%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221002340+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221002340+00'00') /Title (War's Waste: Rehabilitation in World War I America) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3875 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(War's Waste: Rehabilitation in World War I America)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1919, Douglas C. McMurtrie, Director of the Red Cross Institute for Crippled and Disabled Men, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarked that, ?beyond reaches of history, the disabled man has been a castaway of society?. McMurtrie, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who was also editor of the American Journal of Care for Cripples, considered various species and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilizations: ?The disabled wolf is torn to pieces by the pack; primitive society abandoned, expelled, put to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death its disabled and deformed members?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In modern times, McMurtrie said, dynamics had changed, but the state of affairs was far from perfect. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual with a disability was a source of charity and sympathy, and rarely received ?the opportunity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make good and get back on his own two feet?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McMurtrie argued that real progress was evident only in the first decades of the 20th century, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vocational schools and training programs were established in various countries for children and adults with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disabilities. Finally, medical and educational experts had come to accept that ?it was better to train the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disabled for work which they could perform than to be content with paying them compensation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permitting them to remain in idleness?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 222.008 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 222.008 62.601 m 236.000 62.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1619)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 10 July, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beth Linker)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780226482538)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Chicago Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/W/bo6064149.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago, IL)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jessica Adler)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 222.0077 62.9155 235.9997 74.7955 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7571 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beth Linker ushers her readers into this crucial moment of transition by exploring the origins and lasting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effects of efforts to heal American First World War soldiers. The nature of a bold and varied rehabilitation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(program for U.S. service members, she argues, was rooted in contemporary notions of disability, work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manliness, and professionalization. Furthermore, she maintains, it had implications for the future of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American hospitals and medical practice, veterans? benefits, and vocational education.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linker grounds her story in a concise and telling history of veterans? welfare in the United States. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, she shows, debates about the extent and nature of veterans? benefits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlighted larger social and political tensions about class, work, and personal responsibility. Here, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the rest of the book, Linker offers rich backgrounds and profiles of reformers, politicians, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others who contributed to public discussions. Recounting the work of Theda Skocpol, Linker notes that in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spite of a variety of efforts to trim spending, veterans? pensions ballooned in the first decades of the 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 73.004 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 73.004 614.259 m 86.996 614.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 86.996 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( By the First World War era, she argues, a variety of groups ? Progressive reformers, legislators, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical professionals ? worried that cash payments permitted former soldiers ?to remain in idleness?, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Douglas McMurtrie had put it. Rehabilitation, on the other hand, could create proactive and independent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizens. The 1917 amendments to the War Risk Insurance Act were the product of such beliefs. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guaranteeing that service members would be healed and returned to society as breadwinners, the legislation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered a solution to what Linker calls ?the problem of the pensioner? \(p. 10\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the army rehabilitation program marked a break with past veterans? policies, Linker shows it had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deep historical roots, as did the general goal of creating a certain type of citizen. Orthopedic surgeons, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes, played a central role in shaping military rehabilitation efforts, largely because their pre-war practices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jibed with the ideals encapsulated in the War Risk Insurance Act: that people with disabilities should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made into productive members of society. Around the 1900s, these medical specialists created institutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that urged patients to overcome their physical ills through activity and work, as opposed to rest therapy. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tracing the professional paths of the doctors who were eventually most involved in army rehabilitation plans, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linker highlights a theme prevalent throughout the rest of the book: civilian practices influenced military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programs, which, in turn, legitimized and reinforced ongoing civilian trends.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After offering background on veterans? benefits and orthopedics, Linker trains her focus on the actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice of wartime rehabilitation. She looks first at the army?s physical therapy program. Unlike the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional image of sympathetic and nurturing women in waiting, who soldiers were meant to marry and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support, physical therapists were required to have ?brains and brawn?. ?They became?, she says, ?role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(models of how women should respond to the war wounded in the new, post-pension era? \(p. 63\). Most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importantly, the army trained them to resist coddling patients; their therapeutic massages, for example, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant to be slightly painful, lest they be perceived as pleasurable. The indirect message, it seemed, was that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patients could not be bystanders in their treatment, or become accustomed to passively receiving services.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beyond impacting the care administered in hospitals, Linker argues, wartime rehabilitation affected how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions were organized. The ideological foundations for the War Risk Insurance Act ? that the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should support medicalized care, not pensions ? brought rehabilitation into military hospitals and, Linker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(says, led to a long-term expansion of the mission of civilian hospitals as well. Here, she looks specifically at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two of the army?s largest general hospitals ? Walter Reed and Letterman ? and details their massive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion during the war years. New hospital spaces, such as curative workshops aimed at helping soldiers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develop job skills, Linker argues, indicated that the institutions were turning away from domesticity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming more ?traditionally masculine? \(p. 96\). Contrary to the convalescent care offered in Soldiers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Homes, she says, such facilities were meant to foster in patients the ?will to work? \(p. 94\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.948 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.948 136.323 m 481.940 136.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition to drawing connections between First World War-era army rehabilitation and the histories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical care and veterans? benefits, Linker makes a political argument. Government efforts at rehabilitation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she says, were \(and remain\) aimed at erasing the true costs of war. That point is made eloquently in a chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the provision of care and supplies for First World War soldiers who underwent amputations. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offering easy and quick access to prosthetic limbs, Linker says, government officials hoped to restore )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 73.0037 614.5735 86.9957 626.4535 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 467.9477 136.6375 481.9397 148.5175 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7490 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disabled soldiers. Their goal was to ensure that, in the wake of )] TJ ET BT 336.632 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(this)] TJ ET BT 353.972 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( war, men would not stroll the streets with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empty shirt sleeves and pant legs; instead, they would wear publicly sponsored limbs, which would closely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resemble actual body parts, rather than pegs or hooks. Underlying this effort, Linker argues, was the hope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that a veteran would have no right to claim sympathy or, perhaps more importantly, government aid.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her discussion of the provision of limbs, Linker offers details about the business of war, and how the army )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(went about securing affordable prosthetics that could be fitted to a variety of body types. There was strong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance to the idea, she shows, from prosthetists. They perceived themselves as skilled professionals who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designed limbs based on specific patients? needs, then directed an extended and personalized fitting process. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These craftsmen argued that standardization of such an individualized process was impossible, and they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resented the prospect of rescinding their work to ? indeed, being forced to work for ? medical doctors who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wished to fit patients with mass-produced prosthetics in hospitals. In spite of this vocal opposition, the army )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contracted with the ?little-known? E-Z Fit Artificial Limb Company to provide one-size-fits-all limbs at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incomprehensibly low prices \(p. 108\). \(An E-Z Fit prosthetic leg, for example, cost the government $20, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed to the typical going price of $200.\) The resulting program was riddled with problems; soldiers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endured longer hospital stays because prosthetics were used too early or were ill-fitting. Many found the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devices so uncomfortable that they opted not to wear them, or to use more traditional implements instead, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the peg legs and hooks that rehabilitation specialists so despised. In spite of these systemic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failures, Linker argues, wartime care for amputees had a lasting impact: from the First World War on, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prosthetic limbs would be created on a mass scale, and provided and fitted in hospitals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linker is concerned not only with the organization and practice of rehabilitation, but also with how it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived and represented. She focuses on Walter Reed?s wartime magazine, )] TJ ET BT 407.900 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Carry On)] TJ ET BT 454.232 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to provide a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glimpse of the image of rehabilitation put forth by the Office of the Surgeon General. Its articles and images, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she argues, painted a rosy picture of the prospects of rehabilitation, and aimed to convince soldiers that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was unmanly and unpatriotic to accept pensions and remain idle. Linker contrasts these ideas with the lived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality of hospital care by analyzing soldier complaints about conditions at Walter Reed and Letterman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during and immediately after the war. Far from being fully satisfied with their treatment, Linker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates, soldiers complained about a variety of issues, including the quality of the care they received )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and discharge rules. These complaints, she argues, laid the foundation for mass veterans? protests in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1930s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her final chapter, Linker details why educators, as opposed to medical doctors, came to oversee wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vocational education in the army. The contentious battle over authority, she argues, had larger implications: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it fostered a disconnect between medical care and vocational rehabilitation that came to shape health care for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American civilian workers. Here, Linker offers some surprising details about the medical doctors who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(served under the Surgeon General during the First World War: even as the American Medical Association )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vocally opposed ongoing efforts to establish a system of national health insurance, the civilians-turned-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers fought for the extension of medical and rehabilitative care for industrial workers. They even argued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that civilians should have access to the army rehabilitation program, and that the 1920 Civilian Vocational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rehabilitation Act should ? much like wartime military care ? include not only professional training, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the provision of medical services.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The efforts of the medical officers were, however, in vain. Vocational educators argued in Congress in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spring of 1918 that rehabilitation should consist of two distinct phases ? medical and vocational ? and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilian educators, not military doctors, should have control over professional training. Army doctors, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were at the top of their profession in the civilian medical world before their wartime service, resented the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effort to usurp control. But legislators, Linker says, were eager to appear as proactive soldiers? advocates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and make a break from the status quo; they thus approved the educators? request. The educator-dominated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model of vocational rehabilitation, Linker says, laid the groundwork for a civilian vocational rehabilitation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(act \(and a larger health system\) that decoupled medical care and insurance from industrial training.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linker carries her argument forward by focusing on the 21st-century reverberations of First World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies. As the United States has engaged in wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, she notes, its government ?holds )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7081 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out the hope that through technological advancement, the United States can magically mend the wounds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war,? and ?wipe away disability? \(p. 175\). She ends on an ironic note: the First World war effort to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minimize a massive pension system, she says, laid the groundwork for something much more expansive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War?s Waste )] TJ ET BT 100.676 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has wide-ranging implications, but no single volume can tell the story of all wounded soldiers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and veterans. Linker focuses most closely on care for soldier-amputees. At the book?s outset, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges that this population constituted five per cent of the war-disabled, whereas individuals with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tuberculosis and other orthopedic conditions made up, respectively, 15 and 25 per cent of those wounded. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While ?artificial limbs allowed caregivers and society as a whole to engage in the illusion that the human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ravages of war could be erased with a technological fix?, Linker notes, ?more complex and gruesome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions ? brought the ideal of rehabilitation into question? \(p. 7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, the ?ideal of rehabilitation? had its limits. In many ways, rehabilitative care for amputees was, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linker puts it, ?the gold standard? \(p. 7\). But doctors and bureaucrats of the time viewed skeptically those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with chronic conditions, ills that existed prior to service, and injuries and illnesses that could not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connected to frontline fighting. They worried about squandering government resources on seemingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unworthy dependents. And, as Linker briefly notes, soldiers of color had a decidedly different encounter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with government health services than their white counterparts. In short, patients? experiences during and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the war were highly varied ? predicated, in part, on the nature of one?s injuries and military record, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as social and ethnic background.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linker?s illuminating picture of professionalization, changing notions of disability, and treatment of soldier-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amputees goes a long way in explaining the nature of health care for American service members and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(veterans, but leaves room for further exploration. A variety of forces ? powerful veterans? groups; class, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial, and political tensions; the perceived threat and societal impact of untreated chronic diseases; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competing ideals regarding dependency and the role of government ? also helped shape soldiers? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(veterans? medical services in this period and beyond. Those factors, which are outside the scope and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intentions of Linker?s work, might be considered alongside this rich social and intellectual history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War?s Waste)] TJ ET BT 97.676 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is deeply researched, beautifully written, and tightly argued; it should be required reading for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who study the United States? veterans? welfare state, war and society, and disability. Scholars of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First World War ? especially those who focus on health and medicine, or the American war effort in general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? will also find much of value here. Finally, the book would interest soldiers, veterans, and military and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Veterans? Administration caregivers who are curious about the deep historical roots of some of the services )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they access and provide.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.891 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 255.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Douglas C. McMurtrie, )] TJ ET BT 179.672 255.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Disabled Soldier)] TJ ET BT 281.672 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1919\), pp. 1, 26?7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 458.636 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 458.636 253.875 m 512.624 253.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 241.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theda Skocpol, )] TJ ET BT 142.340 241.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United )] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(States)] TJ ET BT 92.684 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.336 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.336 225.363 m 269.324 225.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 212.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The formative work on Soldiers? Homes is Patrick J. Kelly, )] TJ ET BT 353.984 212.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Creating a National Home: Building the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 198.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Veterans' Welfare State, 1860?1900)] TJ ET BT 237.236 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA, 1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 359.888 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 359.888 196.851 m 413.876 196.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 171.989 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 143.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 142.083 m 240.992 142.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 143.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 138.751 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 120.971 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 120.971 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1619)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 119.577 m 328.316 119.577 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 94.600 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/71517)] TJ ET BT 34.016 65.800 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=33574)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 458.6357 254.1895 512.6237 266.0695 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.3357 225.6775 269.3237 237.5575 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 359.8877 197.1655 413.8757 209.0455 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 142.3975 240.9917 154.2775 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=33574) >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 119.8915 328.3157 131.7715 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1619) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000553 00000 n 0000000642 00000 n 0000004569 00000 n 0000004678 00000 n 0000004788 00000 n 0000004897 00000 n 0000008458 00000 n 0000008586 00000 n 0000008670 00000 n 0000008699 00000 n 0000008825 00000 n 0000008861 00000 n 0000008952 00000 n 0000016576 00000 n 0000016606 00000 n 0000016732 00000 n 0000016768 00000 n 0000016798 00000 n 0000016926 00000 n 0000016962 00000 n 0000017027 00000 n 0000024570 00000 n 0000024682 00000 n 0000031816 00000 n 0000031944 00000 n 0000031999 00000 n 0000032127 00000 n 0000032182 00000 n 0000032310 00000 n 0000032365 00000 n 0000032492 00000 n 0000032593 00000 n 0000032721 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32817 %%EOF