%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150525144648+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150525144648+01'00') /Title (A Problem of Great Importance: Population, Race, and Power) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4150 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Problem of Great Importance: Population, Race, and Power)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The modern state is defined by its capacity to classify and order its peoples, argues James Scott in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seminal )] TJ ET BT 74.348 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seeing Like a State)] TJ ET BT 166.004 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. To do so, officials needed to count the population and estimate its future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth. Karl Ittmann explores the rise, fall, and frustrations of colonial demography in the 20th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Empire. In the first historical examination of that now-deceased social science sub-field, Ittmann )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that population experts, in and outside of government, were crucial to the imperial state?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interventionist efforts to control its colonies and retain the Empire?s great power status. The power of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science would help the state manage its peoples, if only they could account for them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colonial demography grew out of the nexus of the eugenics movement, birth control advocacy, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased colonial intervention in society in the early 20th century. For the next 50 years it remained a mix )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of public and private initiatives, because, one, the state never provided enough funds to fully support the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas and policies of its officials determined to resolve the ?problem of colonial population? \(p. 15\) and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two, private interests attempted to push and pull the limited funds of the colonial-imperial state toward their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goals. Eugenicists supported qualitative reproduction, expanding desired \(that is, white\) populations while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reducing \(or at least slowing the growth of\) undesirable \(non-white\) populations. Birth control advocates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1637)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 7 August, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karl Ittmann)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781938169106)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(310pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of California Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ucpress.edu/book.php?isbn=9781938169106)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berkeley, CA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scott Spencer)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7458 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saw ?family planning?, or providing women \(and men\) with the means to limit their size of their families, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way to slow population growth. Both groups worked with like-minded colonial officials to shape the size )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of colonial populations. For officials, colonial demography formed one of several initiatives attempted in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th century to unite an agglomeration of metropolitan and colonial domains into a single, powerful empire-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state. They understood population control as a way to direct the colonial populations into the desired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directions that policymakers wished they would go. Sometimes it meant ?assisted? migration, whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporting the emigration of Britons to the Dominions or removing Kenyan ?squatters? to reserves. Other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times it meant adapting unlegislated discriminatory colonial migration control methods to the Home Isles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 131-32\). In the minds of policy advocates, the ?problem of colonial population? fluctuated throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period, with the British Isles, Dominions, India, or crown colonies sometimes conceived as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpopulated but mostly overpopulated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout )] TJ ET BT 93.680 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Problem of Great Importance)] TJ ET BT 246.992 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ittmann takes the reader through two separate-but-related paths )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the end of the First World War to the end of empire in the early 1970s. First, he connects the growth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographics as a social science field to the needs of the imperial state to predict future population growth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and thereby ?correctly? allocate its human resources globally. Second, he tracks the policies undertaken by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials to achieve some sort of control over colonial populations. Race served as their main guideline: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britons \(whites\) in the Home Isles and Dominions needed to expand their populations; natives \(non-whites\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed their populations ?controlled?. All policies however, particularly after the Second World War, had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear color-blind despite their underlying racial biases. White rulers could not be identified as asking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blacks to lessen the number of their children. Religion got in the way too, as the imperial state continuously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(felt unable to support birth control in fear of angering the Catholic Church and losing an ally that supported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the colonial status quo. State intervention increased, in fits and starts, in the 1930s, before the Second World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War, and more consistently after in 1940s and 1950s. With the development by American academics in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1960s of demographic transition theory, which ties population growth to modernization stages, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial demography withered away. With the end of empire, British ?expertise? on demographics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transferred into the international arena through former officials? participation in such organizations as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United Nations and International Planned Parenthood Federation. Ittmann concludes that colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographers and British officials could never ?control? their populations because they could not see the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main cause of perceived under- or overpopulation: the lack of social and economic support from the imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state for its colonial populations.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The failure of the British to create an infrastructure of health services and education in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire made the implementation of population policy at the local level virtually impossible \(p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(193\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A highlight of Ittmann?s work is how he shows the continuities across decolonization, a point that Jordanna )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bailkin also explored in )] TJ ET BT 152.012 251.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Afterlife of Empire)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 266.012 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 266.012 250.371 m 280.004 250.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 280.004 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, an earlier publication from the new )] TJ ET BT 457.964 251.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Berkeley Series in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Studies)] TJ ET BT 104.360 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Former colonial officials took their expert knowledge in colonial, now re-termed ?Third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World,? issues to international organizations, where they could promote similar policies without the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(baggage that came with imperial rule. Former colonies like India and Pakistan could implement population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control techniques, such as birth control and sterilization, that the imperial officials would discuss internally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but never suggest publicly. Scholars need to remember that decolonization happened within the working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lifetimes of a large number of individuals. Life did not stop because empire ended. They took their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience and knowledge elsewhere. New states did not start their post-colonial lives with a clean slate but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather absorbed in their new administrations those tools of governance, such as established laws, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucracies, and organizational structures, the colonial state had implemented. Decolonized states built )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon imperial forms of population control. I hope that future works on the 20th century will continue to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explore the continuities across decolonization, both of individuals and states.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ittmann shows some of the issues that developed in 20th-century imperialism, when proponents of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructive imperialism at the center attempted to homogenize administration over various, far-flung )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 266.0117 250.6855 280.0037 262.5655 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7581 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies. For population control advocates, the main problem concerning implementation of policies came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the London-local divide in colonial rule. Both the metropole and the locality knew what was best for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the colonial populations, justified through, respectively, expert knowledge and practical experience. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument, of how officials justify their policies, occurs throughout widely-spread administrations. Can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learning outweigh experience? It?s a question with no good answer. In addition, I like how Ittmann clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows that officials knew the difference between public pronouncements and private concerns, with race as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the driving factor in colonial demographic policies. While officials since ancient times have spoken out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both sides of their mouths, it became a more essential practice in the 20th-century world of nation-states, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where the state is supposed to rule in the name of the people. Here the complexities came from an empire-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state ruling in the names of many peoples, however ones that officials evaluated at different levels of worth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ittmann tells an important story, one pertinent to all modern states: how the state develops its means, both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectually and practically, to shepherd its population. And since the end of empires, as more and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states move through the demographic transition, the world has achieved some sort of population control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside progressive human development.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 241.988 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 241.988 583.491 m 255.980 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 255.980 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But I did not learn from this book as much about the science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of demography as I expected to. What do demographers actually do, if only briefly? How do they count and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estimate populations, and how have their methods changed over the 20th century? On a book about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of coal-mining, a short section would explain how miners bring the coal out of the ground before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delving into the political consequences of coal and mining. Perhaps Ittmann made the assumption that his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers would know how demographers count, but I wanted to understand their methods alongside their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political motivations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main criticism that I have of Ittman is that his book on the history of a social science sub-field reads a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little too social science-y to me. Where are the people that demographers count, those men and women who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migrated, were resettled, used or rejected condoms and other birth control devices, and so forth? For a book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on population control, the people controlled were absent. Ittmann openly states that his book provides a view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the world from the perspectives of demographers, eugenicists, birth control advocates, and officials. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However I would have liked to have learned more about the human impact of their attempts at population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion, )] TJ ET BT 105.008 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Problem of Great Importance)] TJ ET BT 258.320 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a fine book on the ins and outs of policy formation, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(albeit that did not work for a state that no longer exists. Anyone concerned with the history of demographics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applied science, government administration, decolonization, and the British world in the 20th century should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read this book. It demonstrates the complexities of imperial rule, of competing interests in and outside of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government shriving to maintain the Empire?s geopolitical position by slowing down \(or speeding up\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population growth. It also shows how the centuries-old ambiguities of British imperial rule, of a liberal but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coercive empire, were resolved with decolonization. With the empire dissolved, the liberal interests behind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British internationalism, the Empire?s attractive soft power, could advance without the need \(or ability\) to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apply hard power. Those interests, to better the world, one person \(or one child less\) at a time, were funneled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into international organizations like the United Nations and its related agencies. For good and bad, the liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire can be identified as not only a forerunner of a United States-dominated world but also of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international organizations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.587 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jordanna Bailkin, )] TJ ET BT 151.676 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Afterlife of Empire )] TJ ET BT 265.676 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Berkeley, CA, 2012\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 372.656 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 372.656 137.571 m 426.644 137.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 124.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most recent UN report foresees the slowing of growth rates over the remainder of the twenty-first )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, while absolute numbers will continue to climb. United Nations, Department of Economic and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Social Affairs, Population Division, )] TJ ET BT 239.348 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision )] TJ ET BT 475.340 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2013\) <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/index.htm)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 80.547 m 245.024 80.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 248.024 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 262.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 16 May 2014].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 391.748 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 391.748 80.547 m 445.736 80.547 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 65.215 526.499 1.500 re S endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 241.9877 583.8055 255.9797 595.6855 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 372.6557 137.8855 426.6437 149.7655 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 80.8615 245.0237 92.7415 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/index.htm) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 391.7477 80.8615 445.7357 92.7415 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 578 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1637)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 795.075 m 328.316 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.098 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/88017)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/index.htm)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 795.3895 328.3157 807.2695 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1637) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000561 00000 n 0000000643 00000 n 0000004845 00000 n 0000004954 00000 n 0000005064 00000 n 0000005173 00000 n 0000008734 00000 n 0000008862 00000 n 0000008946 00000 n 0000009030 00000 n 0000016541 00000 n 0000016571 00000 n 0000016699 00000 n 0000016735 00000 n 0000016840 00000 n 0000024474 00000 n 0000024504 00000 n 0000024632 00000 n 0000024668 00000 n 0000024796 00000 n 0000024851 00000 n 0000024976 00000 n 0000025064 00000 n 0000025190 00000 n 0000025245 00000 n 0000025329 00000 n 0000025959 00000 n 0000026087 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 26183 %%EOF