%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R 31 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150522232912+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150522232912+01'00') /Title (To Forget It All and Begin Anew: Reconciliation in Occupied Germany, 1944-1954) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4031 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(To Forget It All and Begin Anew: Reconciliation in Occupied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Germany, 1944-1954)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The transformation of Germany after the Second World War from Nazism into a prosperous and peaceful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state has long exerted a particular fascination upon historians. In the last four decades, legions of scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have sought to explain the presumably miraculous ?success story? of the Federal Republic by a range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors. Integration into the political, economic, military and cultural structures of the ?West?, stability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through material affluence for broad sections of German society, an extensive welfare state)] TJ ET BT 471.560 166.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 477.560 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straightjacket of the Cold War form the most familiar components of that story. The political stability of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eastern Germany, in turn, has conventionally been explained with reference to its place within the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bloc and Cold War dynamics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his succinct )] TJ ET BT 106.340 97.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(To Forget it All and Begin Anew: Reconciliation in Occupied Germany, 1944?1954, )] TJ ET BT 514.976 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Schroeder proposes a novel explanatory framework to complement such narratives. He introduces the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively neglected concept of reconciliation into the historiography of the immediate post-war period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he defines as ?the establishment of peaceful ? or at least non-hostile ? relations between former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1608)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 19 June, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steven M. Schroeder)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781442645752)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Toronto Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.utppublishing.com/To-Forget-It-All-and-Begin-Anew-Reconciliation-in-Occupied-Germany-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1944-1954.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Toronto)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Camilo Erlichman)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7743 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemies? \(p. 4\). For Schroeder, the transformation of Germany cannot be properly understood if one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eschews the multifaceted work of civilians in a plethora of post-war grassroots initiatives, including non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governmental organizations \(NGOs\), religious associations and other relief organisations operating in all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four zones of occupation. These organisations often pursued highly different final objectives, but were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(united in their broader goal of improving relations between Germans and their victims or wartime enemies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schroeder?s central argument is that the reconciliatory activities of these largely forgotten grassroots groups )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?yielded significant achievements? and successfully established ?varied modi operandi? for reconciliatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work in the subsequent decades \(p. 6\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the seemingly endless adulation of Germany?s ?coming to terms with the past? by journalists and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians shows, Germany has today become a type of international poster child for victim recognition and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compensation. Yet those who are familiar with the work of scholars such as Alon Confino, Norbert Frei, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeffrey Herf, and Robert Moeller on the two Germanies? ?politics of the past?, collective memory and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader social reluctance to recognise German wrongdoing would not instinctively associate the first post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war decade as one in which German society witnessed the beginning of a ?seismic shift towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconciliation? \(p. 3\). The question is, therefore, whether exploring the early post-war years through the lens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of reconciliation brings to light a significant socio-political dynamic which has hitherto escaped our attention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schroeder sets out by separating neatly between two different ?impulses? which in his view generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produce reconciliation: pragmatism and altruism. In most instances, and rather unsurprisingly, reconciliation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Germany did not originate from contrition, but simply resulted from pragmatic, self-serving concerns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which stemmed from the attempts of German elites to gain favour from both the Allies and the broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international community. By accepting at least partial responsibility for past crimes, Germans ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hoped to regain full sovereignty and international prestige. Schroeder?s paradigmatic example here is Hans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asmussen, the head of the Protestant Church Chancellery, who wished that one could ?forget it all and begin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anew? \(p. 41\), but pragmatically recognised that to regain control of domestic affairs, Germans would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to acknowledge at least some sins and adopt a more submissive stance towards the Allies. The second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach, in Schroeder?s interpretation, was idealistic in nature and involved a number of committed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germans and foreigners who earnestly wished to build relationships of friendship with their former enemies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Typical of this stance are individuals such as Franz Bhm and Otto Kster, Western Germany?s chief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representatives at reparation negotiations with Israel, who sacrificed their positions to force the German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government to pay out significant compensation for Holocaust victims in 1952. As the examples distributed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the book show, however, the two approaches often merged into a potpourri of attitudes, in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(real motivations were no longer clearly recognisable, but the final product tended to be favourable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconciliation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since they emerged from the Third Reich with a high social prestige and the general support of the Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allies, the Churches had a natural advantage in shaping public discourse on social and political questions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both the Protestant and Catholic Church leadership showed, however, little propensity towards engaging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the victims of Nazism. Instead, their public discourses centred on exempting Christians from the crimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed by a presumably alien Nazi regime, negated the existence of collective guilt, and emphasised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead German suffering and victimhood during the Third Reich. Their manifold attempts at highlighting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the misdeeds committed by other nations during the war, their often harsh condemnations of the policies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the occupiers, and their almost exclusive focus on facing up to past sins through conventional Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices of personal expiation did little to advance a reconciliatory dialogue. These attitudes have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensively described by previous research, but Schroeder successfully shows how Church affiliated relief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations, such as the )] TJ ET BT 159.668 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Protestant Relief Work)] TJ ET BT 269.660 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET BT 276.656 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hilfswerk der EKD)] TJ ET BT 369.320 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and the )] TJ ET BT 414.308 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Church Aid Society)] TJ ET BT 551.972 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kirchliche Hilfsstelle)] TJ ET BT 136.352 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) were instrumental in forging such a public discourse. While supplying the population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with food, housing and clothing, they simultaneously advanced a narrative about the immediate past and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present which exacerbated a sense of victimhood among the German population. Schroeder argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nonetheless, that at tactical junctures, religious relief organisations were ready to concede German misdeeds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the past, either to appease the Allies to achieve a specific aim or, most often, to claim the moral high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground when trying to accuse them of present injustices, such as when arguing the case against the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8107 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expulsions and the loss of territory in the East. Somewhat paradoxically, in Schroeder?s interpretation such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early self-interested recognitions of guilt, however partial and vague, laid the ground for reconciliatory work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the subsequent years because they represented at least a first acknowledgment of responsibility.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A multitude of civilian associations took up the task of reconciling Germans and their former wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemies and laboured towards forging new relationships of international cooperation. In many respects, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work can be interpreted as a form of ?grassroots diplomacy? \(p. 98\) exercised at a time when an official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign policy was banned. As Schroeder convincingly shows, the most successful of these organisations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were those which developed ?a more overt political agenda that meshed with the dominant ideology of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(zone? \(p. 98\). In the Western Zones, associations with a religious profile were the rule, though their social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reach was highly limited. Organisations such as the )] TJ ET BT 283.652 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(International Fellowship of Reconciliation)] TJ ET BT 488.660 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(IFOR\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(World Council of Churches)] TJ ET BT 184.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(WCC\) appealed to a minority of engaged Christian pacifists across different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries, but had little impact beyond. More successful was the work of the )] TJ ET BT 403.628 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pax Christi Movement)] TJ ET BT 511.616 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought together French and German Catholic clergy. In their gatherings, Catholics could rally around the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mission of a Christian reconstruction of Europe and the joint fight against Communism, while French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dignitaries such as Bishop Thas of Montauban were ready to focus on shared interests and gloss over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past. The most successful among these associations with a Christian profile was )] TJ ET BT 420.308 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Moral Re-Armament)] TJ ET BT 519.956 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation founded in 1937 by the Lutheran and fiercely anti-Communist American priest Frank Buchman. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After the war, MRA quickly took up its work in Germany and laboured against the rise of Communism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while advocating Christian Democracy as the only salvation for post-war Europe. By taking an openly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political approach and engaging in extreme propaganda campaigns, MRA reached far beyond the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiritual aspirations of the remaining associations. At its 1948 conference at Caux in Switzerland, leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian Democratic European political figures attended, including on the German side Konrad Adenauer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and several )] TJ ET BT 91.328 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ministerprsidenten. )] TJ ET BT 194.660 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buchman and his MRA colleagues supposedly even brokered the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounter between Adenauer and Robert Schuman in 1950, thereby setting the scene for Franco-German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooperation in the years to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schroeder argues that the Western Allies were instrumental in the rise of MRA, coinciding with a shift in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American foreign policy with the beginning of the Cold War. While this might well be true, he has little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial evidence to support this claim and beyond some generalisations, we learn only little about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent of and the motivations behind the occupiers? support for institutions such as MRA. Since Schroeder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that the most successful organisations were those which ?aligned their goals and work with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priorities of the respective zonal occupiers? \(p. 125\), it would have been illuminating to learn what these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priorities in the sphere of reconciliation actually were. Schroeder generally tends to credit the Western Allies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their Religious Affairs Branches for supporting reconciliation work, but from the evidence he presents it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains unclear whether this help was mostly rhetorical and symbolic or involved significant material and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional help too. There is also an unfortunate tendency throughout the book to postulate a dichotomy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the Western Allies as a unified body and the Soviet Union. This is also reflected in the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when writing about the policies of the Western Allies, Schroeder takes the United States position as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shorthand for all occupying powers. If anything, however, most of the specialised research on the British and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French zones of occupation published in the last two decades has demonstrated time and again that each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupier pursued an independent set of policies in their respective zones and that their methods of rule )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(varied greatly. In general, therefore, what is missing from Schroeder?s analysis is a discussion of how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifold associations fitted into the plans of larger political and religious institutions. Apart from their place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the strategies of military governments, there remains the question of whether, for example, the CDU )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Churches took any form of direct influence upon these groupings. In brief, we still do not know how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?grassroots? these organisations really were.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the most intricate sphere of reconciliation was that which involved relations between Jews and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German gentiles. However difficult, some modest initial steps towards reconciliation did take place during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the occupation period. Schroeder curiously does not engage here with the pioneering work of Atina )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grossmann, who has written a highly stimulating study about the complicated relations between Jews, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germans and Allies in occupied Germany.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 238.640 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 238.640 60.531 m 252.632 60.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 252.632 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In Schroeder?s view, the treatment of Jews and reconciliatory )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 238.6397 60.8455 252.6317 72.7255 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 5467 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts differed markedly between the Western Zones and the Eastern Zone. As is well known, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Zone, where active anti-Fascism was the prime entry ticket into the community of victims, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities refused to grant Jews recognition as a persecuted minority and return their property. The most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential victim association in the East, )] TJ ET BT 233.012 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victims of Fascism)] TJ ET BT 324.344 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, re-established in 1947 as the )] TJ ET BT 469.988 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Association of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victims of Nazism)] TJ ET BT 120.692 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET BT 127.688 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vereinigung der Verfolgten des Naziregimes)] TJ ET BT 341.672 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( - VVN\), categorised Jews as ?second-class? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victims \(p. 74\), while the few who laboured within the VVN and SED for a restitution law which included )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews were marginalised. Schroeder argues that anti-Semitism among the Stalinist leadership was a main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factor in preventing restitution and connects this to the series of purges of Jewish SED members which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurred between 1952 and 1956, though it would have been useful to be presented with more evidence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-Semitism in connection with the negation of victim status from within the Eastern German leadership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for this thesis to be convincing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the Western Zones, Schroeder beliefs that all occupying powers supported Jewish-Gentile reconciliation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in principle and exercised significant pressure upon German bodies to compensate victims of Nazism, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the Americans were the most active in helping Jews. As Schroeder has neither examined the records of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the American Military Government, nor those of the French and British occupiers, this claim remains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat speculative. What is clear is that, after the Western powers had introduced in their respective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(zones property restitution legislation, the German government began to pay out restitution to Jews from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(September 1949 onwards.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such material help was preceded by a few attempts at Christian-Jewish reconciliation. On the whole, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, both the Protestant and Catholic clergy ignored Jewish victims and tried to avoid making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statements about them. Protestant institutions often sent out a message of dialogue towards Jews, but at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time reaffirmed their overall aim of proselytising them, which they discursively liked to present as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way of eradicating anti-Semitism in Germany. Already in 1945, they re-established a plethora of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associations for their missionary work, which targeted Jews in such places as DP camps. The Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church, in turn, tended to be even less prepared to discuss the persecution of Jews and only a small number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Catholic individuals were keen on working towards reconciliation. The situation started to change by mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1948, though, when the American Military Government ordered and then materially assisted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment of Societies for Christian-Jewish Cooperation, thirteen of which were founded between 1948 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1953. Pursuing the goal of eradicating anti-Semitism from Germany not through conversion, but through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education, these societies provided a forum for Jews and progressive Catholics as well as Protestants to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interact with each other and, in Schroeder?s interpretation, successfully launch ?Christian-Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconciliatory work into the public sphere? \(p. 92\). Whether their public presence was really very significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be questioned, but what Schroeder does effectively demonstrate here is that whatever limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconciliation took place was almost never the product of institutional initiatives coming from the Church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchies, but rather the result of the work of a small number of engaged individuals operating on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fringe of German society.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7878 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schroeder is to be congratulated for bringing to our attention the actual existence and work of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undefeatable array of post-war NGOs and civilian relief initiatives, most of which have been hitherto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignored by historians. Organisations such as MRA provide a fascinating window into the associational and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truly transnational structures which accompanied the rise of Christian Democracy in the post-war era. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schroeder?s research also provides a forceful reminder that the occupation period cannot be merely treated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a transitional period leading up to the Cold War, but that the socio-political dynamics put in place during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this time need to be taken seriously. Given the vast scope of the project and the sizeable number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international archives which Schroeder has examined, it is perhaps understandable that several parts of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short book provide no more than selective glimpses into the activities of these post-war institutions. At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times, however, one cannot help but feel simply swamped by the large amount of very brief descriptions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about these organisations, which contain basic factual information, but often lack analytical depth. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuine contribution of this book to the existing body of research, namely its pioneering analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NGOs, gets also lost at times by dwelling too much on too many themes which have already been dealt with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensively in the literature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given Schroeder?s somewhat ambiguous definition of reconciliation as the building of peaceful relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between former enemies, it is rather surprising that the most obvious sphere in which a reconciliatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process might have been observed, namely in the relationships between ordinary Germans and members of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the occupying powers located on German territory, should have been entirely neglected. As for example )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Petra Goedde has argued in an influential study, which is oddly not mentioned, the quotidian contacts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Germans and American soldiers \(in particular the forming of sexual relationships\) crucially affected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American foreign policy and enabled a political rapprochement between the countries even before the Cold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War got underway.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 126.320 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 126.320 471.699 m 140.312 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 140.312 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( We still know only very little about whether such instances of personal reconciliation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existed to the same extent in the other zones of occupation, and even less about their respective impact upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the policies of the occupying powers. Clearly this book could not do everything, but why reconciliatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices undertaken by relatively small groups should be treated as more relevant than such wider societal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes is unclear. There also seems to be a preferential focus upon religious organisations throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. This might be just a reflection of the fact that religion was indeed so tremendously powerful in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediate post-war era, but it would have been necessary to contextualise such a finding and explain why, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example, Social Democrats in the Western Zones should have had no, or only very weak, affiliated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NGOs involved in reconciliation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is also the broader question about the merits of ?reconciliation? as an analytical concept for historians. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Etymologically, the term itself is deeply rooted in Christian discourse and encapsulates a strong normative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connotation which it cannot easily shed. There are two problems with this. First, the term, if not explicitly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited to the amelioration of relations between states, implies a very personal process of change which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(escapes any attempt at quantification. Second, it is taken for granted that reconciliation is something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary for a given society to become peaceful or achieve stability. Schroeder consequently believes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconciliatory achievements can be simply measured by looking at the extent to which peaceful relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Germany and its former enemies actually developed \(p. 4\). In addition, while he acknowledges that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the groups he examines only maintained a minority position within German society, he argues that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made a ?striking contribution to the history of modern Germany? \(p. 164\). Yet if one takes the case of post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war Western Europe, it seems to me that much of the research to come out since Alan Milward?s path-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breaking )] TJ ET BT 79.004 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The European Rescue of the Nation-State)] TJ ET BT 277.988 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(another omission in the book\) has emphasised that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European integration had little to do with the high ideals of committed individuals, and less with ?justice?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?apologies?, and ?forgiveness? \(p. 9\), but rather with the pragmatic convergence of national self-interest.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 538.220 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 538.220 146.067 m 552.212 146.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The thesis that the stabilisation of Germany necessitated a process of reconciliation which established ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundation of European diplomacy and cooperation? \(p. 12\) is therefore unpersuasive. Integration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stabilisation rapidly took place )] TJ ET BT 184.676 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(despite)] TJ ET BT 218.672 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the fact that there was no broader reconciliation between European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps a solution would lie in approaching reconciliation not as a reality which can be measured, but as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse with a specific trajectory. Rather than determining whether an individual was truly sincere or )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 126.3197 472.0135 140.3117 483.8935 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 538.2197 146.3815 552.2117 158.2615 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 5494 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merely self-interested when engaging in reconciliatory acts, attitudes which in any case are difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determine with any certainty through an examination of the leading actors? ego-documents, it might be more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fruitful to analyse and explain the ups and downs of a trope. The question of who dominates a discursive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(field for what reasons would then move centre stage. In this context, it would have been important to learn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which specific words and metaphors Europeans actually used when they talked about reconciliation. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely are other legitimate approaches, but unfortunately and in contrast to what he claims in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction, Schroeder never truly incorporates into his research the existing ?theories of reconciliation? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9\) which would be of interest to historians unfamiliar with the respective social science literature. Perhaps as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a result of this theoretical dearth, there is a certain ambiguity about terminology throughout the book, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?reconciliation? being often synonymous with material reparations, restitutions and atonement for Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crimes. On these last themes, there already exists though a substantial body of literature, which is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaged with sufficiently here, and it is not always clear in how far this book departs from what we already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know about the German politics of the past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite these shortcomings, Schroeder?s research successfully introduces into the historiography the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a number of hitherto neglected post-war institutions based on thorough archival digging, which in itself is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an important contribution to the social, political and intellectual history of the period. Historians of post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe might, however, seek to integrate these organisations into the broader transnational history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and social movements, rather than approach them through the lens of reconciliation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 507.219 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Grossmann, )] TJ ET BT 139.340 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jews, Germans, and Allies:Close Encounters in Occupied Germany)] TJ ET BT 467.960 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 460.947 m 149.000 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Goedde, )] TJ ET BT 120.008 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GIs and Germans:Culture, Gender, and Foreign Relations: 1945?1949)] TJ ET BT 465.980 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 432.435 m 149.000 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. S. Milward, )] TJ ET BT 138.680 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The European Rescue of the Nation-State)] TJ ET BT 337.664 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2nd ed., London, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 460.316 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 460.316 418.179 m 514.304 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 393.317 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contemporary Church History Quarterly)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://contemporarychurchhistory.org/2013/12/review-of-steven-m-schroeder-to-forget-it-all-and-begin-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 363.411 m 534.236 363.411 l S BT 34.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anew-reconciliation-in-occupied-germany-1944-1954/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 349.155 m 295.280 349.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 298.280 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 345.823 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 328.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 328.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1608)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 326.649 m 328.316 326.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 301.672 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.272 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/85707)] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://contemporarychurchhistory.org/2013/12/review-of-steven-m-schroeder-to-forget-it-all-and-begin-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.616 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anew-reconciliation-in-occupied-germany-1944-1954/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 461.2615 148.9997 473.1415 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 432.7495 148.9997 444.6295 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 460.3157 418.4935 514.3037 430.3735 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 363.7255 534.2357 375.6055 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://contemporarychurchhistory.org/2013/12/review-of-steven-m-schroeder-to-forget-it-all-and-begin-anew-reconciliation-in-occupied-germany-1944-1954/) >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 349.4695 295.2797 361.3495 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://contemporarychurchhistory.org/2013/12/review-of-steven-m-schroeder-to-forget-it-all-and-begin-anew-reconciliation-in-occupied-germany-1944-1954/) >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 326.9635 328.3157 338.8435 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1608) >> endobj xref 0 45 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000595 00000 n 0000000677 00000 n 0000004760 00000 n 0000004869 00000 n 0000004979 00000 n 0000005088 00000 n 0000008649 00000 n 0000008777 00000 n 0000008861 00000 n 0000008926 00000 n 0000016722 00000 n 0000016806 00000 n 0000024966 00000 n 0000024996 00000 n 0000025122 00000 n 0000025158 00000 n 0000025223 00000 n 0000030743 00000 n 0000030834 00000 n 0000038765 00000 n 0000038795 00000 n 0000038923 00000 n 0000038959 00000 n 0000038989 00000 n 0000039117 00000 n 0000039153 00000 n 0000039272 00000 n 0000044819 00000 n 0000044946 00000 n 0000045001 00000 n 0000045128 00000 n 0000045183 00000 n 0000045311 00000 n 0000045366 00000 n 0000045493 00000 n 0000045696 00000 n 0000045823 00000 n 0000046026 00000 n 0000046154 00000 n trailer << /Size 45 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 46250 %%EOF