself disproportionately with consolidating political power, often at the expense of state building. ?If the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palestinians do not help themselves, and transform that part of reality which is largely in their own power, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing can begin to change in their situation, nor can anyone be expected to act on their behalf?, Khalidi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues \(p. 119\). The leadership has also failed the people it seeks to represent by not insisting on certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(baseline conditions before entering into negotiations with Israel ? ?such as guarantees for self-determination, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 53 0 obj [51 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 385.5677 683.5975 405.5597 695.4775 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj [51 0 R /Fit] endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 141.9917 559.8055 161.9837 571.6855 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R ] /Contents 60 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Length 8336 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statehood, the end of the occupation, and the removal of the settlements? \(p. 117\). Here, however, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palestinians run into the buzz saw of the dual Israeli insistence that ?everything is negotiable? and that all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiations should be held ?without preconditions?. Reasonable ? and even innocuous ? as those phrases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may sound, in truth their ambiguity have allowed Israel to drag out negotiations interminably while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perpetuating the status quo on the ground, which is manifestly to its advantage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, one could quibble with the ?moments? that Khalidi has chosen. For instance, what about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johnson administration?s failure to address the Palestinian refugee crisis more forcefully immediately after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1967 War, which laid the foundations for the political and security stalemate that exists today? Or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carter?s inability to override Begin?s extremely narrow definition of Palestinian ?autonomy,? described by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former American ambassador to Egypt as a kind of ?bondage? status?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 369.272 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 369.272 654.771 m 389.264 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 389.264 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Finally, what about Bill Clinton?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed Camp David Summit in 2000 between Ehud Barak and Yasser Arafat? The answer seems to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frankly that Khalidi did not set out to write a comprehensive account of American mediation in the Israeli-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palestinian arena and these areas were relatively untouched by contemporary historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book lacks a bibliography, perhaps because it is aimed as much at a general audience as a specialist one. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The publisher may believe that that will make the book more attractive to the general reader, for whom a list )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of so many books might be intimidating. Regardless, the omission is unfortunate for readers specialising in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States foreign policy and the Middle East. Perhaps as compensation, however, Khalidi engages in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lively discussion with the source material in his own footnotes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, Khalidi?s focus on the corrosive power of dishonest language in the United States-mediated Israeli-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palestinian ?peace process? is intriguing \(and, this reviewer believes, valid\) but insufficiently sustained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the book. It features prominently in the introduction and conclusion, but his core critiques are of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American policy failure, both in development and consistency. Khalidi believes the language that denies, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, that such a thing as the ?occupation? or even the ?Palestinian people? exist is ?in some ways ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worst part of the system, constituting a form of collective psychological torture? \(p. 119\). He is absolutely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correct to argue that these are not ?just verbal indignities? but rather that ?language matters? \(p. 120\). In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context, language shapes the way in which the American public, media and policymakers conceive of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israel-Palestine dilemma. However, an exploration of such a dynamic might require a different sort of book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one that employs methodological approaches from anthropology, sociology or media theory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Those minor issues aside, Khalidi has produced a cogently argued, timely and highly readable book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, his prominent position in the United States public space comes as a welcome change to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simplistic, politically charged rhetoric that too often characterises American political discourse on foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy generally, and the Middle East specifically. For many decades, Americans have found it virtually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible to have an open debate on the Israeli-Palestinian question ? even compared to Israel itself, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has a lively, even raucous, tradition of democracy and free speech. Changing the ways in which Americans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talk about the Middle East might be just the first step toward affecting policy change. Still, although he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears pessimistic, Khalidi seems to hope that Washington can affect policy shifts soon enough to prevent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more bloodshed, hopelessness and instability in Israel/Palestine. As he amply demonstrates, when it comes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to United States policy toward an entire nation of people, it is never ?just semantics?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 186.099 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 155.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jimmy Carter, ?The President?s News Conference?, 9 March 1977, )] TJ ET BT 390.608 155.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The American Presidency Project)] TJ ET BT 552.908 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. Gerhard Peters and John T. Wooley <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 263.072 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=7139)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 263.072 139.827 m 489.488 139.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 492.488 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 506.480 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> )] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([accessed 28 April 2014] .)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 190.316 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 190.316 125.571 m 244.304 125.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 112.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard Gwertzman, ?Carter Causes Stir by Seeming to Back Israel on Borders?, )] TJ ET BT 457.268 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New York Times)] TJ ET BT 535.940 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 8 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(March, 1977.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 128.336 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 128.336 97.059 m 182.324 97.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 84.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Don Oberdorfer, ?Carter View on Borders Buoys Rabin?, )] TJ ET BT 343.952 84.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Washington Post)] TJ ET BT 425.624 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 8 March 1977; ?Carter for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Defensible Borders?, )] TJ ET BT 168.320 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Near East Report)] TJ ET BT 252.320 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, XXI, 10, 9 March 1977.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 373.964 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 373.964 68.547 m 427.952 68.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 55.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rashid Khalidi, )] TJ ET BT 142.352 55.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Under Siege: P.L.O. Decisionmaking During the 1982 War)] TJ ET BT 427.652 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1986\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 41.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness)] TJ ET endstream endobj 61 0 obj [59 0 R /Fit] endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 369.2717 655.0855 389.2637 666.9655 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 263.0717 140.1415 489.4877 152.0215 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=7139) >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 190.3157 125.8855 244.3037 137.7655 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 128.3357 97.3735 182.3237 109.2535 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 373.9637 68.8615 427.9517 80.7415 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R 88 0 R 90 0 R 92 0 R 94 0 R 96 0 R 98 0 R 100 0 R 102 0 R 104 0 R 106 0 R 108 0 R 110 0 R 112 0 R 114 0 R 116 0 R 118 0 R 120 0 R ] /Contents 73 0 R >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Length 10402 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1997\); )] TJ ET BT 187.988 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Iron Cage: The Story of the Palestinian Struggle for Statehood)] TJ ET BT 510.656 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Boston, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MA, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 120.344 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 120.344 780.819 m 174.332 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, )] TJ ET BT 89.348 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sowing Crisis: The Cold War and American Dominance in the Middle East)] TJ ET BT 451.676 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Boston, MA, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 752.307 m 118.004 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacob W. 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See Henry Kissinger, )] TJ ET BT 279.968 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Years of Upheaval)] TJ ET BT 369.296 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1982\), p. 620; and Aaron )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Miller, )] TJ ET BT 132.344 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Much Too Promised Land: America?s Elusive Search for Arab-Israeli Peace)] TJ ET BT 523.628 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, NY, 2008\), p. 75.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 179.000 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 179.000 581.235 m 232.988 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 568.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ronald Reagan, ?Address to the Nation on United States Policy for Peace in the Middle East?, 1 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(September 1982. )] TJ ET BT 148.340 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The American Presidency Project)] TJ ET BT 310.640 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. 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