%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150629213903+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150629213903+01'00') /Title (Britain and France in Two World Wars: Truth, Myth and Memory) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4126 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Britain and France in Two World Wars: Truth, Myth and Memory)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The study of war and memory has been popular amongst cultural historians for over two decades, yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly interest in the subject shows no sign of abating. Indeed, as this collection demonstrates, memory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains a fruitful area of research, particularly if approached from a comparative perspective. The essays in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book are the outcome of a conference which took place in September 2011 at St. John?s College, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge and collect the work of a number of leading scholars working on the history of Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France in the 20th century. As Robert Tombs notes in his introduction, the book explores the ?difficult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship? between these two countries during the two world wars \(p. 3\). As such, this collection analyses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the key military and diplomatic moments which defined this uneasy partnership. Memory, however, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central in two ways. First, the authors are concerned with how these events have been remembered in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two countries, and how often widely diverging narratives of them have emerged. Secondly, many of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors are also concerned with how the memory of particular moments has impacted upon the military and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic relationship between France and Britain. The major strengths of the book lie in this welding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military, diplomatic and cultural history. To address these themes, the book is divided into three sections, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each comprising an introduction and three essays. The first two sections, which primarily focus on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1621)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 10 July, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Tombs)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emile Chabal)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781441130396)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(232pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bloomsbury Academic)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/britain-and-france-in-two-world-wars-9781441130396/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vincent Trott)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7400 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military and diplomatic history, address the First and Second World Wars respectively; the final section is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dedicated to the issue of memory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tombs defines memory as ?the combination of diverse cultural actions and artefacts [?] which seeks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserve and transmit ideas and emotions about the past? \(p. 2\). What remains unclear, however, is how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exactly ?memory? relates to the ?truth? and ?myth? within the book?s title. It is implied that ?memory? is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not ?truth?, but rather a distortion of it, yet it is questionable whether this truth can ever be fully accessed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empirical historical study may help to uncover this truth, but as some of the essays demonstrate, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical profession itself has also perpetuated distorted narratives of the past. It is also unclear where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?myth? sits within this framework. The term is loaded with notions of falsehood, but has also been used by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars, perhaps most notably Samuel Hynes, to denote a concept similar to that of memory.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 482.300 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 482.300 654.771 m 496.292 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 496.292 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Whether or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the two terms are interchangeable, or whether they are used to denote slightly different concepts, remains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unclear throughout this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gary Sheffield provides an effective introduction to the opening section on the First World War, reminding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reader that coalitions are not friendships, but rather uneasy ?marriages of convenience? \(p. 19\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following this, John Keiger?s essay introduces us to the theme of forgetting that runs throughout these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters. Any discussion of how societies remember inevitably turns to what has been forgotten, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Entente Cordiale provides a prime example. Although it is now taken to be a symbol of Anglo-French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooperation throughout the 20th century, Keiger stresses that actually the Entente was a case of cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?crossed wires?; the French always perceived the Entente to be a firm commitment of mutual support ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something the British were in fact unwilling to provide \(p. 30\). It was only after the invasion of Belgium that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British felt compelled to offer military assistance. During the centenary commemorations of the Entente )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cordiale, however, Britain?s initial hesitancy was overlooked \(p. 43\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More edifying moments in the history of Anglo-French relations have also been side-lined in official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts. As William Philpott demonstrates in his essay, key instances of joint sacrifice and endeavour ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the heavy involvement of the French during the Battle of the Somme ? have not been remembered in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either country. This is partly because both Churchill and Haig downplayed the French contribution \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(53?5\). However, as Philpott notes, the historical profession is also implicated. Military history is less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonly pursued by French historians, and as a consequence source material pertaining to the functioning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the French army has been less thoroughly scrutinized \(p. 53\). More damningly, however, Philpott blames )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British historians for relying too heavily on Haig?s testimony, who, keen to convey a narrative of French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline, gave the French little credit \(p. 57\). Philpott does not offer an explanation for this reliance on Haig, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but I would suggest that in their efforts to counter the popular mythology of ?lions led by donkeys?, many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians may have been overly sympathetic to the Field-Marshall?s testimony.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The theme of forgetting persists into Elizabeth Greenhalgh?s article, which also casts a critical eye over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical trends. Greenhalgh demonstrates that historians have overlooked the French support for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British that was crucial during the German Spring Offensives. Moreover, they have over-emphasised the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the British during the Battle of Amiens on 8 August 1918 and the subsequent ?Hundred Days?. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obscures the fact that an earlier Allied offensive occurred on the Marne on 18 July and was instrumental in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the eventual victory \(p. 70\). Like Philpott, Greenhalgh suggests that an over-reliance on Haig?s testimony is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partially to blame \(p. 67\). Yet it is not only France?s role that has been forgotten. The French have similarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forgotten the logistical contribution of the British navy, which was essential in supplying raw materials and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American troops to the continent during the German policy of unrestricted submarine warfare \(p. 73\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, Greenhalgh suggests that geography underlies this antagonism. The British, protected by the channel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a powerful navy, possessed a detached sense of superiority in relation to the rest of Europe, whilst the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French, whose soil had actually been invaded, were unwilling to concede that the British had made a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparable sacrifice \(p. 77\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Akhila Yechury and Emile Chabal also underscore the importance of geography in the second part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. Stressing that the Second World War was very much a ?global conflict?, and that Britain and France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were ?the two greatest imperial powers of the age?, Yechury and Chabal convincingly illustrate the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 482.2997 655.0855 496.2917 666.9655 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 6090 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centrality of Empire to an understanding of Anglo-French relations \(p. 83\). Significant moments, such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British attack on the French fleet at Mers-el-Kbir, for example, took place in a colonial setting.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The significance of forgetting also remains a theme in this part of the book. As Martin S. Alexander aptly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates in his essay, cultural amnesia has led to a sense of unequal sacrifice with regard to Dunkirk. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his summary of the military operations themselves, Alexander notes that the French performed an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in shielding the British retreat to Dunkirk \(p. 96\), but the British have largely forgotten this, instead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choosing to condemn the French for capitulating \(p. 98\). This chapter?s major strength is its thorough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration of the ways in which these operations have been represented and remembered in Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France. This is particularly important with regard to Britain, which has developed a distinct Dunkirk myth. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perpetuated in numerous war films, this myth depicts the debacle as a heroic ?escape from the jaws of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disaster? \(p. 103\), and, as Alexander perceptively shows, slots into a broader ?meta-narrative affirming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s indelible role in World War II? \(p. 104\). Alexander uses the term ?myth?, rather than ?memory?, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refer to this narrative, and again I feel that definitions of some of these terms might be instructive. Alexander )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite rightly notes that ?myths, like comedy, only work if they contain grains of truth? \(p. 101\), but a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicit definition would be useful here. Nevertheless, the chapter effectively contrasts this narrative with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that advanced by some French, who blamed the British for an ?unforgivable act of perfidy? \(p. 101\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Understandably, however, the more painful legacies of Vichy, occupation and collaboration have dominated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French concerns, and Dunkirk does not occupy such as prominent place in French memory \(p. 102\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These issues greatly complicated the nature of the Anglo-French relationship during the Second World War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and have consequently led to a further divergence of memories. Sbastien Albertelli?s essay explores the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between the British, the Free French and the Resistance, noting that the relations at this stage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were highly uneven. De Gaulle and the Free French were dependent on the British \(p. 119\), yet De Gaulle, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determined to assert his authority, insisted on bilateral agreements with Churchill?s government. The British, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, had little faith in the Free French, often choosing to engage directly with various resistance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movements \(p. 121\). Ultimately, the Free French were given very little say in the planning for the D Day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invasion \(p. 129\), but as Albertelli demonstrates, the Resistance proved to be of significant tactical benefit, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertaking a number of important sabotage missions \(p. 132\). However, like many other instances of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-French cooperation, this has since been forgotten in Britain \(p. 133\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This forgetting can work both ways. Olivier Wieviorka?s essay demonstrates that the British role in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberation of France has also been downplayed. In this instance, however, historians are not seen to be at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fault. Rather, Wieviorka suggests this is because popular narratives have become ?Americanized? \(p. 138\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wieviorka?s analysis of this is unfortunately rather brief, as his primary aim is to ?piece together the true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent of the British contribution? \(p. 138\). He reveals that the early military failures of Montgomery, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owed themselves to ?strategic blunders, poorly motivated troops and firm German resistance? \(p. 144\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately consigned Britain to the role of ?junior partner? to the United States \(p. 149\). But Wieviorka )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stresses that the British did make a significant contribution to the liberation, providing essential manpower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and resources \(p. 149\). It is this contribution which has been overlooked by the French \(p. 150\). What is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made entirely clear, however, is how the British themselves have remembered their mixed record during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberation. To what extent did the ?Americanization? of memory extend to Britain, which had no problem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructing powerful national narratives of other key events of the war?)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 8030 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section addresses how Britain and France have remembered the two world wars. As Philip Bell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes in his introduction, there are a number of striking contrasts between British and French memories. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whereas in France the First World War is normally seen as a necessary war, in Britain it is frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissed as a futile disaster. But whereas numerous historians have highlighted the dominance of notions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(futility in British memory )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 160.700 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 160.700 726.051 m 174.692 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 174.692 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Bell crucially notes that British narratives of the war are actually more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex and divisive than this, as evidenced by the respect for the dead and the wearing of poppies \(p. 155\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other critical distinction that Bell stresses concerns the Second World War, where ?the situation is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost totally reversed?. In this case, it is French memories which are divided and complex; in Britain the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war is almost unanimously seen to be a ?good? war \(p. 156\). Despite these contrasts, Bell also notes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarities, such as the reaction of ?never again? to the First World War in both Britain and France \(p. 157\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jay Winter?s essay on divergent patterns of First World War remembrance in France and Britain, like much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his work, embraces the linguistic turn, considering the role of language in framing memory.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 487.616 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 487.616 614.259 m 501.608 614.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 501.608 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Winter?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovative methodology uses Google N-grams to trace the frequency of the use of the word ?glory?, and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French equivalent, ?gloire?, in written works over the last 100 years. Whereas the use of ?glory? has been on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a steady decline in British English, the use of the word ?gloire? peaked in France during the First World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 164\). For Winter, this is because the ?English language works differently from the French language when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it comes to heightened eloquence; consequently memories expressed in the two languages may never be the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same? \(pp. 164?5\). These diverging memories are not simply rooted in linguistic differences, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasting assumptions regarding the war?s meaning. Winter notes that whilst the British have often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissed the war as pointless, ?it is simply not possible to refer to a war of defence against the occupation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of northern France as an act of futility? \(p. 167\). For Winter this might also explain a further contrast: in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France joking about the war is deemed inappropriate, whereas in Britain irony is central to many narratives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the conflict. Consequently, Winter suggests that the Great War ?is sacred in France in a way that it is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Britain? \(p. 168\). This is undoubtedly true, but there is still a reverent respect for the dead in Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which retains a similarly sacred character.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the following essay, Robert Frank focuses on how the Anglo-French relationship during the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War has been remembered. The sound theoretical foundation that Frank establishes is particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admirable. Frank uses the concept of the ?other? and its role in the formation of self-identity, in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain how perceptions and memories of the Anglo-French relationship developed \(p. 179\). Frank then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applies these concepts to a number of key issues, including the French amnesia regarding the role of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British during the liberation. His convincing explanation for this is that British successes ?have continued to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hold up a mirror to French humiliations? \(p. 186\). For similar reasons, the important role played by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill in securing the beneficial treatment of France at Yalta has also been forgotten by the French.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, David Reynolds explores how the memory of the two world wars has influenced policy in Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and France during the 20th century. This weaving of cultural and diplomatic history provides an exemplary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection of the collection?s methodology. Reynolds begins by noting some important contrasts in the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the First World War was remembered in Britain and France in the 1920s, reiterating the point that France?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to expel an invader gave the war a stronger moral justification \(p. 194\). His suggestion, however, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British were ?fighting )] TJ ET BT 160.004 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mainly)] TJ ET BT 192.668 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for abstractions? \(p. 195\) is debatable, and overlooks the clear strategic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons which underpinned Britain?s decision to wage war. Nevertheless, Reynolds convincingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates that a greater French antipathy towards the Germans during 1920s, which had roots stretching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back to 1870, led to differing policies during the inter-war years. Whereas the British favoured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconciliation, the French advocated a far stricter policy \(p. 196\). This process of drifting apart continued in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wake of the Second World War. The rapprochement and cooperation between the two countries that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurred during 1939 was forgotten and clouded by the memory of 1940. Whilst this may have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s ?finest hour?, it was a tragic moment for the French. Britain developed a ?special relationship? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the United States \(p. 200\), whilst France favoured European integration following the war \(p. 203\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many of Reynolds? other points, which summarize the development of the mythology of the two world wars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in both countries are, as he admits, ?familiar ground?. Nevertheless, he makes the important point that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of the Second World War impacted upon how the first conflict was viewed in both countries. In )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 160.6997 726.3655 174.6917 738.2455 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 487.6157 614.5735 501.6077 626.4535 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 6182 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, for example, the Great War appeared as a futile prelude in contrast to the triumphant second conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 194\). Ultimately, the chapter?s broad sweep, which covers memory and policy in both Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France, and in relation to both world wars, provides an effective conclusion to the collection.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taken together, these essays are an excellent advertisement for comparative history: this approach sheds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further light on the relationship between war and memory in both countries. Considering both world wars in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one collection is also valuable. The First World War and its memories greatly influenced policy during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War, and these memories would shift and develop as a consequence of the second conflict. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is still much work to do, particularly in this latter area, and hopefully this collection will pave the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for future research in this respect. Perhaps most importantly, this collection demonstrates that approaches in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military and diplomatic history can effectively incorporate elements of cultural history, and vice versa.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such a broad and ambitious collection inevitably has its weaknesses. This book would perhaps benefit from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a more secure theoretical foundation, and terms such as ?truth?, ?myth? and ?memory? could be more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly defined in relation to each other. In a similar fashion, the first two sections of the book, which deal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the ?truth? ? that is the diplomatic and military history ? often deal too fleetingly with the ways in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which these events were remembered. Structurally, however, the book at least partially addresses this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem, with the final section dedicated to memory effectively tackling many of the issues raised earlier in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book. Finally, some of the authors could be more precise about exactly )] TJ ET BT 394.964 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(who )] TJ ET BT 417.968 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is remembering or forgetting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in each instance. When a nation is said to have forgotten or remembered, it is not always clear whether this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes the historical profession, for example.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The aims of the book, however, are commendable. As Robert Tombs notes in his introduction, Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France ?owe each other far more than we generally recognize? \(p. 14\) and the collection underscores this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point. With the upcoming centenary of the First World War, I hope there will be further opportunities for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often damaging instances of historical amnesia presented in this book to be corrected.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 381.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Samuel Hynes, ?Personal Narratives and Commemoration?, in )] TJ ET BT 367.640 381.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War and Remembrance in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 367.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Twentieth Century)] TJ ET BT 153.020 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Jay Winter and Emmanuel Sivan \(Cambridge, 1999\), pp. 206?7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 484.976 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 484.976 365.667 m 538.964 365.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 352.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example: Gary Sheffield, )] TJ ET BT 228.308 352.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Forgotten Victory: The First World War ? Myths and Realities )] TJ ET BT 64.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2002\) and Brian Bond, )] TJ ET BT 224.336 338.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Unquiet Western Front: Britain?s Role in Literature and History)] TJ ET BT 64.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.336 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.336 322.899 m 212.324 322.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 310.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example: Jay Winter, )] TJ ET BT 209.648 310.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning: the Great War in European )] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cultural history )] TJ ET BT 141.356 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1995\) and )] TJ ET BT 256.004 295.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Remembering War: The Great War between History and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memory in the Twentieth Century )] TJ ET BT 229.004 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New Haven, CT, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 348.308 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 348.308 280.131 m 402.296 280.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The co-editors thank Dr Trott for his thoughtful review and have no comment.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 238.543 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 220.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 220.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1621)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 219.369 m 328.316 219.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 194.392 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 179.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/74402)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 484.9757 365.9815 538.9637 377.8615 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 158.3357 323.2135 212.3237 335.0935 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 348.3077 280.4455 402.2957 292.3255 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 219.6835 328.3157 231.5635 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1621) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000570 00000 n 0000000652 00000 n 0000004830 00000 n 0000004939 00000 n 0000005049 00000 n 0000005158 00000 n 0000008719 00000 n 0000008847 00000 n 0000008931 00000 n 0000009015 00000 n 0000016468 00000 n 0000016498 00000 n 0000016626 00000 n 0000016662 00000 n 0000016727 00000 n 0000022870 00000 n 0000022961 00000 n 0000031044 00000 n 0000031074 00000 n 0000031202 00000 n 0000031238 00000 n 0000031268 00000 n 0000031396 00000 n 0000031432 00000 n 0000031537 00000 n 0000037772 00000 n 0000037900 00000 n 0000037955 00000 n 0000038083 00000 n 0000038138 00000 n 0000038266 00000 n 0000038321 00000 n 0000038449 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38545 %%EOF