%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 35 0 R 63 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150419154938+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150419154938+01'00') /Title (The Children?s War: Britain, 1914-1918) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4222 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Children?s War: Britain, 1914-1918)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asked to call to mind images of children and war in Britain, and the most ready association is that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children living through the ordeal of bombing and evacuation in the Second World War. )] TJ ET BT 460.952 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Children?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War, Britain 1914?1918 )] TJ ET BT 154.688 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(re-directs our attention to the lives of British children in the Great War. This, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first book-length study of the subject, is an account not simply of endurance and separation, but of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation through family relationships, play and learning. Unlike other historians of this period, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stphane Audoin-Rouzeau and Annette Becker, who have concentrated on children?s literature and games )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purely as a form of wartime propaganda, or, like Deborah Dwork and Jay Winter, who have studied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children?s overall gains in health and welfare as a result of interventionist wartime policies, Rosie Kennedy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is interested in ?the experience of children and the ways in which they responded to their mobilisation for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war? \(p.7\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 86.324 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 86.324 129.369 m 100.316 129.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To do this, Kennedy uses autobiographical accounts, as well as examples of correspondence between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children and their relatives at the front, now housed at the Imperial War Museum. Many letters sent by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children appear to have been lost in the Flanders mud. However, their content can be inferred from carefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserved replies, and seem to have detailed, as one might expect, all those things that mean so much to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1625)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 17 July, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosie Kennedy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230221758)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(216pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.palgrave.com/page/detail/the-childrens-war-rosie-kennedy/?K=9780230221758)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rebecca Gill)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 86.3237 129.6835 100.3157 141.5635 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 4969 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(rather privileged urban\) children: pet animals, visits to Father Christmas? Grotto, and wheeled transport \(in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one case ?an illuminated tramcar in the form of a tank?\) \(p. 36\). As such, they offer an intriguing child?s-eye )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of domestic routines in war, but are hard to subject to the usual rigours of source criticism. Kennedy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sets herself the immensely difficult task of reconstructing not only their content but also their emotional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To aid her, Kennedy invokes Sigmund Freud, Melanie Klein and Donald Winnicott to place in view the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind of the child as one of psychic tensions and private imaginings; but this is not an attempt at psycho-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, and the point their inclusion serves to make is that children have an inventive, creative interior life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and are not simply receptacles of their surrounding culture. Rather, the task in hand is to elucidate feeling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?meaning?, and it is with ?the myriad of cultural influences that shaped children?s lives? \(p. 53\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities, that Kennedy is most concerned. This allows the lens to be widened to encompass diverse sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of pedagogical thinking, social theorising and the marketing of children?s games and fiction. Here, Kennedy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is on sure ground, and adept at placing the enlightening and enlivening quotation. However, the individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children who feature in this book are mostly those of relatively well-off parents, while their surrounding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?war culture? follows that depicted by Audoin-Rouzeau and Becker in being fairly hegemonic. In fact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kennedy takes this further, to suggest that a study of children?s wartime culture ?lets us get to the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essence of how Britain?s adults perceived the war and allows us to explore the methods society used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communicate with itself? \(p. 19\), though why propaganda or marketing material designed for children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be any more or less revealing than that designed for adults is hard to say. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of Kennedy?s first tasks is to define her subject. As she explains in chapter one,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Rather than defining childhood by age range, say between 5 and 16 or 18, I came to realise, as )] TJ ET BT 64.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davin suggests, that it is experience rather than age that identifies someone more strongly with )] TJ ET BT 64.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(childhood ? Because one of my main areas of interest is the ways in which adults directed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children?s attention to the war, I have chosen to concentrate only on children who are still )] TJ ET BT 64.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treated as children by the adults around them.? \(p. 9\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But whereas Anna Davin set out to unravel the complex ways in which a ?popular cult of childhood? arose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a period of social, economic and educational transformation between 1870 and 1914, Kennedy does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take the opportunity of pursuing the construction and function of this cult of ?innocence and irresponsibility? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the war years. In practice, Kennedy defines her subject by virtue of school attendance ? ?a young person )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 14 might still be at school, treated as a child by both their parents and teachers?, but she does not include )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?children in full-time paid work or those who lied about their age to enlist in the army? \(p. 9\). However )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davin herself notes that children who contributed to the family economy through paid employment ?may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stuck for years in the contributory and subordinate position of a child? whatever their age.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 466.268 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 466.268 266.883 m 480.260 266.883 l S endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 466.2677 267.1975 480.2597 279.0775 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7188 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The upshot is that the subject of Kennedy?s study replicates, without interrogation, the ?ideal? wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(childhood found in the famous 1915 poster ?Daddy, what did YOU do in the Great War?, in which two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children in a comfortable home, with leisure and money for toy soldiers and books, innocently inquire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether their father has fulfilled his manly duty. This, then, skirts over the ideological function of stock )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime images of sheltered, dependent and young childhood \(like that of sheltered and dependent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(womanhood\) in signalling the barbarity of the enemy and the civilised domestic habits of the British, or in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bolstering ideas of appropriately manly and womanly behaviour. Yet, whether standing by their mother?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(side when women of Britain said GO!, or cradled in their refugee mother?s shawl, the childhoods depicted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular propaganda images, though not designed )] TJ ET BT 272.984 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(for )] TJ ET BT 289.988 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children, were nonetheless part of the cultures of war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within which young people, their parents and their teachers existed. This was also the domestic ideal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to which infant welfare was increasingly measured ? and mothers berated - to ensure the health of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wartime generation. But if the war gave extra resonance to the cult of the rosy-cheeked, cosseted, child, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for many actual children the tentative gains of the 1870-1914 period were suspended for the duration of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict. Kennedy, however, devotes relatively little space to the hardships faced by poorer children.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter two, ?Families at war?, Kennedy concentrates on the correspondence between soldiers and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children. Fathers made much of life in the open air, depicting themselves relishing wartime escapades and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sleeping in ?cubby houses? underground. Inquiries were made about school and home, and children were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instructed to work hard and behave. Children, it seems, responded in kind, providing glimpses of family life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that make all the more moving the sudden termination of a correspondence when a father was killed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action. Kennedy is good at suggesting the emotional charge of such otherwise banal topics, calling forth the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandable anxieties of men whose families were growing older in their absence, and the attempts made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to maintain emotional bonds with tales of bravery and derring-do. Fathers, in these letters, ?became heroes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a partially invented landscape? \(p. 41\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kennedy?s attempt to recreate this world of feeling rests, for the most part, on supposition, though her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensitivity to the material means that her depictions of fatherly anxiety and concern ring true. This adds a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new dimension to our understanding of the intimate bonds with home that sustained men on the western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(front and aided their emotional survival. However, as might be expected, the significance for children of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parental-separation, and this correspondence, remains much more elusive. One wonders how these children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responded to the return of the soldier-father after years of war, especially if disabled, shell-shocked, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brutalised, or just averagely bad-tempered. The historian A. L. Rowse, quoted here, considered his father?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence ?a great blessing? \(p. 155\). Many children had but hazy recollections of their father, and as Alan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allport?s work on demobbed soldiers after the Second World War has shown, children did not always react )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well to the appearance of the fantasy-hero.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 238.280 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 238.280 302.883 m 252.272 302.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And what of the feelings which arose when fathers did not return home? In )] TJ ET BT 397.268 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Children?s War )] TJ ET BT 498.272 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we learn of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a range of responses to grief and mourning, and of differing adult expectations. A quotation from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Isherwood?s )] TJ ET BT 157.328 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exhumations)] TJ ET BT 219.992 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( tells of the rites of mourning at his prep school, where,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the concept of Grief, as practiced by adults, was almost meaningless to us. We could only )] TJ ET BT 64.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand it in terms of drama, over which we gloated, and of social prestige, which )] TJ ET BT 64.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commanded our sincere respect? \(p. 44\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Isherwood and his classmates, black crepe armbands carried a totemic quality. Elsewhere, Kennedy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recounts how a relative dismissed a child?s capacity for grief, ?It is a merciful thing that Freddie does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realise things? \(p. 44\), while a kindly teacher instructed ?sensitive and afraid? \(p. 24\) children whose fathers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were ?missing? to put their heads on their arms to rest in class. But though much has been written on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mourning and commemoration after the Great War, the wider social expectations concerning children and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mourning remain sketchy: it is unclear if Isherwood?s pagan cult of the dead and the school-boys? re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(configuration of the symbols of adult mourning were products of an upper-class ?stiff upper lip?, or spoke )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 238.2797 303.1975 252.2717 315.0775 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7752 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more generally of the way in which children make their own meaning ? certainly the wartime revival of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional religious forms and the rise of superstition cannot have offered the same consolation for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young and uninitiated, and one can only guess how talk of ghosts on the western front haunted the childhood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagination.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three, ?A war imagined?, opens with the marketing and consumption of war-themed games for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children and the diverting details of the pre-war Anglo-German toy rivalry, in which the superior solid-metal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German soldier held the advantage. Kennedy depicts British manufacturers? eagerness to tap into this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanding consumer market for children once war had been declared and German imports had been banned. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She also analyses the stock characters and formulaic plots of popular juvenile fiction. War stories aimed at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boys, such as Brereton?s )] TJ ET BT 155.660 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Under Haig in Flanders )] TJ ET BT 274.988 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1918\), typically featured brave British soldiers enjoying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steaming mugs of cocoa before a ?spree? into enemy territory to fight sneaky and underhand Germans.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fiction for girls, Kennedy detects a desire on the part of female authors to explore some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities open to women in wartime, as well as to reassure readers that such workers had lost none of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their feminine charm. Toy nurses were popular during the war, but Kennedy has been unable to find their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fictional counterparts in print. To account for this, Kennedy postulates that, ?Women writers wanted a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proactive role for their heroines, where they took part in the war as active participants, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responding to its horrors by caring for others wounded in action? \(p. 77\). But there was at least one notable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exception. )] TJ ET BT 86.672 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pickles: A Red Cross Heroine )] TJ ET BT 233.648 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1916\) by Edith Kenyon, a prolific author of girls? fiction, tells the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story of a ?tomboy tamed? type of heroine who became a Red Cross nurse.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.944 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.944 514.467 m 407.936 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 407.936 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This story is accompanied by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(photographs of nurses working in temporary hospitals during the war, which also suggests that older girls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encountered the iconography of the ?ministering angel? by other means, whether through fundraising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material or one of the numerous nursing memoirs published at this time. If, as Kennedy proposes, imbibing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly gendered wartime culture forged ?an identification ? that may have stayed with the children for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rest of their lives? \(p. 70\), then the source of these impressions is important.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the introduction, Kennedy declares an interest in understanding how, ?these adults of the future [were] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped by their childhood experiences? \(p. 11\), though this is never fully explored. Writing about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between masculinity and militarism, Michael Roper has proposed that masculine subjectivities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were altered by the experience of fear during the Great War and the rise of a vernacular psychoanalytic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language to describe it. But what of those who grew up reading heroic fiction and playing with toy nurses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the war? What, asks Roper, were the ?personal implications of these discursive shifts? for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeding generation?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 146.312 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 146.312 331.395 m 160.304 331.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 160.304 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As Kennedy herself reminds us, autobiographies of childhoods spent during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great War were written in this post-war age of popular psychoanalysis and reflected ?an understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the importance of childhood experiences in shaping the adult self? \(p. 11\). The structure and form of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autobiographies, as well as their sensibilities, would, then, have seemed ripe for an inquiry into the place of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war, but also of the new sciences of the mind, in this younger generation?s sense of selfhood, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular their gendered identities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters four \(Children in uniform\) and five \(War in the classroom\) are the longest and most detailed of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. While the preceding chapters are concerned with children?s domestic lives, here attention turns to how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children were organised, educated and deployed. Kennedy provides a useful overview of the scholarship on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social attitudes towards the young in early 20th-century Britain, looks at the wartime role of civil societies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Local Education Authorities, and considers the extent of children?s public participation in the war. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warns against assuming that the nation?s young were militarised or indoctrinated with jingoistic maxims in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the years before and during the war years. The self-sacrificing soldier was held up as ?the epitome of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful character training? \(p. 100\) amidst fears of delinquency and moral laxity, but the point was to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instil in the young a sense of honour and the virtues of obedience. In the classroom, the war was taught as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means of engaging pupils with their lessons, as well as educating them in British imperial duty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international responsibility. Children themselves may have revelled in all things military; but this was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always the intention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We are familiar with the contribution of the women who took up new roles and longer hours to free men for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 393.9437 514.7815 407.9357 526.6615 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 146.3117 331.7095 160.3037 343.5895 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 9306 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the front and to make ends meet; we are less used to considering children?s war-work. Yet in )] TJ ET BT 483.920 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Children?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War )] TJ ET BT 57.680 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we find Girl Guides undertaking a variety of auxiliary caring and catering roles \(seemingly treated as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VADs-in-waiting\), and Scouts and members of the Boys? Brigade officially retained by the Admiralty as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substitute coastguards and employed by hospitals and government departments as messengers and errand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boys. Kennedy offers us a salutary reminder of this voluntary service: though a more complete picture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children?s war-work would have included greater consideration of the children who gave up school for paid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment and the legion of 12 year old half-timers who did hours of illegal overtime to subsidise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family income. Astonishingly, in August 1917, the Board of Education conceded that 600,000 such children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been put ?prematurely? to work in the war; in addition, an unknown number of ?little mothers? missed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(school in order to care for younger siblings.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 243.980 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 243.980 666.771 m 257.972 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In these final two chapters, Kennedy reconstructs the experience of the child in the Great War, but this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book?s more ambitious attempt to gauge how they actually felt remains tantalisingly out of reach. Likewise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though we are told that ?war-themed toys during the First World War helped to shape the identities of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children who grew up playing with them? \(p. 56\), the full implication of what this meant for this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation?s subjective sense of self is left hanging. As Kennedy has found, children?s own words offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immensely appealing source material; the difficulty is what, as an historian, to make of their very charming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(childishness. Here, the recollections of early 20th-century childhood found in oral history accounts by Anna )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davin and Stephen Humphries, though produced by adults and not children, may have offered the chance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpret the place of the war in their life-histories.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 276.296 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 276.296 526.467 m 290.288 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 290.288 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( They would also have complemented Kennedy?s focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the artefacts and curricula marketed and designed explicitly for children, and on those children of families )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fortunate enough to be able to afford them, by revealing how the broader cultures of war shaped the lives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young people, including the poor. Yet it is the achievement of this book that, when recently confronted with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a photograph of British children attending the Armistice Day commemorations, their deceased fathers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medals pinned to their coats, my mind turned immediately to Kennedy?s invocation of the need to reflect on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emotional and psychological significance of children?s participation in the Great War, and of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of considering soldiers not just as husbands and sons, but as fathers too. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 393.171 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Audoin-Rouzeau and A. Becker, ?Children and the Primary Schools of France, 1914-1918? in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(State, Society and Mobilization in Europe)] TJ ET BT 267.680 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(during the First World War)] TJ ET BT 400.352 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. Horne \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997\); D. Dwork, )] TJ ET BT 152.336 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War is Good for Babies and Other Young Children ? A History of the Infant and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Child Welfare Movement in England 1898?1918)] TJ ET BT 297.668 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1987\); J. Winter, )] TJ ET BT 432.320 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great War and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British People)] TJ ET BT 133.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 235.676 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 235.676 304.131 m 289.664 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Davin, )] TJ ET BT 114.008 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Growing Up Poor: Home, School and Street in London, 1870?1914)] TJ ET BT 439.664 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1996\), pp.3, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5, 2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.016 275.619 m 139.004 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Allport, )] TJ ET BT 119.348 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Demobbed: Coming Home After the Second World War)] TJ ET BT 386.972 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 509.276 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 509.276 261.363 m 549.272 261.363 l S BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 247.107 m 78.008 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 234.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Kenyon, )] TJ ET BT 121.340 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pickles: A Red Cross Heroine)] TJ ET BT 265.316 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1917\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 346.640 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 346.640 232.851 m 400.628 232.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 219.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Roper, ?Between manliness and masculinity: the ?War Generation? and the psychology of fear in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, 1914?1950?, )] TJ ET BT 168.008 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of British Studies)] TJ ET BT 291.020 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 44, 2 \(April 2005\), 361.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 411.344 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 411.344 204.339 m 465.332 204.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 191.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quoted in G. DeGroot, )] TJ ET BT 177.332 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Blighty: British Society in the Era of the Great War)] TJ ET BT 424.988 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1996\), p. 220.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 175.827 m 118.004 175.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 162.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Humphries, )] TJ ET BT 136.016 162.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hooligans or Rebels? An Oral History of Working-Class Childhood and Youth 1899-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1939)] TJ ET BT 88.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1981\); S. Humphries & R. Van Emden, )] TJ ET BT 328.328 148.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(All Quiet on the Home Front: An Oral History )] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Life in Britain during the First World War)] TJ ET BT 280.040 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 361.364 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 361.364 133.059 m 415.352 133.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 108.197 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/books/the-childrens-war-britain-1914-1918-by-rosie-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 78.291 m 482.948 78.291 l S BT 34.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kennedy/2010811.article)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 64.035 m 152.996 64.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 155.996 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 60.703 526.499 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