%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140826040118+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140826040118+01'00') /Title (The Witch in History: Early Modern and Twentieth-Century Representations.) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3936 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Witch in History: Early Modern and Twentieth-Century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Representations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The dust-jacket of this book defines Diane Purkiss as a Lecturer in English; within its pages she prefers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describe herself as a feminist literary critic. It is a potent combination, and has resulted in a thoroughly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual and very important book. Its preoccupation is with the manner in which images of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witches have been formed and manipulated during two distinct periods of history, that of Elizabeth and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early Stuarts, and the late twentieth century. In tackling the job, the first half of Dr Purkiss's identity has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given her an instinctual love of texts and of language, reflected in her own exuberant and often very funny )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of words. The other half has reinforced both an attachment to current critical fashions and ideologies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a style which might be politely described as pugnacious, although I suspect that she herself might prefer the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression 'feisty'. A reader is given little option other than to applaud or to fight back; this one, perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsurprisingly, is going to do both.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book opens with a firework display of destructive polemic, in three bursts. The first attacks radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminist views of early modern witchcraft, the second the views taken by modern witches, and the third the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of the subject by English historians. Of these the first is the most effective, because the target is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 December, 1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diane Purkiss)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415087612)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/The-Witch-in-History-isbn9780415087612)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ronald Hutton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7496 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most compact and Dr Purkiss is writing with real understanding of the issues. She is not primarily concerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to demonstrate, as other academics have done before, that the radical feminist notion of the Witch Hunt is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wildly unhistorical, but to show how and why it evolved and to argue against its message in feminist terms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The result is devastating, and the more so because of Dr Purkiss's genius for aphorism. The myth of 'The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burning Times' is shown to have evolved as part of the feminist concern with domestic and sexual violence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the 1970s. It is damned for reducing the victims of the Hunt to suffering bodies, never allowed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speak for themselves, for destroying the historical specificity of both the Hunt and the Nazi Holocaust with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the myth associates it, and for portraying women as merely the helpless victims of patriarchy. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers with whom she takes issue are the major figures of the genre- Mary Daly, Andrea Dworkin, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Starhawk- and although the first two have hardly been immune from feminist criticism since the 1980s, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stature in itself enhances the importance of the intellectual demolition carried out in these pages. My only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reservation concerning it is a difference of emphasis, that she tends to view the feminist community in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own terms, as a seamlessly international one, whereas I am more inclined to perceive the myth of The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burning Times as a specifically American discourse, rooted in the culture of the modern United States. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does nothing, however, to vitiate her comments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The treatment of modern pagan witchcraft, by contrast. suffers from the fundamental weakness that Diane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Purkiss does not understand the phenomenon with which she is finding fault. She constructs an image of it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which it is itself a myth, a mashing together of three different genuine entities. One is American feminist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witchcraft, based upon the idea that the witch figure and its divine complement, the Goddess, can be evoked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by any woman bent upon personal liberation. The second is Wicca, a mystery religion developed in England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and based upon a rigorous process of training and initiation and a cosmos polarized between equal female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and male forces. The third is hedge witchcraft, the modern version of cunning folk, featured here in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercialized form of individual practitioners offering occult services for money. The sources from which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she creates this confusion are a themselves a medley, of influential writers \(like Starhawk\), authors who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have had no impact in Britain \(such as Elisabeth Brooke\), advertisements, and conversations with individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witches who are quite rightly kept anonymous but who are also left completely unlocated within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex society of present-day witchcraft. All this material is vaguely considered to be normative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problems with the result include straightforward errors; Sir James Frazer was an opponent, not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proponent, of the idea of ancient matriarchy, and relatively few modern witches worship a Mother Goddess. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gerald Gardner, the publicist \(and perhaps creator\) of Wicca, did not fail to acknowledge the contributions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his pupil Doreen Valiente because of gender bias, but for the simple reason that not until after his death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did Valiente wish her identity as a witch to be known; the distortion of the facts here itself suggests a hint of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such bias. When these misunderstandings are cleared away, Dr Purkiss proves to be most effective once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again on her home ground, when revealing the woolliness, nostalgia, and impracticality of the thought of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American feminist witches and the supercharging of the same qualities by crass commercialism. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creation myth of Wicca is efficiently knocked to pieces; but then it has been disintegrating amongst Wiccans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves ever since the 1970s. The joie de vivre of the chapter makes it another marvellous read, and this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader only wishes that it had been based upon better information.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The section upon academic treatment of the Hunt suffers from a similar lack of instinctive understanding, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined with sheer bad luck. As Dr Purkiss notes, professional study of witch trials has apparently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(languished in English universities since the celebrated socio-economic analyses of Keith Thomas and Alan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macfarlane in the early 1970s. What she apparently did not realise at the time of writing was that this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely because for about ten years historians have been awaiting the completion of major research projects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in different areas of the field, by Robin Briggs, James Sharpe, and Stuart Clark. Since she completed her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, two of these have reached publication and the third has been submitted. All have in common a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejection of the functionalism of their predecessors, an emphasis on the need to reconstruct holistically the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mental world of the participants in the trials, and a perception of the enhanced importance of folklore studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and psychology in the interpretation of the Hunt. These are exactly the approaches taken by Diane Purkiss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(herself. Such a pattern demonstrates vividly how much scholars work within common intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(atmospheres at given moments, while weakening Dr Purkiss's claim that her feminism provides her with a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7252 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatically different perspective.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This said, to some extent the claim stands up. She is novel and convincing in her demonstration that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sceptical writers upon witchcraft in the early modern period were if anything even more misogynist than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonologists. There is truth and justice in her assault upon the neglect by most English historians of recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theorisations of childbirth, maternity and the body by feminist writers. The obvious defence against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter, however, is that the writers concerned are locked in an ongoing debate, and that scholars not expert in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the issues at stake would like to see it resolved before they employ the latest contributions to it as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worthwhile theoretical constructions; the formulations favoured by Dr Purkiss, notably those of Helene )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cixous, have themselves since been challenged as misleading by other feminists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Likewise, she is accurate in her criticisms of the sceptical and rationalist discourse which has prevailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among historians of the Witch Hunt ever since the Enlightenment. What she seems not to appreciate is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of that discourse, at least until the mid-twentieth century; that it was the product not of a smug )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural hegemony but of liberals terrified of the potential for irrational violence in human society. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly blinkered and sexist, but it was applied to a specific purpose, of hammering home the folly and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pointlessness of the Witch Hunt until there was absolutely no danger that it could break out again. We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly need to move beyond it now- and for thirty years scholars have been doing so- but it should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(granted some virtues in its time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A similar blindness to context weakens the force of Dr Purkiss's comments upon Margaret Murray's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterization of the Witch Hunt as the destruction of a surviving pagan religion. She accuses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians who attacked it in the 1970s of savaging a soft target with motivations of gender prejudice, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the assertion that the faults of the Murray thesis had been agreed upon by experts ever since it was first aired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1921. What she plainly does not realise is that Margaret Murray's books only became best-sellers during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1950s and 1960s. During that time they not only made a huge impact upon the general public and a host )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of popular writers, but their main argument was repeated by leading historians such as Christopher Hill, Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Runciman, and Sir George Clark, as well as archaeologists, folklorists and pioneers of oral history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The intensity of the attack in the '70s derived from the realisation that fifty years of criticism within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small body of experts upon the subject had apparently been unavailing, and that the Murray thesis had to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stopped once and for all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After all this sustained finding of fault with others, the natural reaction of a reviewer is to feel that whatever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diane Purkiss now has to say upon her own account, it had better be damned good. The delightful discovery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which follows is that it actually is so. First, she uses trial records to reconstruct the experience of encounters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a presumed witch from the point of view of successive female witnesses. The result is to draw us, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincingly, into a symbolic world in which the witch-figure operates as antihousewife, antimother, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antimidwife, a screen onto which are projected a set of specifically female fears and worries. Then she links )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beliefs about witches and their familiars to prevailing theories concerning the nature of the human body, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the female body in particular. At a time when medical opinion had long held that bodies flowed with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substances which threatened to get out of hand, a woman was seen as especially leaky and permeable, and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witch as effectively boundless and so dangerously intrusive. This insight is illustrated repeatedly from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular sayings and customs. An especially effective case-study takes its starting point from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary medical belief that a mother's milk was the blood which had nourished the foetus, and which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after birth was purified through the heart before being pumped into the breasts. Within this system of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought, the suckling of the animal familiar with blood, generally from a teat concealed in the groin, was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of a polluted organ in a polluted place, a nurturing with poison of an entity created to do evil.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final part of this central section is devoted to considering the defences provided by accused witches, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(displaying the range of very different strategies which they adopted. Some actively sought an identity as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(users of good magic, others created counter-tales about themselves using materials provided by the accusers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and yet others created their own materials. Virtually all struggled hard to reassert control over the meaning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their lives. Looking at the mass of information which Dr Purkiss has assembled to illustrate this point, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the most striking aspects of it is that it is derived from accounts of trials in which the defendant was found )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5475 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guilty; her analysis of it helps us to understand what must have gone on in the \(naturally much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sketchily recorded\) majority of witchcraft cases, in which the defence was successful)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this fashion, Diane Purkiss provides a set of genuinely new and valuable perceptions of the subject, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible to her as a feminist writer. She proceeds in the final third of the book to pull off the same trick, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but this time with a heavier emphasis upon her skill as a textual critic, by analysing the representations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witches in Elizabethan and early Stuart drama. The present reviewer was quite prepared to be overawed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her sparkling reinterpretation of the famous set of canonical texts, although it must be admitted that here she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is most firmly upon her home ground and he is furthest from his own. A historian's range is, however, quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide enough to assess the worth of her comments upon the relationship of the stage with wider culture, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these again seem to be both accurate and important.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More than anybody before, she brings home not merely the diversity of early modern opinion concerning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witches, but the sheer variety of channels through which it could be mediated- parents, neighbours, sermons, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ballads, pamphlets, learned literature, and plays. She is also a pioneer in the way in which she emphasises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how complex that relationship between drama and the complex matrix of wider culture actually was. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stage was very far from being a mirror for society; rather, it was a world with a dynamic of its own and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equivalent variety of ideas. For one thing, trials of witches \(at least in the Home Counties\) and plays about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witches did not follow the same trajectory; the former had passed their peak and were in decline when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter were most fashionable. For another, stage representations did not depend upon stories from trials, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the beliefs in which they were rooted. Not only did they draw upon alternative sources, notably the classics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the handy trove of material made by the sceptic Reginald Scot, but produced witch-figures far more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flamboyant, more theatrical, and more essentially ridiculous; and in the process may actually have helped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foster scepticism about witchcraft in metropolitan \(and thus national\) culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not even a review with as generous a word-limit as this can do real justice to the mass of insights, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestions, and provocations provided by so rich and combative a work. In its author's eyes, it appears to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(function mainly as a battering- ram, driven first against the errors of contemporary feminist mythology and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then against those of a male-centred academic historiography which is itself based in patriarchal culture. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to congratulate rather than to diminish her that this reviewer sees it more as an important and unanticipated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to a set of innovative new publications by English scholars upon early modern beliefs and trials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning witchcraft; not so much a stone hurled into a stagnant pond, as part of a wave of exciting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research, in a subject which seems finally to be coming of age.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King's College)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://departments.kings.edu/womens_history/oldpgs/wrevpurkiss.html)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 290.883 m 375.692 290.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 378.692 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 287.551 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 269.771 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 269.771 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/16)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 268.377 m 316.316 268.377 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 243.400 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 229.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/204)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://departments.kings.edu/womens_history/oldpgs/wrevpurkiss.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 291.1975 375.6917 303.0775 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://departments.kings.edu/womens_history/oldpgs/wrevpurkiss.html) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 268.6915 316.3157 280.5715 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/16) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000576 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000004646 00000 n 0000004755 00000 n 0000004865 00000 n 0000004974 00000 n 0000008535 00000 n 0000008663 00000 n 0000008747 00000 n 0000008812 00000 n 0000016361 00000 n 0000016426 00000 n 0000023731 00000 n 0000023822 00000 n 0000029350 00000 n 0000029477 00000 n 0000029596 00000 n 0000029724 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29818 %%EOF