%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728103059+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728103059+01'00') /Title (Mao. A Life) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2594 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Mao. A Life)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td 0.403 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is one of the unfortunate realities of the twentieth century that the list of defining world political leaders is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td 0.530 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(shared between those whose actions resulted directly in the greatest number of deaths and those who led the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td 1.107 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence when their actions impinged on the rest of the world. The stature of the former, and their place in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td 1.381 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, was achieved because they created \(or were inspired by\) an ideological vision and engineered the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td 3.509 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritarian power to impose the logic \(or one particular logic\) of that vision on their populations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(ostensibly for their benefit but ultimately at the cost of millions of their lives)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(161)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 31 October, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Short)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(795pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hodder and Stoughton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Richardson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7639 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td 0.777 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is probable that any list of those defining leaders drawn up with the benefit of hindsight at the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td 1.206 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth century would see very few changes in the top echelon from one drawn up fifty years ago. Mao )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td 1.527 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zedong would indisputably be one of them. For Philip Short, Mao's life was 'played out on an altogether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td 0.914 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(vaster canvas' than that of the other world leaders. As 'unquestioned leader of almost a quarter of mankind' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td 1.566 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(he 'wielded powers equalled only by the most awesome of Chinese emperors' and did so 'in an era when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td 2.211 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(China's history was so compressed that changes which, in the West, had taken centuries to accomplish, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td 0.452 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurred in a single generation.' It was Mao who guided China through the leaps from 'semi-colony to Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td 2.617 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Power', from 'millennial autarky to socialist state', and from 'despoiled victim of imperialist plunder to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td 3.831 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Permanent Member of the UN Security Council, complete with H-bombs, surveillance satellites and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td 0.863 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(ICBMS'. To this might be added the notion that Mao, by charting a particular revolutionary course through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td 0.431 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the socialist transition, offered an alternative \(and for many developing countries a more attractive, desirable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(and achievable alternative\) future not just to Western capitalism but to the Soviet industrialisation model.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td 2.788 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, with the benefit of hindsight, it is clear that the Maoist vision was fundamentally unsound \(both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td 1.999 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptually and in the mix of policies through which it was promoted\), that it was achieved through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td 0.888 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(massive denial of basic civil liberties and a propensity to impose widespread physical and mental coercion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that there were deep \(and deepening\) flaws in Mao's own character and personal life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td 2.333 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(The two writers who have done the most to introduce Mao to the wider world and then to extend our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td 1.677 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of Mao are Edgar Snow and Stuart Schram. Snow was the first person to place Mao's life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td 0.393 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(before a world audience - but did so, in retrospect, in excessively \(and naively\) rose-tinted terms. Schram by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td 0.564 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast produced a more complete, rounded and critical biographical study but wrote at the point where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td 0.386 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chairman was still only on the verge of launching the disastrous Cultural Revolution. The time is ripe for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td 0.728 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritative biography that is able to assess Mao's life as a whole in a broader historical context, and to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td 0.408 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(so in the light of the enormous volume of recent secondary literature and the array of inside information that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td 1.708 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(has seeped out since Mao's death. Short's background of reporting in China and his understanding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td 1.914 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet dimension to the story enables him to draw on and draw together the contrasting journalistic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic traditions and provide the necessary rigour and accessibility.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td 2.370 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(In contemplating a survey of Mao's life a plethora of issues and ideas spring to mind. How did Mao's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td 0.600 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(childhood condition his complex character? How did he manoeuvre his way through the complexities of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td 2.226 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese politico-military situation, and the intrigue and internecine strife of the Communist Party itself. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td 0.870 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(How did Mao's particular ideological slant contribute to the socialist transition in the 1950s and then to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td 0.500 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(disasters of the GLF and the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution? Where did the vision come from; where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td 1.501 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the seeds of those destructive and inhuman campaigns sown; how were they nurtured; and how and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td 0.333 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(why did the idealism ironically turn on itself and make the achievement of the goals less - rather than more - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td 1.088 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely? How, in the final analysis do we balance Mao's achievements against their costs? The list could go )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td 0.370 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(on. So, what kind of approach does short take? Does the book seek to provide important new information on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td 0.690 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mao's experiences and achievements? Does it set out to offer a significant reinterpretation of Mao's life and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td 2.305 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(work? Does it extend our understanding of Mao's life and his place in history, and does it provide the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitive account for the next generation?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td 0.399 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(The approach is essentially chronological and the first two thirds of the book take us up to 1949 and into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td 0.870 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Korean War. Short deals with Mao's Confucian childhood and proceeds through the national and Hunanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td 0.442 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and military developments in the 1920s, weaving in the growing complexity of inter and intra-party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td 0.772 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics and politico-military rivalries. He lays out the evolution of Mao's ideological and moral perspective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td 0.453 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his military baptism; leads us through the emergence and triumph of Mao's contentious military strategy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td 2.144 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 30s; looks in illuminating detail at the loss of innocence in the factional bloodbath of the Futian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td 2.138 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(incident; and covers the construction of dominance over the Party and the emergence of the cult of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td 1.437 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(personality in the 40s. For the post-Liberation period Short intertwines China's relationship with the West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td 2.412 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and with the USA in particular\) with the internal dramas of the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution and then the battle that Mao fought to secure the longer term future of his revolutionary vision.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7304 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td 1.491 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a careful, erudite work which lays out the facts of Mao's childhood and the conflicts inherent within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td 2.571 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(early C20 China and then charts a way through Mao's complex involvement in the unfolding of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td 2.519 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicts and the bitter, and often unforgiving, machinations of the Party itself. The ability to draw on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td 2.627 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schram's enormously valuable definitive editing and translating of Mao's writings, Saich's work on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td 0.353 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the Communist Party, official and unofficial publications form within China itself \(particularly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td 0.705 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nanliu collection\), as well as his own personal contacts enables Short provide us with a more complete and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed knowledge of Mao's life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td 1.317 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Short's pre-occupation lies with political manoeuvring and military tactics. It is overwhelmingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td 2.226 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(an account of what Mao did and what he experienced. Its focus is Mao's relationship with the Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td 0.316 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution. But where is Mao's own life? Where is Mao the person? Where is the analysis of Mao's personal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td 0.519 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(intimate relationship with his wives and his children, or with his colleagues in revolution? These aspects are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td 0.788 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(touched on but they are not developed and Short does not really show how and when they impinged on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td 0.890 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(public sphere. Maybe Mao was incapable of forming close relationships? Maybe one of his colleagues \(but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(who!\) should have taken him aside and whispered "Listen Mao, chill out, get a life"?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td 2.364 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nor is there much space for Mao's emerging economic ideas or responsibilities - not even his intimate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td 2.398 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement in land reform, or his important writings on economic and financial problems in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td 1.520 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(1940s. In short we are presented us with "a life" - a political/military life, a life on China's revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(stage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td 0.749 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is also a book that sets out the facts and allows them to speak for themselves. Interpretation is not placed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td 0.647 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre stage; it is the unfolding of Mao's life in China's revolution that matters. Short presents us with a full )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td 1.557 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(version of the political, military and diplomatic facts of Mao's life and thus allows those who know their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td 2.073 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese history to confirm or modify their views and those who are less familiar to draw up their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td 3.125 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(provisional interpretations. And on the whole it is set out fully and accurately. There are lapses \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td 0.993 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(unqualified acceptance of the "No dogs and Chinese" sign for example\), and no doubt the real China-buffs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(will quibble with the detail. But the broad-brush strokes are sound.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td 0.638 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(So, where does Short take us? What are the major conclusions about Mao's life and his contributions on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td 0.704 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese and world stages? Here the book is a little disappointing. Short provides us with an epilogue rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td 0.972 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(than a conclusion. After a brief survey of the short-term political consequences of Mao's death the focus is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td 0.948 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(widened to encompass China's own difficulty in assessing Mao. Here, Short offers a rather brief attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td 1.138 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(balance the achievements and costs of Mao's life and ultimately takes cover behind the point that it is still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td 3.582 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(too early to place Mao in his full historical context \(which, in Chinese terms, requires centuries of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective rather than decades\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td 2.286 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the positive side, Short sees Mao's talents - 'visionary, statesman, political and military strategist of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td 0.713 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(genius, philosopher and poet' - combining with a 'subtle, dogged mind, awe-inspiring charisma and fiendish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td 0.729 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(cleverness' to produce remarkable achievements for China. Short endorses the first of the two achievements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td 2.199 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Mao himself identified as significant \(the victory over Chiang Kai-shek\) but seeks to qualify the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td 0.705 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(second \(the Cultural Revolution\) on the grounds that whilst Mao might have succeeded in smashing the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td 0.843 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(order he failed to put a viable alternative in its place. Mao certainly did not recognise, as the 'Asian Tigers' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td 0.316 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(have done, that the old Confucian virtues could be harnessed in a way that made them not merely relevant to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td 0.945 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic transformation but integral and indispensable. Moreover, the overdose of ideological fervour that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td 0.244 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mao repeatedly injected into Chinese society actually served to immunise it and, ironically, made the desired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td 1.498 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision of a revolutionary society more difficult \(if not impossible\) to achieve. Yet, whilst China has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to abandon the Maoist ideology with ease, the myth of its founder has proved more durable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td 0.382 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Within this, in pursuing his path along the revolutionary road Short highlights Mao's belief in the supremacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td 1.901 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(of socialism over capitalism; his belief in the need to balance right and left while maintaining a general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td 2.186 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(course that was left of centre; and his \(declining\) faith in the masses because the masses would not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td 1.602 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(satisfied with a system of only nominal socialism which concealed de facto capitalism. Mao was right to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7657 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td 1.017 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(worry that China would travel swiftly down the capitalist road after his death, but wrong in supposing that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td 1.275 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deng was not a 'capitalist roadster', and even more mistaken in believing that the masses would rebel and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(overthrow rightism because of their dissatisfaction with a primacy of prosperity over ideology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td 1.881 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Short also recognises that the costs also need to be woven into the analysis. These costs revolve around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td 1.446 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mao's duplicity \(as Lin Biao's son put it, 'today he uses sweet words and honeyed talk to those whom he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td 1.813 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(entices; tomorrow he puts them to death for fabricated crimes'\) and his willingness to use the lessons of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td 1.569 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(China's own dynastic history to justify and exalt the killing of opponents \(or those who simply disagreed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(with his own political aims\) as an unavoidable and necessary expedient.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td 1.292 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, whilst Short acknowledges that Mao's rule 'brought about the deaths of more of his own people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td 1.306 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(than any other leader in history', he goes on to separate Mao qualitatively from the two other tyrants who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td 1.166 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(were his contemporaries. For Short, the 'overwhelming majority of those whom Mao's policies killed were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td 0.398 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the unintended casualties of famine', and that puts Mao in a different category from Hitler and Stalin. Just as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td 0.892 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is a distinction between murder, manslaughter and death caused by negligence there are gradations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td 1.174 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(political responsibility for deaths deriving from of the intent that lay behind them. Moreover, whilst Stalin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td 2.609 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [('cared what his subjects did and Hitler who they were, Mao cared about what they thought about' \(an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td 0.935 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting and under-developed idea, though surely 'cared' is an unfortunate term to choose\). And not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td 1.054 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(were landlords eliminated as a class in China rather than the Jews as a people in Germany, but Mao never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(lost his conviction that thought reform could lead to redemption and incorporation into the masses)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td 1.308 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(But can the consequences of Mao's actions be lessened in this way - any more than those of Stalin where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td 1.851 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(again it could be argued that the majority of his victims were the product of the unintended famine that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td 0.862 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed collectivisation in the early 30s? Mao's culpability for the famine deaths might be limited if Short )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td 1.173 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(was able to show that he knew nothing of the facts before it was too late. But not only could the problem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td 1.511 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been tackled and minimised if Mao had acted when the problems were publicly aired at the Lushan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td 1.719 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Plenum in July 1959, but there is evidence that Mao had seen and heard the reality when he had visited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td 1.146 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shaoshan and talked to the very peasants whose wisdom Mao exalted weeks before the Plenum. But more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td 2.797 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(than this, the reason that Mao had not been kept fully informed was the extreme climate of fear and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td 2.566 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(exaggeration that he himself had deliberately initiated and cultivated. Surely it was the flaws in Mao's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td 1.533 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(character and in the nature of his relationship with the senior members of the Party that led him to see a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td 1.658 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(conspiracy in Peng Dehuai's courageous stand and then, by reinforcing the policies of the Great Leap, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td 4.421 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensify the tragedy? The famine might have been unintended but that does not absolve Mao of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td 1.433 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility. The context in which the famine arose was Mao's creation, the outcome was not inevitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td 2.135 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(and it was avoidable. It was Mao's reaction when the true situation was intimated that compounded the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td 0.744 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(severity of the famine and led directly to the massive loss of life. The responsibility was Mao's, if not quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mao's alone.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td 1.122 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless the book is still a welcome and significant addition to the literature on the Chinese revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td 0.422 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the twentieth century. It succeeds in synthesising and extending to our knowledge of Mao and of Mao's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td 2.103 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(central, often determining, role in that revolution. It is unfortunate that there is no bibliography and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td 3.473 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(referencing system, although exhaustive, is irritatingly difficult to use. However, the book is both is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td 2.649 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible for the general reader interested in China and sufficiently rigorous for it to find a place on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td 1.074 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic reading lists. Any reservations about the lack of concern for Mao's private life, about the limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td 2.009 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of the economic issues and the interpretation of the costs of Mao's life do not undermine that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td 3.830 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement. And if it stops short of being the definitive biography it is the most up to date and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive survey of Mao's political and military life on the market.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/book-review-the-murderous-thoughts-of-chairman-mao-)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 93.555 m 544.916 93.555 l S BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1126799.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 79.299 m 101.024 79.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 104.024 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Affairs)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/56012/lucian-w-pye/mao-a-life-mao-zedong)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 50.787 m 435.260 50.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 438.260 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 37.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York Times)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 93.8695 544.9157 105.7495 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/book-review-the-murderous-thoughts-of-chairman-mao-1126799.html) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 79.6135 101.0237 91.4935 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/book-review-the-murderous-thoughts-of-chairman-mao-1126799.html) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 51.1015 435.2597 62.9815 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/56012/lucian-w-pye/mao-a-life-mao-zedong) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 1251 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.nytimes.com/books/00/02/06/reviews/000206.06burnst.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 795.075 m 381.368 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 384.368 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 791.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 773.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 773.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/161)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 772.569 m 322.316 772.569 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 747.592 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/807)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/book-review-the-murderous-thoughts-of-chairman-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mao-1126799.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 690.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/56012/lucian-w-pye/mao-a-life-mao-zedong)] TJ ET BT 34.016 675.736 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.nytimes.com/books/00/02/06/reviews/000206.06burnst.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 795.3895 381.3677 807.2695 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nytimes.com/books/00/02/06/reviews/000206.06burnst.html) >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 772.8835 322.3157 784.7635 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/161) >> endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000521 00000 n 0000000603 00000 n 0000003249 00000 n 0000003358 00000 n 0000003468 00000 n 0000003577 00000 n 0000007138 00000 n 0000007266 00000 n 0000007350 00000 n 0000007415 00000 n 0000015107 00000 n 0000015172 00000 n 0000022529 00000 n 0000022627 00000 n 0000030337 00000 n 0000030463 00000 n 0000030626 00000 n 0000030751 00000 n 0000030914 00000 n 0000031039 00000 n 0000031170 00000 n 0000031261 00000 n 0000032565 00000 n 0000032692 00000 n 0000032810 00000 n 0000032938 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33033 %%EOF