%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150707002511+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150707002511+01'00') /Title (The Aftermath of Suffrage: Women, Gender, and Politics in Britain, 1918-1945) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3564 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Aftermath of Suffrage: Women, Gender, and Politics in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Britain, 1918-1945)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 2018 the commemorative events to mark the First World War, which start this year, will come to an end, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but how will we mark the centenary of the Representation of the People Act, or even 90 years since all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British women were granted the vote?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wars and coronations are easy to package for the great British public. There are definite start and end dates, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and well-understood outcomes. Fights for freedom and suffrage are untidy affairs, fraught with competing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versions and contrary opinions. Last year, events to mark the centenary of the Great Suffrage Pilgrimage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Summer 1913 when, in a pre-Twitter age, more than 50,000 Suffragists marched on London, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ephemerally reported in local and national press, with marginally more attention being paid to revisiting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applying modern analytical methods to determine the details of Emily Davison?s supposed suicide at Epsom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(100 years on.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The summer of 1913 saw the height of tensions between the establishment and the growing militancy of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1594)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 15 May, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julie Gottlieb)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Toye)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781137015341)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(268pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.palgrave.com/products/title.aspx?pid=580625)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tehmina Goskar)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7053 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direct-action Suffragettes ? the newspaper archives are full of excitable reports if you go and read them. At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same time the gulf between the Pankhurst-led Suffragettes and Fawcett?s law-abiding Suffragists was at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its widest. This fiery and gritty year in British history has hardly permeated our heritage, school curricula )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and TV history. Embarrassingly few know the difference between Suffragettes and Suffragists, let alone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what impact the social change they started has had on British society since.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women?s history is not minority history, even though its historiography has lent itself to being defined as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such. So what Gottlieb, Toye and company have to offer in this book is really the other half of the story of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inter-war British politics. As such, all historians of modern British history ought to pick up this volume and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(digest its contents and pause to wonder why the subjects of women and gender have not taken a more central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in their own history writing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors introduce the book by describing how, in March 1918, the Representation of the People Act was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passed in the House of Commons by a majority of 385 to 55, and ?there was a momentous sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement? \(p. 1\). Eight months before the Armistice this change in the law gave the vote to all adult men, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and most women over the age of 30 ? albeit that they would not experience this freedom until general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(election day in December 1918 when the thoughts of the nation were somewhat subdued by the prolonged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and crushing end to war. The electorate tripled to 21.1 million and rose again to 28.8 million after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passing of the 1928 People \(Equal Franchise\) Act when women were given the vote on the same basis as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men \(p. 54\). Gottlieb and Toye make clear that neither 1918 nor 1928 should be viewed as terminating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events in the history of suffrage, but as landmarks in an evolving process of change in political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation that continued, and continues to this day \(p. 2\). If anything, the chronological span of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book could have reached beyond 1945 to avoid the editors? own warning about periodization, albeit that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(couple of the contributions deal with periods before and after \(p. 14\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 12 contributions obey the editors? paradigms throughout resulting in a very tight volume of essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which expertly confer, and are of a similar tone and consistency when read as a whole. There is no thematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation of the chapters and the book can be comfortably read cover to cover or dipped into a chapter at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a time making it ideal teaching and seminar material.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is more difficult to unpick from the contributions are the key debates affecting the study of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject. The idea that the war\(s\) played more of a role than the suffrage movement in emancipating women, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or otherwise, is not tackled overtly. Similarly, to what extent was the suffrage movement really restricted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educated middle- and upper-class women, ultimately limiting its success because working-class women were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely excluded from it, or is that a myth that needs busting? I wanted to know what the contributors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought. Are these debates still worth having, or having again?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, four themes stood out for me as provoking thought and new ideas: the changing divisions between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women \(and their male political counterparts\) along party lines and the struggle with the idea of a block )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s vote that transcended class and allegiance; responses from the press including how the papers got )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to grips with an entirely new voting readership; how feminist causes changed post-1918 and 1928; and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fate of those who had been anti-suffragist in the pre-war period. In all these areas I found the book utterly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engrossing, and it is under these themes that I will review the book in more detail.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although it is not immediately obvious, the book is not short on personalities. June Purvis?s chapter on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-suffrage life of Emmeline Pankhurst stands alone in the book as the only biographical contribution \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19?36\). What happened to the ?powerful orator and charismatic yet autocratic leader? who was the face and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voice of the militant Suffragettes \(and founder of the Women?s Social and Political Union or WSPU in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1903\) after 1918 \(p. 19\)? Purvis?s chapter is full of astute observations that are refreshingly even-handed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From her and her daughter Christabel?s transformation of the WSPU to the women-only Women?s Party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(which, it may surprise some to know, took a pro-war and imperialist stance\) to her vocal opposition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolshevism and Communism ? which alienated her from her other daughters who were staunchly socialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pacifist, her struggle to make a living, leading her to temporarily emigrate to Canada to earn from public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speaking \(pp. 20?1\), and her eventual defection to Stanley Baldwin?s Conservative Party on her return to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6941 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England during the General Strike of 1926 \(pp. 24?31\), Purvis presents Emmeline Pankhurst as the deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex, yet remarkably consistent personality that she was, albeit by the time of her death in June 1928 she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggled against a new generation of feminist politics \(pp. 32?3\). This is no better summed up than in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author?s observation that, while other historians have suggested otherwise, her choice of contesting an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwinnable working-class constituency in Whitechapel was due to her conviction that communism exploited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the working classes, especially its women, and incited class hatred, and not simply because she had lost her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminist cause with a move to the political right \(pp. 31, 34\). As a reader you feel you have better understood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fierce woman behind the placard. I would have liked to have read similar treatments of the post-war lives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Pankhurst?s contemporaries, Millicent Fawcett ? her Suffragist rival and leader of the National Union of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women?s Suffrage Societies \(NUWSS\) ? and international welfare campaigner Emily Hobhouse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Politics in a man?s world)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the key questions following the Representation of the People Act in 1918 was how would women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vote, and for which party? Another was how women MPs would cope in the redoubtably male environment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Parliament. More than half the contributors discuss this subject in their chapters. David Thackeray \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(37?53\) examines how political parties attempted to woo women?s support and understand what women of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different social and cultural backgrounds found important. Thackeray?s refreshingly comparative approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brings into focus the particularly neglected topic of what happened to the Liberal women who were so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominent in the Suffrage era but failed to form an identity for themselves afterwards, particularly after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lloyd-George/Asquith split \(pp. 38, 48\). Making many comparisons through the evidence from party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magazines, we learn how, in contrast, Conservative and Labour women rallied to promote their views to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new voting woman as a person interested in the purchasing power of the pound and the employment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prospects of her family \(pp. 47?9\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both Toye \(pp. 70?86\) and Takayanagi \(pp. 181?202\) examine the changing face of Parliament in the inter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war period, a relatively neglected topic in British institutional history. One of the observations Toye makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that the newly elected women MPs often felt the burden of being seen as a representative of all women, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than just of their constituents, adding to the pressures of their new political lives ? a theme returned to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Krista Cowman?s chapter on autobiography \(p. 74\). Takayanagi makes some startling observations about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first women MPs. Women never numbered more than 15 out of 615 members of the Commons, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not sit in the House of Lords until 1958, and those few who made it to a Parliamentary Select )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Committee were, unsurprisingly perhaps, co-opted to those which were thought to deal with women?s issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or subjects women were deemed to be good at, such as the Kitchen Committee which oversaw the House of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commons? domestic arrangements \(p. 191\). Takayanagi concludes that Select Committees gave women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who had prior experience of campaigning organisations a more comfortable arena in which to apply their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political skills than the aggressive debating chamber \(p. 198\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helen McCarthy provides a stimulating insight into inter-war international affairs, which, contrary to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idealism felt in post-war Britain, became even more distant from the influence of the new electorate \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(142?58\). So while mums were encouraged to wage war on war and women of all political persuasions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partook in League of Nations Union peace meetings, the government lurched further into the murky world of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official secrets preventing women \(and many men\) from having a democratising impact on foreign policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 143?7\). The series of so-called Munich by-elections of 1938?9 brought into focus many of the issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and anxieties that had developed following two decades of mass democracy \(pp. 159?80\). Gottlieb suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the electorate was polarised into those who supported Prime Minister Chamberlain?s appeasement plans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that the women?s vote was believed to be unpredictable, disproportional, and its emasculating effect to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seriously endanger the interests of the nation \(pp. 164?5\). The power of these preconceptions, fuelled by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculation of contemporary media, masked a reality that women?s views on foreign policy were just as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex as those of their male counterparts, but our sources lack the grist to demonstrate the extent of anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeasement feeling amongst women of all backgrounds \(p. 177\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Mass democracy)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7324 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The impact of sudden mass democracy on shaping ideas about women in politics in the inter-war years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupies a number of other contributions to the book. Pat Thane \(pp. 54?69\) contrasts the instability of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British economy and vacillations in the political system with the relative stability of its social fabric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared with the country?s European cousins ? the much vaunted General Strike of 1926 lasted a mere ten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(days and extremist parties failed to get a foothold \(pp. 54?5\). Against this background non-partisan groups )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and associations such as the National Union of Societies for Equal Citizenship and several charitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations had a greater impact on British political culture, particularly welfare reform, than has hitherto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been acknowledged \(p. 56\). Local government too provided women with a structure in which to exert their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newly found political voices and convert their beliefs into action, particularly as Independents \(pp. 63?4\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many politicised women in a post-suffrage world preferred to be active in non-partisan campaigning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations than in mainstream politics, about which there remained scepticism even after 1945, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly at a national level \(p. 66\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?I am?, she lamented, ?always being rung up or written to by some newspaper and asked what my opinion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is? \(p. 87\). This is my favourite line of the book, from Adrian Bingham?s chapter on the British popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(press between the wars, and citing novelist Rose Macaulay speaking to a feminist group in November 1925. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A leitmotif in all the contributions is how politicised women negotiated a space in the political fabric of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain and how they responded to the seemingly incredulous reactions of the establishment. Bingham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposes what the contemporary press found to say to their now-voting female readership, and, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importantly, how they profited from their following by targeting advertising at them \(pp. 88?9\). Many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers such as the )] TJ ET BT 123.992 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Mail )] TJ ET BT 179.324 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also made \(in\)elegant U-turns on their pre-war stance against votes for women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by attempting to make politics more relevant to their \(domestic\) lives and to foster behaviours that would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increase their readership such as campaigns to buy British and Empire goods \(pp. 90?1, p. 94\). Bingham?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter also brings to light how the popular press failed to report equitably on newsworthy issues concerning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or about women as the suffrage struggle slowly became ?old news? \(p. 100\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What political women thought about their lives after achieving suffrage victories in 1918 and 1928 is best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed in Krista Cowman?s chapter on political autobiographies \(pp. 203?33\). While women?s memoirs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have tended to be overlooked in the study of political biography, those of Labour, socialist and communist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women have attracted more attention \(because more were written by them\) than those of their Liberal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative counterparts \(p. 204\). Women used autobiographies to shape the history of the suffrage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement from both the suffragette and suffragist points of view ? all invaluable sources for our own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the ways in which politicised women thought and acted, how they reflected upon those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions, and how others analysed them \(p. 205\). Through their life writing we come to understand the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dilemma faced by the first women MPs to represent both their constituents and women in general \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(210?11\). But the response was complex. Women writers such as Mary Agnes Hamilton and Shirley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Williams risibly acknowledged the ?silly business? of viewing women MPs as a singular unit, yet, as echoed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in other female political biographies, there was always some reliance on cross-party female moral support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 211?12\). Ultimately, however, Cowman reminds us that most women?s life writing was more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with presenting themselves as loyal to party ideals, rather than to purely feminist causes \(p. 220\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(New causes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The quest for new roles, struggles or fights against the male-dominated establishment, took many different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms following the series of enfranchising acts of Parliament post-1918. Karen Hunt and June Hannam \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(124?41\) provide a contrast to most of the other contributions by exploring women?s lives as citizens in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local communities. The \(re\)negotiation of a feminist identity preoccupied several groups with the Mothers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union and Townswomen?s Guild eschewing the label and a whole host of ?unorganised? enfranchised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women suddenly finding that their opinion might make a difference in their society \(pp. 125?6\). The authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(go on to set an agenda for the microscopic, almost forensic, study of every dimension of women?s politics at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a local level so that these factors can be compared and analysed in a way that reflects the true complexity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s thought and action in this period ? hence the use of ?archaeology? in the title of the chapter \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(127\). An astute observation given in their examples was how women dealt with, or used, issues that had )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6162 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never been politicised before enfranchisement such as milk provision and female unemployment \(p. 131\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The top-most demand of women?s groups was housing, which many fought to get on local political agendas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 133\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laura Beers \(pp. 224?42\) examines a different set of new causes pursued by another neglected group, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women for Westminster society \(1942?9\). Its small size of less than 10,000 and its eventual failure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encapsulates and brings to light the barriers that failed to be removed for women seeking election to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament \(p. 225\). The aim of this group was simple, to train, provide support for and assist women as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prospective parliamentary candidates of whichever party. Much misinformation about the society exists in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other history writing which Beers does an excellent job to untangle and dispel \(pp. 225?6\). What set Women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Westminster apart from other organisations which encouraged active citizenship amongst women was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessity to engage with party organisations if it was to succeed in its aims of getting more women elected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as MPs, and it was mostly this that caused friction, frustration and mutual suspicion \(pp. 227?30\). While its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success in promoting female candidature was limited, the society nevertheless took its role to encourage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voting amongst women seriously ? like many other feminist and women?s organisations of the period \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(232?3\). By 1949 the society had dwindled and Beers spends the rest of the chapter examining the activities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its few remaining branches. Glasgow was the largest and most active of the two post-war survivors, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she attributes to the lack of fundamental political disagreement between members which had riven other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(branches, and ultimately caused their decline \(pp. 233?5\). Ultimately Beers, as many of the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributors to the book also demonstrate, that women?s party political allegiance, or indeed their non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partisan interests, far outweighed their interest in pursuing a separate feminist agenda \(p. 239\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Anti-suffragists)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And what of those women who never wanted the vote? Philippe Vervaecke \(pp. 105-23\) flies the flag for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploring what happened to female antis between the wars. Vervaecke looks at how those women who had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been part of the National League for Opposing Women?s Suffrage conducted themselves in public life after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1918 and 1928. What might surprise readers is that cooperation between suffragists and antis existed before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and after the First World War and, unsurprisingly, women who felt strongly about not stepping into politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued charitable and other community works in apolitical groups \(p. 107\). As much as Emmeline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pankhurst came up against generational differences with other women after 1918, so too did many anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffragists \(p. 108\). In the main anti-suffragists came from high society and the aristocracy, saw themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as beholders of traditional social hierarchies and were staunchly imperialist, and for that reason were often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised as being out of touch with the ordinary woman \(p. 109\). But one way in which former antis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found a role for themselves was as magistrates and as representatives in local councils, showing that these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women had no qualms in taking advantage of the new opportunities available to them, particularly on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back of their superior social status \(p. 117\). For the rest, private philanthropy and patronage ensured that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those women?s legacies were just as far reaching, if not more so, than their political counterparts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book makes me feel more strongly about a need to return to women?s rather than gender history. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is so much across many periods and subjects we just do not know, let alone understand. The contributors? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painstaking work in this book shows that it is no longer justifiable to hide behind a lack of sources but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead we need to be asking the right questions. Bring on 2018.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 190.015 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 172.235 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 172.235 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1594)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 170.841 m 328.316 170.841 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 145.864 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 131.464 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/68436)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 171.1555 328.3157 183.0355 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1594) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000586 00000 n 0000000668 00000 n 0000004284 00000 n 0000004393 00000 n 0000004503 00000 n 0000004612 00000 n 0000008173 00000 n 0000008301 00000 n 0000008385 00000 n 0000008450 00000 n 0000015556 00000 n 0000015621 00000 n 0000022615 00000 n 0000022680 00000 n 0000030057 00000 n 0000030141 00000 n 0000036356 00000 n 0000036484 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36580 %%EOF