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[(Imperial War Museum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hugh Cecil)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mirabel Cecil)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780711232303)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frances Lincoln)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Powers)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781848221116)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.739 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.227 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 42.971 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(216pp.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 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[(David Coke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Borg)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300173826)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(473pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Orpen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781903470671)] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(232pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.045 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Holberton Publishing)] TJ ET BT 34.016 354.533 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.021 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Knott)] TJ ET BT 34.016 297.509 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780750956154)] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.997 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 240.485 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 226.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.973 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 183.461 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.949 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.693 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 126.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stroud)] TJ ET BT 34.016 112.181 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ross Davies)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5762 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I cannot help a passing allusion to the lack of pictorial records of this war ? records made by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artists of experience, who actually witness the scenes they portray.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 731.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus Norman Wilkinson \(1878?1971\), musing in the opening paragraph of his 1916 )] TJ ET BT 441.644 731.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Dardanelles: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 717.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Colour Sketches from Gallipoli)] TJ ET BT 184.352 717.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on the sights he had just seen at the Suvla Bay landings in the first year of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Great War. Our descendants, Wilkinson continued ?will surely regret the omission when they try to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gather an impression of the greatest war in history from the inadequate material available?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 662.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He went on:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 624.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I do not lose sight of the fact that many professional artists are fighting with our army in France )] TJ ET BT 64.016 610.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and elsewhere. But life in the trenches is so arduous that it is doubtful if any records will come )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us from this source \(p.1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 557.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Happily, as we now know, it didn?t turn out as Wilkinson feared. As a professional water-colourist and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 543.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrator, he was aware of the importance of image as well as of text in recording and interpreting events. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 529.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1915 Wilkinson threw up a well-paid career to enlist for active service in the Royal Naval Volunteer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reserve, only for the Navy promptly to order him to paint where and what he liked. Image-makers, like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 500.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images themselves, have their limits. Wilkinson preferred ships to people, which may explain why in both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 486.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his 1916 and 1969 memoirs he reproduces the watercolour )] TJ ET BT 318.296 486.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dressing Station ? ?A? Beach,)] TJ ET BT 465.956 486.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 472.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painted from landward. In neither volume, however, does the artist paint what keeps dressing stations busy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his 1969 )] TJ ET BT 91.016 458.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Brush with Life)] TJ ET BT 175.364 458.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Wilkinson turns to text to describe ?the living cinema of battle? ashore that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 443.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could see from the foretop of his warship:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glasses were necessary to distinguish the light khaki of our men against the scrub and sand. The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troops marching in open order across the salt lake formed a most stirring picture as they crossed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 377.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the unbroken surface of silver-white. Overhead shrapnel burst unceasingly, leaving small )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crumpled forms on the ground, one or more of which would slowly rise and walk shorewards, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while others lay where they fell \(p. 69\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 310.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As we now know, even while Wilkinson was fretting at Gallipoli, moves were afoot to capture ?pictorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records of this war ? records made by artists of experience, who actually witness the scenes they portray?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 281.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Do historians make as much use as they might of such work, of image as evidence in discourse? ?Most text-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 267.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trained historians?, asserts Vic Gatrell, ?are uneasy about using visual evidence? wary of visual evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 253.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([?]?, and ?feel that words are what they should live by? \(introduction, p. 11\). Even art historians feel this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way, including historians of 18th-century art. Comfortable only with ?high? art, they sniff at the nation?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 224.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vast archive of satirical prints, ?uneasy? because \(as Sir Joshua Reynolds wrote of Hogarth\), the images are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 210.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?low subjects? suited only to ?vulgar minds?. The very number and wide circulation of 18th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(satirical prints, Gatrell asserts, is evidence that ? however scabrous they might be or lofty the personages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lampooned ? artists and engravers \(unlike writers\) were virtually immune to prosecution for personal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 167.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obscene , seditious or blasphemous libel. Historians of 18th-century topics other than art may also neglect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 153.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image even though satirical prints come larded with text in the form of captions and speech balloons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It goes without saying \(says Gatrell\) that no historian can dispense with the verbal testimonies that put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 112.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images into context. Yet, he insists, ?squeamishness? about using pictures as evidence is ?uncalled for?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 98.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Images can be ambiguous, may distort information about the real world:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6933 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the written word does too; texts must also be interpreted with an eye on their hidden )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purposes, distortions and audiences. The fact remains that texts and images are both embedded )] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the world that produced them, and in that sense have comparable evidential standing )] TJ ET BT 64.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Introduction, p. 11\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Any historian of any subject who shrinks from reference to image, Gatrell appears to be saying, is turning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his or her back on a valuable evidential resource. What Gatrell does not say and perhaps should not go )] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without saying is that working with image is also great fun, and while adding to rather than invalidating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study may just start the ambitious scholar on the road to that BBC Four series that makes of him or her ?that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one on the telly?, and therefore to universities, publishers and newspaper features editors a hotter property. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some publishers jib at the cost of reproducing images, of course, although scholars who look hard enough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can find financial help. Collections have been reducing their charges since 2006 when Gatrell published; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many images may now be viewed online, which was not the case then.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Great War centenary year seems as good a year as any in which to revisit the question of image as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence. There are books about the Great War image-makers and their work. Eric Kennington, John and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Nash, and others became official war artists in both the Kaiser?s and Hitler?s Wars. There was the re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opening on 19 July after a six-month remodelling of one of our biggest ?image banks?, the Imperial War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Museum. IWM?s exhibition )] TJ ET BT 172.676 520.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Truth and Memory: British Art of the First World War)] TJ ET BT 434.348 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( runs from 19 July 2014 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 8 March 1915, and is billed as ?the largest exhibition of British First World War Art for almost 100 years; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over 120 works from the usual suspects ? the Sir William Orpens, the C. R. W. Nevinsons ? but also from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lesser-known but still rewarding surprises, Anna Airy and Henry Lamb, for example.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exhibitions themselves are a vital resource to the student who ventures to assess image as evidence. Few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(galleries or museums, including the IWM, can show more than a fraction of their own holdings at any one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time. An exhibition not only brings out images from the vaults, but summons up works on the exhibition?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme from collections, or indeed vaults, elsewhere. There is commonly a brochure-cum-book, in the case of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the IWM exhibition, )] TJ ET BT 135.344 394.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Art from the First World War. )] TJ ET BT 283.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Long after an exhibition closes, the tie-in publication can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alert the student to the existence of a work unknown to him or her, provide basic commentary and list a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(borrowed work?s whereabouts after return to sender.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such is the power of image that even the search for a ?lost? representation can disclose the seed of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable new study. Richard Knott somewhere came across a reproduction of a 1942 painting by R. Vivian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pitchforth, an artist of whom he knew nothing. Knott found Pitchforth?s image, of Sunderland flying boats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Plymouth, so ?striking and evocative? he set off on a trail that led to the discovery of the original, not in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Plymouth but in the Bendigo Art Gallery in Victoria, Australia. Along the way, Knott had cause to examine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the value of image as evidence for in his case that one picture led him to productive text in published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts and letters as to voices in the IWM archive of taped recordings. The result, )] TJ ET BT 440.924 254.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sketchbook War, )] TJ ET BT 546.236 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a well-referenced account of Sir Kenneth Clark of the War Artists? Advisory Committee and his ?flawed? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plan ?to keep artists alive during the [Second World] war, and the extent to which it failed? \(Introduction, p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The image Knott has chosen to illustrate the cover of his book is pencil and watercolour work by Eric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ravilious, although the book appears neither to say so nor to give the title; it is )] TJ ET BT 415.004 170.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Firing a 9.2 Inch Gun,)] TJ ET BT 523.664 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image of coastal defence from 1941. Knott more than makes for this apparent lapse \(which may not be his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own\) with superbly-documented war biographies of his chosen artists, complete itineraries and a table of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works? present homes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wisely, Knott eschews the scatter-gun approach, adjusting his sights to zero in on nine particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(venturesome official war artists, Edward Ardizzone, Edward Bawden, Barnett Freeman, Anthony Gross, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Hennell, Eric Ravilious, Albert Richards, Richard Seddon and John Worsley. Perhaps surprisingly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it may have been riskier to be a war artist in 1939?45 than in 1914?18. Of Knott?s nine artists employed on a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7190 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government scheme partly designed to save artists? lives, two were torpedoed, two captured and three were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(killed; Ravilious first, followed by Albert Richards and then Ravilious?s friend Thomas Hennell.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vivian Pitchforth, the book?s progenitor, is not one of the Knott?s nine and he was to survive the war, albeit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a severe lung condition apparently contracted during the Burma campaign. He died aged 86 in 1982. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knott, alas, neither reproduces nor gives even the title of the Pitchforth Sunderland painting that sparked off )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sketchbook War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Big though the IWM?s exhibition )] TJ ET BT 199.016 686.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Truth and Memory: British Art of the First World War)] TJ ET BT 460.688 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( may be, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompanying publication, )] TJ ET BT 167.000 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Art from the First World War)] TJ ET BT 308.672 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is far less substantial than Meirion and Susie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harries? encyclopaedic 1983 )] TJ ET BT 176.300 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The War)] TJ ET BT 220.964 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Artists: British Official War Art of the Twentieth Century. )] TJ ET BT 501.656 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishing with the help of the IWM and the Tate Gallery, however, the Harries were not producing an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhibition catalogue, which is what the compact but unindexed and unpaginated )] TJ ET BT 421.964 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Truth and Memory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication is. We see, however, contrary to Wilkinson?s misgivings, that there are many professional artists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who served ?in the trenches? and managed to pass on to us their ?records?. In his introduction, Roger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tolson, Head of the IWM Department of Art, shows that even as Wilkinson was fretting in Suvla Bay, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians were shaping plans for a ?an unprecedented act of government sponsorship of the arts?, led by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Masterman. In fact, the Masterman scheme built upon existing public patronage, one form of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was that of Wilkinson by the Navy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tolson \(p. 1\) lists Paul Nash, C R W Nevinson and Eric Kennington, as three examples of artists bumped up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to ?official? status ?after returning from front-line service?. Nash, like brother Paul, served with the Artists? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rifles, subsequently going onto the Hampshires. Nevinson routinely ventured within artillery range as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilian ambulance driver, while Kennington was recruited for an eight-month army attachment as an official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war artist after being invalided home from the Kensingtons. The quintessential artist of the common soldier, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kennington came to attention when he privately exhibited )] TJ ET BT 315.980 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Kensingtons at Laventie)] TJ ET BT 452.984 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1916\), one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tommies being himself. ?Front-line service? came in various guises; Sydney Carline was a despatch rider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and then a flyer and Henry Lamb a Medical Officer. Lamb?s mesmeric )] TJ ET BT 378.248 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Troops in the Judaean Hills )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Surprised by a Turkish Bombardment)] TJ ET BT 214.676 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1919\), portrays the apprehensive troops as seen from the shell?s-eye, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and might strike some historians as evidence in image form to support the argument that shellfire was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war?s biggest trench killer. Of Anna Airy?s [female-staffed] )] TJ ET BT 326.924 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shop for manufacturing 15-inch Shells; Singer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Manufacturing Company, Clydebank, Glasgow \()] TJ ET BT 268.004 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1918\), Tolson notes:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The success of Scottish heavy industry was built on low investment and cheap labour, and Anna )] TJ ET BT 64.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Airy gives some indications of this ? the handling equipment is basic and the production lines )] TJ ET BT 64.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disorganised.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That is what Tolson?s text tells us. Might the image suggest, however, that Singer?s may have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admirably organised to make sewing-machines \(hardly ?heavy industry?\) but that there may have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither time nor money to tool up for 15-inch shells? Perhaps on safer ground with painting manufacture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tolson also notes that Airy was one of the first woman war artists to be employed by the newly-founded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(IWM in 1918, and although a ?well-respected female artist of her generation?, the IWM tied her to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contract that gave the museum the right to refuse a work without payment \(p. 35\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1914 as in 1939, when the war began the bottom fell out of the art market, taking with it the livelihoods of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many artists, although a few fashionable ?recorders of those in public life? continued to flourish. One such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was William Orpen \(1878?1931, knighted 1918\) Orpen was already wealthy in 1914, says the Tate?s Robert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Upstone in his introductory essay to a critical edition of the artist?s 1921 illustrated war memoir, re-edited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by edited by Angela Weight,)] TJ ET BT 172.328 101.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( An Onlooker in France)] TJ ET BT 286.976 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Orpen blithely enlisted in December 1915, and was to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spend two-and-a-half years documenting life and death in and around the Western Front.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although to the newcomer burdened with preconceptions ?Sir William Orpen? and all his works may sound )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 5894 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like fat-cat establishment-stroking, Orpen?s images of war work, as set out by Upstone and Weight, are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(astonishing in their range, subtlety and sympathy. Some will find it hard to look at Orpen?s portrait of Haig )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(30 May 1917\) and see in that alert, intelligent face the butchering dullard of one strain of mid 20th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whatever the individual historian may make of Orpen?s Haig portrait , there is textual evidence to suggest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the image wascreated to please the artist, not to flatter the sitter. Haig gave Orpen two ?short sittings? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then, on 30 May 1917 at Bavincourt, a third of half an hour. ?He [Orpen] works quickly?, Haig )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commented in his diary. Orpen was a ?shy little man?)] TJ ET BT 64.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but with a good sense of humour. The first sitting was not a success but he did not dare restart )] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a new piece of canvas at the second sitting! He said nothing, but I gather that he repainted )] TJ ET BT 64.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the whole face, and at the end seemed quite satisfied. He now says that if he were to paint me )] TJ ET BT 64.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twenty times he could not make a better job if it! All the same the likeness is not good.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 480.320 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 480.320 602.259 m 494.312 602.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haig, Orpen recounts, began by saying to him ?Why waste your time painting me? Go and paint the men. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They?re the fellows who are saving the world, and they?re getting killed every day? \(p. 80\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 524.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Go and paint the men Orpen did. The women too, although one portrait, now entitled ?The Refugee? \(1918\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 510.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is evidence that an Orpen portrait, intelligently pursued as in Upstone and Weight, can yield fascinating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 496.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence as to how one official war artist operated, none of it evident from Orpen?s own text. Angela )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weight?s commentary tells us that Orpen painted and submitted to the authorities two versions of ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Refugee?, now in the IWM collection as ?Refugee \(A\)? and ?Refugee \(B\)?, both of which he initially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entitled ?The Spy?. On p. 156, we are shown ?Refugee A\)?. This rosy-cheeked young woman with what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to be called ?bedroom eyes? is Yvonne Aubic \(189??1973\), subject of at least six other Orpen studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Refugee? from her native Lille Mlle Aubic may have been, but she was no ?spy?. What she was was one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orpen?s mistresses. Mlle Aubicq was working for the Red Cross when he met her, Weight observing that at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this time Orpen often sought medical help for what Orpen terms in his text ?blood poisoning?. Upstone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that in Orpen?s case the condition might more accurately be categorized as ?syphilis?. Orpen?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?spy? later married Orpen?s chauffeur, became a dog breeder and then a judge at Cruft?s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 329.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Upstone is perhaps unfair to Wilkinson in listing only C. R. W. Nevinson and Wyndham Lewis as artists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who were to publish accounts of their war experiences \(both 1937\) ?as part of more wide-ranging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autobiographical narratives? \( n.1, p. 49\). As have seen, Wilkinson did so as early as 1916, and again in 1969.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although not wealthy like Orpen, Wilkinson continued to make a good living when war broke out. A water-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colourist, especially of the sea and its ways, Wilkinson \(like Rex Whistler in Hitler?s War\) was an adept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrator. )] TJ ET BT 86.684 246.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Illustrated London News)] TJ ET BT 226.364 246.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( kept Wilkinson busy at the beginning of the Great War illustrating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other men?s accounts of actions they had seen, until at the age of 35 and unable to stand it any longer, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilkinson cast off his mooring and managed to serve, sketch and paint first aboard surface vessels at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dardanelles, then on submarine patrol in the Mediterranean, and lastly on a minesweeper in the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Channel. He then went on to pioneer another branch of war art, camouflage, in particular ?dazzle painting?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the deception by which a ship was daubed in disruptive patterns so as ?to break up her form and thus confuse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a submarine officer as to the course on which course on which she was heading?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The government sponsorship of war art began?, avers Tolson,)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 480.3197 602.5735 494.3117 614.4535 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 6301 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to meet the demand for public information from a public at home and to sway the opinion of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential allies overseas, the schemes grew in complexity and ambition as the war continued and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its impact widened.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 717.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Masterman, as head of government propaganda, had from August 1914 been authorized ?to produce images )] TJ ET BT 34.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for reproduction in newspapers and books, while later projects looked to social history and commemoration? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 662.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike in Hitler?s War, there was no particular drive in the 1914?19 world conflict to pull artists out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battle to save their lives. It did not always work between 1939 and 1945. Not due for call-up until 1940, Rex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whistler volunteered for the Brigade of Guards in 1939, when he was 34; the artist was killed on his first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day in action as a Cromwell tank commander in Normandy in July, 1944. As Hugh & Mirabel Cecil point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out in their sumptuous-but-shrewd )] TJ ET BT 202.676 605.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In Search of Rex Whistler)] TJ ET BT 325.988 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Kenneth Clark?s War Artists? Advisory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Committee in 1939 passed over Whistler, pigeonholing him as ?book illustrator? which his brother Laurence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translated as ?fashionable lightweight?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An accomplished practitioner of trompe d?oeil in his book illustrations as in his stage sets and murals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whistler would have been superb at military camouflage. As it was, ignored by Clark?s scheme, Whistler )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thereafter refused subsequent offers of official status and resolved to combine tank training in the Guards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Armoured Brigade with assiduous sketching and painting wherever he might fetch up. )] TJ ET BT 450.956 508.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In Search of Rex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Whistler)] TJ ET BT 74.684 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a revelation, showing how much valuable work of developing realism this industrious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?lightweight? was to achieve. Whistler went off to his death with a special metal box welded to the rear of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his Cromwell ?containing his paints and small canvas \(p. 240\). The artist left behind a record of army life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that includes )] TJ ET BT 98.012 451.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Master Cook )] TJ ET BT 184.340 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1940\) and a wounded Robert Cecil \(1942], and which to my mind shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whistler verging upon Orpen?s ability to seize upon and render the individuality of a sitter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Official war artist status was also to be the death of the muralist, printmaker and watercolourist Eric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ravilious \(1903?42\). Ravilious grew up in Eastbourne, where there was a Royal Flying Corps flying school. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He saw Zeppelins fly over the town, and one of his schoolboy sketches \(1915\) is of a Blackburn monoplane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking off. Ravilious the artist did not ?do people?, preferring machines as subjects, preferably aircraft. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war work can appear bloodless and chilly, but Ravilious?s empty rooms, seas and coasts can become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somehow unforgettable by drawing in the beholder to people them, often eerily so, with tension veering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards dread. These are images that cause the beholder to imagine. Less is more with Ravilious. Even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when, unusually, there are nine men in a picture, as in )] TJ ET BT 295.964 311.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dangerous Work at Low Tide)] TJ ET BT 438.632 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(retrieving magnetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mines dropped by low-flying German aircraft off Whitstable, 1940\), we see not one face. Ravilious reserved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his warmth for the Walrus amphibious patrol biplane, or ?comic things with a strong personality like a duck? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 175\). Yet even the ?comic? Walrus can seem ominous, as in the pencil and watercolour )] TJ ET BT 472.916 268.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(RNAS Sick Bay, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dundee)] TJ ET BT 71.336 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1941\). We see a room, empty save for a bed and chair, while through the window three Walruses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wallow at anchor in the water beyond. All is chilly, washed-out browns, yellows, blues and greys; who was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last in the bed, why, how long before the sick bay is again occupied, and because of what misfortune?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 199.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eric Ravilious: Artist & Designer, )] TJ ET BT 215.012 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Powers begs to differ from Richard Knott, claiming that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kenneth Clark programme for saving artists? lives was ?largely successful? \(p. 153\). Not in Ravilious?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case, though. He was lost at sea over Iceland, ironically aboard an Air Sea Rescue plane looking for seaplane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(missing on an operational flight. Perhaps it was one Walrus looking for another.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 6842 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Powers curated the 2003 Ravilious centenary retrospective at the IWM, the largest to date. This volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expands upon ?the relatively short book that accompanied the show?, and is inspired by in part by works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that have since come onto the market from private collections, and in part by painting and graphics by artists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of today who reflect Ravilious?s aesthetic and subject matter in ?providing images of an England of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagination? \(Preface, p. 7\) as well as the invocation of the Ravilious by poets and travel writers of today )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Peter Davidson, Sean O?Brien and Robert Macfarlane.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Tolson, at the core of Great War official war artist schemes lay a desire to restate the values of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society as liberal and socially inclusive, and not to follow the tradition of battle images of glorious victory, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either real or imagined.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a result, ?disparate and dissident images? were commissioned and acquired, but the net effect was ?to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cast Britain as torchbearers [sic] of Western European liberal culture? \(Introduction, p. 1\). If so, then from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of David Coke and Alan Borg?s magisterial )] TJ ET BT 286.640 603.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vauxhall Gardens: A History )] TJ ET BT 430.628 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it may be possible to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense that this ?liberal? strain in images of war may have originated in this London pleasure resort in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Georgian and Regency times. In Vauxhall Gardens, being ?socially inclusive? in art commissioned for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public exhibition there could include a gesture of respect for a humbled French foe. As Vauxhall made such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images available to the widest-possible paying audience, the resort may be said to play a part in shaping the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public apprehension of art, military, naval or otherwise. Again, if so, by 1914 this liberal strain may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migrated from Vauxhall across the Thames to Whitehall and Westminster. Vauxhall Gardens closed in 1859; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the vast national collection of images, liberal or otherwise, now reside in Vauxhall?s near )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbour, Kennington, at the Imperial War Museum.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The glory days of Vauxhall Gardens, according to Coke and former IWM director Borg, coincided with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relaunch of New Spring Gardens, Vauxhall, under the proprietorship of Jonathan Tyers from about 1732 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his death in 1767, a period neatly overlaying the Seven Years? War \(1756?63\). ?Vauxhall? was many things, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of them being the first place where many people saw a painting. Tyers could cram a thousand paying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(customers of all classes into Vauxhall nightly. He had each open-air supper booth lined with a gently-moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painting, most commissioned from Francis Hayman and associates. Yet there were also four naval pictures, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Taking of Portobello)] TJ ET BT 155.024 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 161.024 377.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sweet William?s Farewel)] TJ ET BT 283.688 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [sic] )] TJ ET BT 311.012 377.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(to Black Eyed Susan)] TJ ET BT 409.328 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 415.328 377.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Sea Engagement between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the English and the Algerines)] TJ ET BT 176.012 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 199.340 363.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The taking of the St Joseph a Spanish Caracca Ship, Sept. 23, 1739.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tyers, a fellmonger from the Bermondsey docks, commissioned all four from the seascape painter Peter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monamy, popular with mariners and merchants such as Tyers for his technical accuracy. Still in place in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1774, none of the four paintings now survive except in engravings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Vauxhall naval pictures, Coke and Borg relate, did not excite much comment in the 1740s. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different with another quartet during the Seven Years? War. When the weather was wet during the Vauxhall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(season \(May to September\), the strollers and the Vauxhall Band adjourned indoors to The Rotunda, a domed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assembly room, in 1750?1 extended by the addition of a Pillared Saloon. It was here that Tyers put on public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show four large history pictures he had commissioned from Hayman, one on the opening day of each season )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1761?4. None now survives other than in oil design-sketch form, but one, the first, is of particular interest. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Surrender of Montreal to General Amherst)] TJ ET BT 261.332 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was completed and installed in the Pillared Saloon only eight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(months after the action depicted. It is also ?The most overtly propagandic of the four military scenes?, yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still)] TJ ET BT 64.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasising the selfless humanity of General Jeffrey Amherst: Hayman showed him handing )] TJ ET BT 64.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out food to the starving and defeated population and returning to them their possessions \(p. 129\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This ?humanity? was intended to be in ?stark contrast to the merciless treatment they might have expected to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receive from the French, had they been victorious, and especially from their Indian allies?.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 3829 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Just in case the message was not clear enough from the picture, Hayman painted into the lower )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right-hand corner a stone inscribed:)] TJ ET BT 246.310 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(POWER EXERTED,)] TJ ET BT 238.816 717.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VICTORY OBTAINED)] TJ ET BT 251.476 691.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MERCY SHEWN!)] TJ ET BT 269.308 665.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MDCCLX?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 626.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 55.676 626.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Montreal)] TJ ET BT 100.340 626.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( victory painting was so ?powerful and emotive? an image, Coke and Borg continue, that when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 612.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French lawyer and historian Pierre Jean Grosley saw the quartet, his ?partiality? [?] was strained to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 598.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breaking-point?. The Frenchman ?grudgingly observed? that)] TJ ET BT 64.016 560.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the natural antipathy of the English to the French seems to have raised the imagination and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand of the painter above what the pencil of an Englishman is capable of producing \(pp. 134?5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 507.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In competition with the nearby Astley?s Amphitheatre, ambitious anniversary re-enactments of the Battle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 493.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Waterloo were to be staged on the Vauxhall Gardens firework ground. As with the Seven Years? War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paintings, these Waterloo commemorations were not all triumphalism. In 1827, one equestrian showman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 464.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promised a Vauxhall ?Waterloo? of over a thousand performers, during which he would race his charger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 450.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bucephalus)] TJ ET BT 64.016 412.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up a nearly perpendicular Rock, to the Temple of Fame, at the summit of the Firework Tower, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 398.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and there deposit the British and French Colours as an Emblem of Amity, in the Temple of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Concord \(p. 311\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 345.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An image of this ?Emblem of Amity? has yet to come to light; should it do so, who will use it?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 310.707 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 280.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 280.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Douglas Haig, )] TJ ET BT 136.340 280.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Private Papers of Douglas Haig 1914?1919)] TJ ET BT 369.668 280.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1952\), p. 234.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 486.992 280.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 486.992 278.691 m 540.980 278.691 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 263.359 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 245.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 245.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1629)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 244.185 m 328.316 244.185 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 219.208 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/96620)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.408 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/96622)] TJ ET BT 34.016 176.008 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/95251)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.608 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/96624)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.208 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/96880)] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/112978)] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 486.9917 279.0055 540.9797 290.8855 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 244.4995 328.3157 256.3795 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1629) >> endobj xref 0 37 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000377 00000 n 0000000414 00000 n 0000000581 00000 n 0000000663 00000 n 0000003537 00000 n 0000003646 00000 n 0000003756 00000 n 0000003865 00000 n 0000007426 00000 n 0000007554 00000 n 0000007638 00000 n 0000007703 00000 n 0000010619 00000 n 0000010684 00000 n 0000016499 00000 n 0000016564 00000 n 0000023550 00000 n 0000023615 00000 n 0000030858 00000 n 0000030942 00000 n 0000036889 00000 n 0000036919 00000 n 0000037047 00000 n 0000037083 00000 n 0000037148 00000 n 0000043502 00000 n 0000043567 00000 n 0000050462 00000 n 0000050553 00000 n 0000054435 00000 n 0000054563 00000 n 0000054618 00000 n 0000054746 00000 n trailer << /Size 37 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 54842 %%EOF