%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140729001838+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140729001838+01'00') /Title (Raising Churchill's Army: The British Army and the War against Germany, 1919-45) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4537 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Raising Churchill's Army: The British Army and the War against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Germany, 1919-45)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A distinguished historian of British strategic decision-making in the Great War, David French has now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turned his attention to the British army in the Second World War, a shift in focus already signalled by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of journal articles that have appeared over the last few years. While the inter-war army has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively well covered by scholars such as Keith Jeffery, Paul Harris, Brian Holden Reid and, especially, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Bond, there has been surprisingly little academic interest in the British army in the Second World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though its various campaigns have been well trodden in countless popular accounts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, while there has been a renewed interest in what might be termed the 'face of battle' in the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War, as evinced by the publication of papers from a conference at the University of Edinburgh, edited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Paul Addison and Angus Calder as )] TJ ET BT 219.668 197.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Time to Kill)] TJ ET BT 277.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1997\), academic monographs thus far have tended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on institutional aspects of the army. Paul Mackenzie, for example, examined morale and education, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with particular reference to the controversial role of the Army Bureau of Current Affairs \(ABCA\). Ironically, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the publication of Jeremy Crang's long-awaited study of the army as a social institution, )] TJ ET BT 458.468 154.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The British Army )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and the People's War, 1939-45)] TJ ET BT 182.900 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, has coincided with that of the monograph under review here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By contrast, French's intention is to examine the army's combat capability and performance but, inevitably, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that cannot be fully explained without reference to the institutional context of, firstly, the resurrection of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small professional regular army in 1919 and, secondly, wartime expansion into a large conscript force, albeit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not as large as that during the Great War. French, indeed, explains that his approach will be to examine the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three elements he believes generate and sustain fighting ability, namely 'the conceptual, the material, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(160)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 November, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David French)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(331pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Beckett)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6044 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral'. To some extent, therefore, French treads familiar ground to that of Brian Bond in examining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military implications of the social composition of the army between 1919 and 1939, and the attempt to come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to terms with the lessons of the Great War amid the financial and other constraints under which the army )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was compelled to operate in the inter-war period. In carrying the analysis into the Second World War in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of officers and other ranks, French also covers some of the ground traversed by Crang, whose doctoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis is surprisingly not listed in the bibliography, though French has been assiduous in consulting others, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Harrison-Place's doctoral work on tactical doctrine between 1940 and 1944. Consequently, there is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much fuller discussion of selection and promotion of both officers and men to be found in Crang, and French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not perhaps give the Adjutant-General, General Sir Ronald Adam, all the credit due him for shaping a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime citizen army into a more effective fighting force.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In discussing morale and discipline in that expanded wartime army, French certainly well covers the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dilemmas of a manpower policy designed to avoid the pitfalls of the Great War, but which left the army )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often dependent upon relatively poor material. He also makes the important point that even a more scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to selection could not compensate for having an insufficient number of suitable candidates to fill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all posts, hence the understandable likelihood that the army's wider needs would take precedence over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual aptitude. There are more parallels here with the Great War, to which French does not always draw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficient attention, in his generally excellent wide-ranging discussion of morale and discipline. It is one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlivened by judicious use of firsthand testimony from wartime soldiers, whose interests, according to one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such witness, extended only to 'football, beer and crumpet'. Small wonder that, as French nicely puts it, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British fashioned an army of soldiers while the Germans fashioned one of warriors. In passing, it should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noted that, while French acknowledges the importance of primary group loyalties in maintaining morale, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes no mention of the Salerno mutiny, which arose principally from a distortion of divisional loyalty. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very minor point is that the 1st Bucks Battalion was not entirely disbanded in July 1944, as suggested by one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the memoirs French has used, but retained as a guard unit until re-designated as a 'Target Force' battalion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in February 1945.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It might also be noted that, while French is fully alive to the tensions between regulars and amateurs, be they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Territorials or wartime conscripts, he arguably misses one crucial additional aspect of the opposition to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adoption of Lionel Wigram's concept of battle schools, namely that Wigram was a Territorial. Moreover, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his otherwise commendable attention to the difficulties of the Territorials in the inter-war period, French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes no reference to the significant issue of 'the pledge', whereby their relationship with the War Office )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was undermined by Churchill's promise, as Secretary of State for War and Air in 1920, that Territorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formations would retain their integrity in wartime, preventing the use of Territorials in the very situation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medium-scale conflict which was regarded as their only likely military employment or from drafting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Territorial manpower where it was most required.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The pledge was a result of the poisonous legacy of the Great War, in which the Territorials perceived that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-1914 guarantees to maintain unit integrity had been wilfully ignored. The wider legacy of the Great War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, is constantly apparent in French's text and, here, his interpretation of the Kirke Committee of 1932 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(departs significantly from previous historians. French argues persuasively that the Kirke Committee was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first, belated attempt to learn the lessons of the war since it effectively crystallised much of what had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already been suggested. Moreover, he also argues that the committee's findings were not suppressed, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liddell Hart claimed, and did lead to some changes.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7278 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Undoubtedly, there were pockets of conservatism within the army and, particularly in his case studies of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns in France and Belgium, North Africa, and 'from Alam Halfa to the Rhine', in which the emphasis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is largely on Normandy, French skilfully dissects both the faults as well as the merits of leading British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commanders. Arguably, while properly acknowledging the shadows of the Great War at this point, French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does always not give sufficient emphasis to the impact of the army's imperial duties. In this context, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, Sir Andrew Skene \(not Skeen\) is dismissed as being 'antediluvian' whilst CGS in India between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1924 and 1928, but Skene was also the author of the highly influential)] TJ ET BT 370.988 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Passing it On)] TJ ET BT 439.328 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, an aide-memoir for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers fighting on the North West Frontier, which went through no less than four editions in the seven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years following its publication in 1932.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians such as Tim Travers and Dominick Graham have frequently drawn attention to the lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctrine in the British army during the Great War, not least that of combined arms, and, as French suggests, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the prevailing consensus in accounts of British combat performance in the Second World War is that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British remained extremely poor in combined arms tactics. French points out, however, that while the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mobile Division stood out in 1938 in being armour-heavy with unfortunate consequences for the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct of the war in North Africa, the remainder of the army did not lack a combined-arms doctrine. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem was that the army's hierarchical command structure impeded its application. Clearly, the army's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commanders found it no easier than during the Great War to identify the thin dividing line between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercising too much control over subordinates and too little, even the Bartholomew Committee's enquiry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the reasons for the defeat in France and Belgium in 1940 failing to change the mindset of senior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers. But, in any case, the rigid hierarchical approach to command remained unchanged as a result of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of war, despite the value of what Travers has characterised as the 'useful anarchy' of the 'Hundred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Days' campaign in 1918, precisely because most regulars believed that only by bringing order to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battlefield could co-ordination of arms be properly established.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the same way, the army's determination to avoid the mistakes of the Great War also led it to emphasise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobility over firepower, mechanisation over manpower, and consolidation over exploitation. In turn, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial considerations were always significant, the choice of weaponry and equipment reflected such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operational assumptions. Thus, the emphasis upon mobility rather than firepower led to the dismissal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(submachine guns as 'gangster-guns', whose provision would impose unacceptable additional logistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requirements through encouraging troops to waste ammunition. Similarly, in the quest for mobility, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherwise reliable 25-pounder field gun sacrificed shell-weight for range. Another point to emerge from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French's valuable discussion of equipment issues is that the much-reviled two-pounder antitank gun was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best weapon of its type in 1938, albeit that it rapidly became obsolete. While it is usually assumed that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British missed the opportunity to emulate the Germans by converting the 3.7-inch antiaircraft gun to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antitank role, French demonstrates that there were good technical reasons why it could not be used like a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German 88 mm, as well as a lack of sufficient numbers to ensure even effective air defence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French is also excellent on the technical deficiencies of British tanks, which remained under-gunned and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under-armoured, while also pointing out that the much vaunted heavy German Tiger and Panther tanks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves lacked range and mechanical reliability. French remarks on the British capacity to spring an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasional and temporary technical surprise on the Germans, but, in his coverage of the campaign in France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Belgium in 1940 strangely omits any reference to the Arras counterattack, which caused such panic in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German command circles. Nonetheless, he makes another telling point in contrasting the ability of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British, even when under-equipped, to sustain operations logistically with the logistic risks increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken by German commanders.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As French suggests, Rommel in particular has been accorded praise for taking such risks, when the tactical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successes achieved could rarely be translated into operational success. The British experience in the North )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African desert, of course, highlights the failures of British command and control in 1941-42. In considering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montgomery's contribution to the success enjoyed there after 1942, French again differs from other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians in seeing Montgomery's operational methods as differing materially from those of 1918. Rather, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montgomery is depicted as interposing his own personality on the lessons of 1939-42, not least a highly )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4273 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular approach to the imposition of common doctrine and to the guidance of subordinates, whom French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintains were chosen for their professionalism rather than as simply 'yes men'. It is left unsaid that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montgomery's personality also led him to unnecessarily denigrate some of his predecessors, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Auchinleck.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French is also anxious to demonstrate that British successes after 1942 were not solely due to increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantitative superiority of material since individual weapons remained qualitatively inferior to those of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germans. Once more, there is an echo of the increasing consensus among historians of the Great War that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside increasing material superiority, the British army had made immeasurable tactical advances by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1918. French concludes, therefore, that British successes were not won by 'brute force' but by the growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciation of how to use those weapons available to maximum advantage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To the end, however, British commanders frequently declined to take risks, reluctant above all to take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unnecessary casualties. It has been argued, of course, that a willingness to incur more casualties might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortened the war but, while not actually addressing this issue at any great length, French makes it clear that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain could not have afforded higher casualties either in terms of its manpower shortages or the morale of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizen army. It had long been an axiom of professional British soldiers that the citizen soldier or, for that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter, many of the products of urban deprivation from which the army had been recruited prior to 1914, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would not advance willingly into a curtain of fire. In the event, British dead in the Second World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(averaged 3.6 men per 1,000 per month compared to 5.8 men per 1,000 per month between 1914 and 1918. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, as French also shows, losses in some Second World War campaigns were greater than those in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great War, the average daily losses in Normandy in 1944 actually exceeding those of Passchendaele in 1917.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, in deploying an impressively wide range of primary sources, French succeeds admirably in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modifying the judgement of those who have contrasted the British army's performance unfavourably with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of the Germans. As he remarks, 'the British had never believed that they could win their battles by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pitting man against man, and indeed they never believed that they should even try to do so'. In the end, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better to be soldiers than warriors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 373.087 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 355.307 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 355.307 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/160)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 353.913 m 322.316 353.913 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 328.936 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/805)] TJ ET BT 34.016 300.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 354.2275 322.3157 366.1075 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/160) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000582 00000 n 0000000664 00000 n 0000005253 00000 n 0000005362 00000 n 0000005472 00000 n 0000005581 00000 n 0000009142 00000 n 0000009270 00000 n 0000009354 00000 n 0000009419 00000 n 0000015516 00000 n 0000015581 00000 n 0000022912 00000 n 0000022996 00000 n 0000027322 00000 n 0000027450 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 27545 %%EOF