%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416152114+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416152114+01'00') /Title (The Cambridge Illustrated History of Warfare) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4141 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Cambridge Illustrated History of Warfare)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The appearance of a paperback version of an important book first published in 1995 is most welcome as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will make it more readily available. Equally, it is not easy to review such a work. The scholarly reviews that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared noting its contents do not require emendation, because the book has not been rewritten. Instead, I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propose to focus on how the book looks from the perspective of military history at the present moment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although that is inevitably a somewhat personal account.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let me start with the praise that this book amply merits. It is all too easy when one is given space for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lengthy review for the praise to make scant impact, as it tends to occupy proportionally little space. After all, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are only so many ways to say that this is a well-written and handsomely-presented volume, that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrations are pertinent, and the captions interesting, that the range of scholarship is impressive, and that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has all been pulled together by the finest military historian currently writing, who has also contributed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several important sections, and has had to balance the conflicting pressures of subject and space.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My description of Parker as the finest military historian is not intended to offend others, but his reputation as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such is in my view secure because in his great work, )] TJ ET BT 288.632 178.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Military Revolution)] TJ ET BT 403.964 178.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he displayed a willingness to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engage with the situation outside Europe and an ability to relate developments there with those within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe that has evaded most other military historians who, alas, have very much focused on the Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition. The last, for example, is a drawback with Michael Howard's latest work, )] TJ ET BT 431.768 135.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Invention of Peace. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reflections on War and International Order)] TJ ET BT 245.672 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2000\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(163)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 December, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Parker)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeremy Black)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5722 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, it is from this point that I wish to develop my main concern with Parker's important book. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand fully the problems of the task he has been set and am most impressed by the range, but I became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unhappy once I opened the book. For the cover title is translated into a title page where it appears with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subtitle )] TJ ET BT 72.356 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Triumph of the West)] TJ ET BT 191.024 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In his preface, Parker offers three valid defences:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 677.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?First, it would be impossible to provide adequate coverage in a single volume of the military )] TJ ET BT 64.016 662.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of all major cultures. Second, merely to pay lip-service ? while devoting the lion's share )] TJ ET BT 64.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the attention to the West, would be unpardonable distortion. Finally ? over the last two )] TJ ET BT 64.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries the western way of war has become dominant all over the world ? The rise and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of this dominant tradition, together with the secret of its success, therefore seems )] TJ ET BT 64.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worthy of examination and analysis?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 567.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is expanded in the introduction:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 529.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?For most of the past 2,500 years, military and naval superiority rather than better resources, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 515.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater moral rectitude, irresistible commercial acumen or, until the nineteenth century, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 500.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advanced economic organisation underpinned western expansion. This military edge meant that )] TJ ET BT 64.016 486.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the West seldom suffered successful invasion itself. Armies from Asia and Africa rarely )] TJ ET BT 64.016 472.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marched into Europe and many of the exceptions - Xerxes, Hannibal, Attila, the Arabs and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 458.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turks - achieved only short-term success?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 419.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This highlights the problem of assessment. Is, for example, Arab success in Spain or Turkish in the Balkans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 405.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less important than the shorter-term Western colonial sway over much of the world in 1870-1960?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 379.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leaving aside such specific points, it is unclear that it is appropriate to focus on the West to the detriment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments elsewhere. These are important for many reasons, not least for the military history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 350.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West. For example, the military history of other societies helps to explain what the West had to encounter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 336.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when it expanded. Only a global perspective, even in the era of Western imperial dynamism, can provide a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 322.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reliable assessment of what constitutes military capability.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, the military history of other societies offers a valuable comparative narrative that provides an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 281.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity to look at the analyses deployed in Western military historiography. Thirdly, a focus on non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 267.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western societies that challenged those of Europe enables us to offer a different account of European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 253.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military history, specifically one that focuses on eastern Europe. This helps undermine the misleading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to develop a dominant paradigm of Europe military history, as it is clear that, at any one time, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 224.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a multiple 'tasking'. In addition, a reminder of the diversity of non-Western military circumstances helps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 210.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underline the complexity of the vexed question of relative capability.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Eurocentric approach may appear to be valid when studying 1900, when European states and military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methods did indeed dominate most of the world, but less so for 1800, still more 1700. More specifically, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 155.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far as the Parker volume is concerned, it is also possible to query some of the coverage of the Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 141.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition. For example, in the eighteenth century there is discussion of the War of the Spanish Succession )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Seven Years' War, but not of the Wars of the Polish and Austrian Succession. This is not simply a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 112.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter of the problems of what to include, but also has an impact on assessments of military developments. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 98.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this particular case, Saxe is ignored, and there is no explicit consideration of why some armies/states )] TJ ET BT 34.016 84.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merit more attention than others.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The coverage of the early-nineteenth century is questionable and apparently reflects the problem of a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7982 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schematic model. We move from John Lynn on )] TJ ET BT 265.652 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nations in Arms 1763-1815)] TJ ET BT 398.660 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to Williamson Murray on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Industrialisation of War 1815-71)] TJ ET BT 214.028 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. What we don't get are the South American Wars of Liberation or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than a few lines on warfare in the period 1816-53. This is unfortunate, because this is not simply an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue of what to include when space is at a premium, but also the chronology and analysis that is offered. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The history of Western warfare in the nineteenth century is of course generally dominated by the Napoleonic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wars and the conflicts of 1854-71, but that leads to a downplaying of the intervening period. In particular, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the counterinsurgency warfare in Latin America, and in Europe in the 1820s - 40s has received insufficient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention, which is in line with a military history that places a premium on warfare between the regular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces of defined states. Industrialisation does not best describe campaigns such as the Austrian operations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italy in 1821 or the Russian suppression of the Polish rising of 1830 the following year, a campaign in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over 100,000 Russian troops were deployed. In 1848-9, the effectiveness and strength of both the Austrian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Russian military was demonstrated. Furthermore, it would be mistaken to exaggerate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservatism of military thought and practice prior to the 1850s. For example, partly as a consequence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their experience in Algeria, the French displayed an interest in new military techniques and ideas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The need to incorporate the 'non-West' is more complex than one of simply discussing China et al, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is of great importance. It is also important to devise analyses and categorisations that make sense in non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western terms, a need that is not generally met. Any stress on variety is not a matter simply of recording an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting diversity of military practice, but is, instead, crucial to the argument that different military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices and systems were appropriate in different parts of the world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We are talking about the requirement for a rethinking of military history, and the construction of a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative and new analytical systems. Doubtless inadequately, I have been trying to do this in a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies including )] TJ ET BT 118.688 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War and the World, 1450-2000)] TJ ET BT 269.012 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1998\), )] TJ ET BT 310.004 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War. Past, Present and Future)] TJ ET BT 457.328 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2000\), )] TJ ET BT 498.320 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Warfare 1775-1882)] TJ ET BT 129.008 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2001\), and )] TJ ET BT 190.328 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War in the Twenty-first Century)] TJ ET BT 343.664 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2001\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This process of rethinking has not only to include the non-West but also to acknowledge the multiplicity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military tasking. For example, most military history focuses on state to state conflict and, when it considers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil warfare, it does so by looking at examples, most prominently the American and English Civil Wars, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that closely approximate to state to state conflict. Thus, there is a lack of attention to insurgency and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterinsurgency warfare. Yet this is important. Civil conflict highlights the role of contingency and thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opens the way to the counterfactual speculations that are important when assessing the consequences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warfare, and that Parker very helpfully probed when he wrote on the likely consequences had Spanish forces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landed in England in 1588. This counterfactualism is needed to contest the determinism that affects some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'new military history', which has moved away from operational history with its kaleidoscope of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibilities. As an example of the importance of civil warfare, in Latin America since 1940 there has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state to state conflict, most obviously the Falklands War, but that has been far less important for military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tasking than counterinsurgency and operations. This is an aspect of the social politics of the military that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs to be considered carefully. These politics tend to be downplayed because of a focus on the material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture of war, specifically the role of military technology. These are not simply general points, but also ones )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with particular applicability. For example, discussion of warfare in the period 1815-71 is dominated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crimean War, the American Civil War, and the 'Wars of German unification'. However, the notion of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linear continuum of 'progress' towards modern war in this period is dubious. Instead, a more complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamic is necessary, one that incorporates important cases of warfare that are largely ignored, either in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of location \(Latin America\) or type \(insurgency and counterinsurgency\). This underlines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misleading nature of the ?canonical' account of military history with its focus on a relatively narrow range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicts and battles. There is an ethical issue - the need not to write out of history, by focusing elsewhere, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many who fought and suffered; but also a powerful intellectual reason focusing on the weaknesses of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stereotypical account.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the Western world in this period, the potential to apply more resources was linked to their greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(availability, thanks to demographic growth, industrialisation and militarization, and the utilisation of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through effective systems of recruitment, taxation and borrowing. It was less clear how best to employ these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces, and this helps to account for interest in military science and theory, as did the intellectualisation of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5601 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects in an age of increasingly self-conscious specialisation and professionalisation. Political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisational changes were closely linked to military tasking and capability. A comparison for example of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British capture of Manila in 1762 with that of Alexandria in 1882 reveals very different military systems. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So does the very limited French presence in Madagascar and South-East Asia in the seventeenth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth centuries and their conquest of Madagascar and Indochina in the late nineteenth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If modernity is to be approached in terms of mechanisation, then it is unclear why we should focus on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular machine or group of machines. Why the tank and the plane and not the ironclad, or why the latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and not the great ocean-going wooden warships of earlier centuries?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A sense of the potency of the new can be glimpsed repeatedly. Major-General Thomas Grosvenor noted of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the bombardment of Copenhagen in 1807:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 579.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('The Congreve arrows [rockets] made a very singular appearance in the air. Six or seven comet-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like appearances racing together ? The train was set on fire ? the Great Church was on fire to the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very pinnacles of the steeples. The appearance was horrifyingly grand'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 512.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More generally, conflict in 1914-45 does not define modern war. It is also necessary to look to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 498.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insurrectionary and counterinsurgency warfare that followed 1945, especially the anti-colonial struggles, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the ideological conflicts of the Cold War, many of which were civil wars. Thus, an understanding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multiplicity and variety of conflict opens our eyes to the very varied character of military modernity. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 455.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety has to be understood not in terms of a differential 'take up' of a given model of military organisation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equipment and conduct, but, rather, as a response to very different circumstances and needs. In short, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was no paradigmatic trajectory which can then be scrutinised in a search for a turning point towards, or of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(images vary\), modernity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 386.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is also important if we wish to look ahead, as Parker helpfully does, reminding us \(contra Michael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 372.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howard in the )] TJ ET BT 105.668 372.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(THES)] TJ ET BT 134.336 372.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( this summer\) that the proper province of the historical imagination includes the future, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for study of the past can provide us with fruitful analytical insights. It is likely that major states will continue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have to plan for symmetrical and asymmetrical conflict, and for high and low-tech operations. Yet it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 329.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also necessary, when looking to the future, to accept that such categories are malleable and may indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(require continual redefinition. The last century, and also the last decade, underline the extent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpredictability in human affairs. Repeatedly, predictions have been proved wrong, both about international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations and about domestic developments. There is no reason to believe that the future will be any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different. On the contrary, the pace of change is likely to remain high and will probably become even greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the normative value of past and present arrangements decline in nearly all human societies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conceptual flexibility is important if a tasks - or threats - based approach to force structures and doctrine is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken, rather than, as is often tempting, a capabilities-based approach; in other words if the focus is on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tasks the military may be given and the threats they will confront, rather than simply building up their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capability, in particular by acquiring advanced weapons systems. The problem of preparing for the last war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a charge frequently made against the military, can in part be clarified by emphasising the diversity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military tasks and the unpredictability of the manner in which these tasks present themselves in crises and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicts.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 4760 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The complexity of military tasking leads to an inevitable tension between politicians and public, who seek to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have a military able to take on all tasks, and militaries who point out the difficulty of achieving adequate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flexibility with limited resources necessitating the sophisticated management of priorities. Looking to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future, this prioritisation will be most effective if it can escape the constraints of individual service interests, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in short if overall forces structures are more than the sum of compartmentalised services. This flexibility will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in part depend on political support and direction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is possible to envisage many changes over the next century, although military history and discussion is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely to remain focused on the Western approach and on the material culture of war. Furthermore, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of maintaining 'order' as a military task may well be underrated because the USA does not use its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(armed forces for this purpose. Looking to the future, war might be dehumanised by entrusting combat to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(computers, thus, apparently, taking mechanisation to its logical conclusion. Alternatively, the vulnerability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of human societies to environmental damage could be exploited in a systematic form. In short, there is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason to believe that the capability of war for adaptation and major change will diminish.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, alongside these ideas, it is more than likely that standard aims will continue and that familiar problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will persist. How can states control dissident groups? How can they guarantee security in an unstable world? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How can they use military capability to achieve their objectives short of the unpredictable hazards of war? It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is difficult to feel that any of these issues will change. The globalist aspirations of 1945 and 1990 seem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeated by the durability of differences within human society, as much as by the continued centrality of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereign state and the lack across much of the world of stable civil societies. One prediction seems safe. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Talk of the obsolescence, even end, of war will prove misplaced, and will be mocked by the rictus on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(face of the dead.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 419.187 m 240.992 419.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Affairs)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/51700/eliot-a-cohen/the-cambridge-illustrated-history-of-warfare-the-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 390.675 m 557.888 390.675 l S BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triumph-of-the-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 376.419 m 108.668 376.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 111.668 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 373.087 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 355.307 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 355.307 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/163)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 353.913 m 322.316 353.913 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 328.936 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1118)] TJ ET BT 34.016 300.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=11887)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.851 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/51700/eliot-a-cohen/the-cambridge-illustrated-history-of-warfare-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.480 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the-triumph-of-the-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 419.5015 240.9917 431.3815 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=11887) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 390.9895 557.8877 402.8695 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/51700/eliot-a-cohen/the-cambridge-illustrated-history-of-warfare-the-triumph-of-the-) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 376.7335 108.6677 388.6135 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/51700/eliot-a-cohen/the-cambridge-illustrated-history-of-warfare-the-triumph-of-the-) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 354.2275 322.3157 366.1075 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/163) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000554 00000 n 0000000636 00000 n 0000004829 00000 n 0000004938 00000 n 0000005048 00000 n 0000005157 00000 n 0000008718 00000 n 0000008846 00000 n 0000008930 00000 n 0000008995 00000 n 0000014770 00000 n 0000014835 00000 n 0000022870 00000 n 0000022935 00000 n 0000028589 00000 n 0000028694 00000 n 0000033507 00000 n 0000033634 00000 n 0000033735 00000 n 0000033862 00000 n 0000034037 00000 n 0000034164 00000 n 0000034339 00000 n 0000034467 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34562 %%EOF