%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141126021830+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141126021830+00'00') /Title (The War Inside: Psychoanalysis, Total War and the Making of the Democratic Self in Post-War Britain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3971 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The War Inside: Psychoanalysis, Total War and the Making of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Democratic Self in Post-War Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sometime, around the middle of the 20th century, the British began to think differently about the well-being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of children. Where anxieties had once dwelt on malnourished and disease-ridden bodies, they now shifted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemplate the civilizational consequences of young disordered minds. The emotional resilience of children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had, the experts decided, been overestimated; children were reimagined as fragile creatures with complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychologies fuelled by irrational fears and inner conflicts. The continuous presence of a dedicated care-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giver became the best defence against a future life of mental disturbance. Conversely, the absence of such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure had grave implications for a child?s chances of becoming a happy, functional citizen. Prolonged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separation from mothers, in the words of psychoanalyst John Bowlby, caused ?wounds to the spirit? which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could scar children for life. Preventing such harm became the object of social policy and the mainstay of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parenting literature in the decades after the Second World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians have for some time known in general terms about the influence of men like Bowlby and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fellow psychoanalysts Donald Winnicott, Anna Freud and Susan Isaacs, their involvement in wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1600)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 29 May, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michal Shapira)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781107035133)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(284pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/gb/academic/subjects/history/twentieth-century-british-history/war-inside-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychoanalysis-total-war-and-making-democratic-self-postwar-britain?format=HB)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helen McCarthy)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7401 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evacuation policies and contribution to post-war thinking about family, motherhood and mental health. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Feminist historians in particular have debated the ideological legacy of psychoanalytic theories which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemingly made the mother-child dyad bear the burden of responsibility for the collective emotional well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being of a nation reeling from the upheaval of war. As Juliet Mitchell memorably noted in 1974, by locating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the remedy for society?s ills in ?normal? families founded on a conventional sexual division of labour, ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments of child psychoanalysis contributed very neatly to the political demands of the epoch?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 519.284 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 519.284 723.795 m 533.276 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But what is less well understood, until now, are the processes by which these ideas left the elite circles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional psychoanalysis which produced them to become conventional wisdoms of social policy and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventually, to borrow Michal Shapira?s potent phrase, ?constructed sensitivities? internalised by Britons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until they seemed ?natural? and intuitive truths. It is to these complex, multifaceted processes that Shapira?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminating book attends, marshalling into a carefully argued analysis an eclectic set of archival sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranging from Melanie Klein?s clinical notebooks to the written archives of the BBC.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chronologically speaking, Shapira?s critical hinge is the Second World War, a conflict which heightened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awareness of the fragilities of civilian morale and of the threat posed to Britain?s war aims by the destructive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential of mass fear on the home front. Shapira does a superb job of narrating the shift in both clinical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking and public attitudes effected by the suffering of the shell-shocked in the previous war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrating how, by the 1940s, fear and anxiety were recognised as legitimate responses to war but ones )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that needed careful management by the state. Children?s fears were the special concern of psychoanalysts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who became actively involved in government evacuation schemes; some ran hostels and nurseries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replicating as far as possible for displaced children the comforts and intimacies of the family structure. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Others spoke out publicly against widely-voiced assumptions that bed-wetting and ill-disciplined evacuees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the products of lazy parenting amongst the urban poor rather than expressions of profound anxiety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought on by enforced separation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The unique conditions of the home front created a space in which these experts identified the link between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war ?outside? and the trauma within which Shapira sees as the key to understanding the wider social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political purchase of psychoanalysis mid-century. War, even for non-combatants, was seen to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brutalising effects on human psychology, with prolonged exposure to a world full of bombs, barbarism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death imperilling the kind of rational selfhood required for democratic citizenship. With the coming of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peace, the task of psychoanalysis became the nurturing of democratic selves by educating Britons to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognise and manage the ?war inside,? now understood as a fundamental element of human nature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shapira shows through a series of deeply-researched chapters how psychoanalysts pursued this project: by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadcasting radio talks aimed at new mothers \(Winnicott\); by intervening in policy debates about juvenile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delinquency, capital punishment and homosexuality \(Edward Glover and colleagues at the Institute for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scientific Treatment of Delinquency\); and through research and advocacy demonstrating the harm done by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hospitalisation policies which separated sick children from their parents for long periods of time \(Bowlby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and James Robertson at the Tavistock Clinic\). Through Shapira?s elegant discussion, psychoanalysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerges as a creative and socially-engaged discipline with a history that speaks to the social and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of its times. It also speaks, incidentally, to contexts beyond the nation-state: Bowlby developed his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas about attachment theory through research commissioned and published by the World Health )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Organisation \(WHO\). Glover, we learn, advised the United Nations on the prevention and treatment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crime, whilst Robertson?s hard-hitting film of a traumatised child in hospital toured the US under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(auspices of the federal Child Bureau and the WHO; the latter distributed copies in Africa and India and hired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robertson as a temporary mental health consultant. Tracing and elucidating this international story lies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the scope of Shapira?s book, but it surely will not be long before this subject finds its historian ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given the recent upsurge of interest in international organisations as sites for transnational exchanges of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge and ideas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More problematic, however, for the book?s purposes is Shapira?s notable reluctance to engage fully with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender politics of her story. She suggests early on that historians must look beyond established feminist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critiques which brand figures such as Bowlby and Winnicott as conservative ideologues pursuing a mission )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 519.2837 724.1095 533.2757 735.9895 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7788 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to send women back to the home. We should appreciate instead, she argues, that psychoanalytic ideas were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressive in comparison with older behaviourist models of childrearing and can be read as having served )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to enlarge women?s domestic authority and independence rather than narrowing their horizons. Yet Shapira )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chooses to close her chapter on Winnicott?s BBC talks by self-consciously paraphrasing Juliet Mitchell?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observation quoted above, concerning the ideological congruence between theories of maternal deprivation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the restoration of the sexual division of labour after the war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This tension in Shapira?s analysis might have been at least in part resolved had she considered more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicitly the implications of Winnicott and Bowlby?s ideas for different groups of women. As the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals, psychoanalysts presented their theories as objective accounts of human nature, a claim seemingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vindicated by the appreciative letters they received from ?ordinary? people, many of whom welcomed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychoanalytic thinking because it appeared to legitimise their existing childcare practices and parental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instincts. Shapira cites a grandmother who wrote to Winnicott describing breastfeeding as the loveliest thing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of her married life, and later on a mother, whose letter to )] TJ ET BT 309.284 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Good Housekeeping )] TJ ET BT 409.928 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recalled her childhood distress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at being left in hospital with only one parental visit a week. ?Bowlbyism?, one might argue from this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence, appealed most where it seemed to reproduce or explain ?real? experiences or ?natural? feelings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which were, as Shapira suggests, in reality rooted in concepts about mother-child relations that only became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowable in the middle of the 20th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet what Shapira fails to do is take a further step and ask to whom did these ?constructed sensitivities? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belong? It is hard not to see class dynamics at work here. The working-class mothers who were berated for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their selfishness in 1939 for refusing to be parted from their children during evacuation were to be proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?right? by psychoanalytic knowledge about the dangers of maternal deprivation. They were the ones who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stood to gain most from Winnicott?s expert systematizing of what ?every mother of an infant knows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naturally? \(p. 123\) and his efforts to elevate mothers to the status of the nation?s first defence against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societal disintegration. From this perspective, the ?losers? of Bowlbyism were middle-class women, and not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just the small minority who wished to combine motherhood with paid work, but those who in earlier decades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have lived leisured lives courtesy of servants, nannies and boarding schools. This domestic support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system would have enabled them to pursue hobbies and pastimes, participate in voluntary work or simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoy the pleasures of domesticity and the private sphere. That, according to Alison Light?s seminal study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative modernity between the wars, was what independence and ?being in charge? meant to middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class women before the Second World War.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 245.624 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 245.624 357.651 m 259.616 357.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 259.616 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The home was a site for the expression of self and the search )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for privacy, but children were incidental rather than central to these endeavours, as reflected in the full and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(varied fictional lives of Jan Struther?s )] TJ ET BT 219.320 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mrs Miniver)] TJ ET BT 279.644 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or E. M. Delafield?s )] TJ ET BT 383.288 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Provincial Lady)] TJ ET BT 460.952 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Psychoanalysis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one could argue, supplanted this bourgeois model of feminine autonomy with one more proletarian and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclusive which valorised the child-centred mothering of working-class women at the expense of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class counterparts. It could be regarded, in this sense, as contributing to that wider redistribution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?social esteem? which scholars such as Ross McKibbin and James Hinton see as following in the war?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wake.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time, it seems implausible that psychoanalytic ideas, influential as they were, would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altered behaviours overnight. We can, as Shapira shows, trace psychoanalytic ?talk? in the popular press, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magazines and radio broadcasts, and we can, additionally, catch snatches of ?ordinary? voices in the oral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories of other scholars. Angela Davis detected notable traces of Bowlbyism in the views towards work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and childcare expressed by the mothers she interviewed in Oxfordshire, as did Elizabeth Roberts in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classic oral history of working-class women in Lancashire.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 316.628 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 316.628 160.323 m 330.620 160.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 330.620 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And yet Shapira notes that as late as 1983, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only half of all hospital children?s wards had unrestricted visiting hours for parents, demonstrating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uneven adoption of psychoanalytic ideas. We also know that many middle-class parents continued to employ )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full-time nannies and to send their children away to boarding schools in the post-war decades, whilst single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mothers with young children who worked out of economic necessity did so without attracting undue social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opprobrium.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even today we live with this mixed legacy of psychoanalysis?s mid 20th-century project. Any new mother )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 245.6237 357.9655 259.6157 369.8455 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 316.6277 160.6375 330.6197 172.5175 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 3521 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Britain 2014 will recognise the post-Winnicott paradigm which demands she trust her maternal ?instincts? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whilst deferring when required to the opinions of ?experts? as to what?s best for her baby. And those same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mothers will return to paid employment after six months or a year under the black cloud of parenting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature and news stories warning of the risks of psychological harm when mothers go back to their jobs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too soon. Even if the psychoanalysts of the 1940s and 1950s never had everything their way, they helped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bring about an extraordinary shift in cultural expectations of familial relationships which transformed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of what was ?natural? or ?normal? in the way parents related to their children, a legacy we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still living with today. Historicizing that legacy in all its dimensions is a vital task for scholars, which is why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michal Shapira?s absorbing book is such a valuable contribution to the literature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 647.523 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Juliet Mitchell, )] TJ ET BT 139.688 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Psychoanalysis and Feminism )] TJ ET BT 288.008 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 1974\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 402.644 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 402.644 615.507 m 456.632 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alison Light, )] TJ ET BT 131.024 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Forever England: Femininity, Literature and Conservatism between the Wars )] TJ ET BT 508.328 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 586.995 m 149.000 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Angela Davis, )] TJ ET BT 135.668 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Motherhood: Women and Family in England, 1945?2000 )] TJ ET BT 455.972 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 2012\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Roberts, )] TJ ET BT 155.672 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Woman?s Place: An Oral History of Working-Class Women, 1890?1940 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.664 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.664 544.227 m 193.652 544.227 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 528.895 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 511.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 511.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1600)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 509.721 m 328.316 509.721 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 484.744 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.344 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/79292)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 402.6437 615.8215 456.6317 627.7015 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 587.3095 148.9997 599.1895 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 139.6637 544.5415 193.6517 556.4215 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 510.0355 328.3157 521.9155 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1600) >> endobj xref 0 37 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000602 00000 n 0000000684 00000 n 0000004707 00000 n 0000004816 00000 n 0000004926 00000 n 0000005035 00000 n 0000008596 00000 n 0000008724 00000 n 0000008808 00000 n 0000008892 00000 n 0000016346 00000 n 0000016376 00000 n 0000016504 00000 n 0000016540 00000 n 0000016631 00000 n 0000024472 00000 n 0000024502 00000 n 0000024630 00000 n 0000024666 00000 n 0000024696 00000 n 0000024824 00000 n 0000024860 00000 n 0000024965 00000 n 0000028539 00000 n 0000028667 00000 n 0000028722 00000 n 0000028849 00000 n 0000028904 00000 n 0000029032 00000 n 0000029087 00000 n 0000029215 00000 n trailer << /Size 37 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29311 %%EOF