%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 33 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140421033643+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140421033643+01'00') /Title (Widowhood in Medieval and Early Modern Europe) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4474 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Widowhood in Medieval and Early Modern Europe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How does one define widowhood? In spite of its widespread acceptance, the classic definition of widowhood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the phase of marriage following the death of one of the partners is never entirely satisfactory. Even if we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leave aside the methodological problems of identifying who had and who had not been widowed, given that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary documents were far from consistent in their readiness to record widowed status, and, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several contributions to this collection point out, contemporaries were often not able to differentiate between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women whose husbands had died and married women whose husbands had left them and moved away, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widowhood was a highly subjective condition. The state of widowhood can be considered as one of personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loss, encompassing everything from the immediate psychological impact of the loss of a partner to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material deprivation of an income, a home, or of unpaid contributions to the domestic economy. On the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, widowhood was also a new conceptual framework or frameworks within which the widowed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual now had to function, the fact of being no longer married, with all that this implied in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral reputation, relationships to one's kin, relationships to property-ownership, and even one's potential as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a future marriage partner. The subjectivity of widowhood was the starting point for the symposium on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Widowhood: Condition or Construction)] TJ ET BT 225.704 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( held at the University of Exeter in 1996, which forms the basis for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the present collection of essays on widowhood in medieval and early modern Europe. It is debatable whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any aspect of social history can escape the conclusion that it is a construct. Even the most enduring indices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of all, the laws controlling the rights of the widowed individual were constructed in the light of the customs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and prejudices of lawmakers. As a result, the question as posed in the original symposium loses much of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(165)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 December, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sandra Cavallo)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lyndan Warner)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780582317487)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(279pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Longman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harlow)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Cowan)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7804 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force. On the other hand, this collection raises a much more interesting set of questions about the individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of widowhood and how successfully widows and widowers negotiated a position for themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within a complex framework of contemporary attitudes. Cavallo and Warner are to be congratulated for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making a contribution not only to the history of widowhood, but also for raising a number of broader issues.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first is the recognition that the experience of widowhood was deeply gendered. Although widowhood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a condition which was shared by men and women alike, their contrasting experiences reflected the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriarchal society in which they lived. While publications on widows began with a trickle in the 1970s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a flood in the last decade, work on widowers has been much more sparse. Explanations for such an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imbalance are not difficult to find. While widowhood is a recognised dimension of women's history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widowerhood has been considered until recently for its demographic rather than it's social significance.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 529.412 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 529.412 654.771 m 543.404 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Widowers were only of interest to historians because they remarried, and since they remarried faster and to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater extent than widows, with a correspondingly shorter period of being widowed, their numerical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence in society was smaller and less prominent than widows. Above all, the loss of a wife rarely altered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a man's status, while the loss of a husband invariably and irrevocably brought about a change in a woman's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life. Widowerhood receives its due share of consideration in this collection, and yet the main conclusions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be drawn from the three essays in which widowers are discussed tell us more about attitudes towards widows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than they do about widowers. Warner's study of the legal debates in France over the extension to remarrying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widowers of the 1560 edict about remarrying widows and their property rights demonstrates that the threat to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property upon remarriage had major implications for both sexes, and that a man's property in particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed to be defended in the interests of social stability. In spite of the widespread view in contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature that men were stronger and more rational than women, the law suit which eventually persuaded the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parlement of Paris to extend the 1560 edict was taken by many commentators to be an illustration of the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which a second wife could manipulate her husband in her own interests \(the stereotype of the scheming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widow\). Pelling's Norwich widowers came from the opposite end of the social spectrum. Her statistics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male remarriage rates are consistent with earlier studies. Here, though, they take on an added resonance. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(High male remarriage rates can also be taken as a measure of the essential roles played by a wife in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy of the poor. While women sometimes had the economic independence to live alone, men, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly poor men, simply could not afford to do so. This conclusion is also implied by Sharpe, writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about a later, early industrial, England, when there was a correlation between reduced remarriage rates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among both men and women and the growing recourse by widowers in the absence of any support from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state to seek shelter with adult daughters. Much more could be said about widowers, however, and it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfortunate that none of the contributors were able to consider any of the parallels between descriptions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affective loss in the autobiographical writings of both men and women in the early modern period. There are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several examples of writing by widowers in Ralph Houlbrooke's anthology of English family life.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 502.796 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 502.796 312.627 m 516.788 312.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many of the contributions to this collection discuss the long-standing issue of choice in widowhood. How )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far did widowhood enable a widow to assert her own identity and chart her own waters in life, and how far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were these choices constrained by the society in which she lived? The main focus of the debate has moved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on from discussions of the extent to which control over an independent income gave widows autonomy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action to embrace broader questions about the range of empowerment opened up to widows upon entering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their new status. The evidence does not all lead in the same direction. The dividing line between widowhood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empowerment and the empowerment of adult females in general is often uncertain. Some widows are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acclaimed for their business acumen, their ability to supervise law suits, to administer their property, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supervise their children's inheritance, or to negotiate new relationships, but the case can often be made that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these skills had been developed while they were still married. Tim Stretton's essay on widows and the law in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tudor and Stuart England confirms that widows were prominent among female litigants before the Court of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Requests. He makes it equally clear that some of the lawsuits in which they were involved were a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuation of litigation which they had initiated jointly with their husbands, as in the case of Jane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fellowes, who accused two men of having made her late husband drunk in order to trick him into signing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreements which he was unable to keep.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Studies of remarriage by widows also highlight the continuities in experience and skills which stretched )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 529.4117 655.0855 543.4037 666.9655 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 502.7957 312.9415 516.7877 324.8215 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7846 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across the period of widowhood from a first marriage to a second. If anything, the empowerment which a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman experienced during her first marriage was enhanced by a period of widowhood and then exercised in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent marriages. Elizabeth Foyster's vigorous contribution to this collection may be entitled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Marrying the experienced widow in early modern England: the male perspective)] TJ ET BT 421.952 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but it is the wives who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come to the fore in her study of failed marriages. Their experience as sexual partners enabled them to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct extramarital affairs in their own homes. Where money was a source of contention widows who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarried knew the value of what they had brought with them. They also had expectations of the kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lifestyle to which they were entitled. Catherine Beverley complained before the court that her new husband, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a Frenchman, had maltreated her by providing only a meagre diet amply flavoured with herbs, so that she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was forced to visit her neighbours in order to eat meat. Beverley, in common with many unhappy wives, had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the support of a network of family, friends and acquaintances to help her. Many of these dated back to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time of their first marriages and clearly persisted during widowhood, offering a cushion of reassurance in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world of negative stereotypes such as the lusty widow, the scheming widow, the masochistic widow, or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widow as imbecilic victim.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Widows' freedom of choice often pitted them against conventional authority however. Several cases arise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from this collection. It remains to be seen whether they were typical of widows' behaviour or not. What are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we to make of Maria Maddalena Landucci, an eighteenth-century Tuscan widow, who should, according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the law, have given up her two daughters to a guardian appointed by the state because she had remarried? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Landucci did everything possible to avoid separation from her daughters, but Giulia Calvi's essay on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widows, the state and guardianship in early modern Tuscany suggests that she went much further to take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control over her first husband's property. When her elder daughter returned home from a convent because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she was seriously ill, Landucci aided her to write a will which effectively left all the paternal patrimony to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her mother. By the time Maria Maddalena had drawn up her own will, both her daughters had died, leaving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their property to her. She had succeeded in transferring her first husband's property to a number of heirs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from her natal family. Her second husband does not seem to have benefited at all, unlike the cause celebre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which engendered the 1560 French edict discussed in Warner's essay. While Maria Maddalena was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responding to the rules established by the Tuscan state to safeguard the property of orphaned children when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their widowed mothers remarried, the independent actions of her German contemporary, Barbara Maurerin, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took place in an entirely different context. While both women fought for the right to keep their children with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them, Maurerin was motivated by a sense of religious injustice. According to Dagmar Friest's essay on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious difference and the experience of widowhood in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Germany, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elector Palatine subverted legislation permitting widowed parents to bring up their children in the faith of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their choice, in order to privilege the dominant Catholic religion in his state. He required their children to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken to a Catholic orphanage after Maurerin's estranged husband converted from being a Mennonite to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholicism on his deathbed. In spite of Maurerin's appeals and those of her two older daughters, the latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were eventually banished from the territory of their birth. Even the case of widows who chose a life of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious devotion could give rise to tensions. Patricia Skinner's study of widowhood in medieval Southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italy poses the problem faced by wealthy contemporaries that, in spite of the wholehearted support by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church for the claustration of widows, the supply of places in convents rarely matched the potential demand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for them. Their families were obliged to take responsibility for them, an action which soon merged with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear sense that a widow's future had to be subordinated to the perceived dynastic requirements of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families. In this context, the fury of the fifteenth-century Florentine Davizzi brothers in the face of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions of their sister Lena, studied by Isabelle Chabot, is entirely comprehensible. As Chabot points out, her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case was exceptional. Most Florentines insisted that their widowed kin returned under their roofs by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evening of their husband's funeral. Lena Davizzi, on the other hand, a member of a powerful banking family, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took advantage of her brothers' absence from Florence on business in London to arrange for her dowry to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passed to the Church rather than her natal family as part of her decision to join the nuns of Foligno. Her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation of the property to which she had access could be said to show considerable financial acumen. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chabot does not state whether Lena Davizzi received any outside advice, however. Much more preferable in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the eyes of elite families was the reflected glory to be found by association when widowed members acted as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sponsors of ecclesiastical institutions. According to Jordi Bilinkoff's essay on the elite widows of early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Avila, wealthy families encouraged their widows to extend their social hegemony by adorning the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7454 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(buildings of religious institutions to which the widows had given their personal and financial support with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominently placed coats of arms, as well as providing members of these families with additional honorific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(posts in convents and hospitals. On the other hand, by taking an active role in these institutions, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widows were able, if not to escape from their families, then at least to distance themselves in all-female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(households where which they played the dominant role.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final evidence for female empowerment arises from a context in which widows were able to manipulate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions laid down by the state in their own favour. Sharpe's essay stands apart from the others in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection in both chronological and socio-economic terms, and her argument that widows took advantage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevailing legislation and morality to present their claims in the most favourable light, emphasising their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectability and capacity to support themselves when seasonal work presented itself, should be seen partly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in that context. On the other hand, both the image presented by widows in their written claims for relief and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ideas underlying poor relief in nineteenth-century Britain show strong continuities with those which ran )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the society of early modern Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The question still remains whether this collection has achieved one of its objectives: to provide a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to the history of widowhood in medieval and early modern Europe. Unfortunately, it does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite live up to its title, and, in so doing, it has missed a number of opportunities to permit comparisons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between different societies, religious confessions and social groups to be made. Its geographical range is less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('European' than might be expected. Instead, the book permits the reader to draw comparisons between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English experience from pre-conquest times to the nineteenth century \(seven essays\), and Italy, \(three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays, mainly about Tuscany\), France, Germany and Spain \(one each\). This is only partly compensated for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the bibliography. Readers would do well to look at the work of Diefendorf and Gager on France, Wyntjes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Marshall on the Netherlands, Robischeaux on Germany, and at Fiona Colclough's recent Northumbria )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(PhD on early modern Venice.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 176.984 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 176.984 457.443 m 190.976 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 190.976 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There are substantial imbalances too in the book's chronological range and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the social groups considered. In retrospect, it would have been better to omit the essays by Julia Crick and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patricia Skinner, which, for all their individual merits, contribute little to the book's central themes, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the focus is on the fifteenth to the eighteenth centuries. This might have permitted some further discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the extent to which widows' conditions improved over time. Amy Louise Erickson's study of property and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widowhood in seventeenth-and eighteenth-century England argues that the increase in sentimentality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensibility in English society during this period was matched by a tightening of the laws circumscribing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widows' access to property. Calvi's evidence from eighteenth-century Tuscany, on the other hand, suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the opposite was taking place, and that the case of Maria Maddalena Landucci discussed above reflected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a much more relaxed attitude about the disposal of property in Italy. The absence of more continental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material also prevents the reader from gaining more than the occasional insight into the impact of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation and the Counter Reformation on widows' experience. Todd's study of the virtuous widow in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant England is an honourable exception, and while Friest highlights the casualties of mixed marriages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in an age of confessionalisation in Germany, there is little overt discussion of widowhood and Counter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation Catholicism. The emphasis on the widows of the wealthy and well-born is also open to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism, although it does reflect the distribution of surviving written sources. Only Pelling and Sharpe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduce us to the poor widow, while the work of Foyster, Friest and Stretton demonstrates that there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some highly suggestive material about the middling groups in society. Much more needs to be done to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explore how far the experience of the wealthy widow was shared by those who were lest fortunate, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether the social construct of widowhood in European patriarchal societies was deeply nuanced by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and social background of each widow. With these reservations in mind, Cavallo and Warner have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeded in bringing together a useful and suggestive collection, which both reflects new thinking about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of the experience of widowhood and will stimulate much further debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 110.307 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 79.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Dupaquier et al \(eds.\) , )] TJ ET BT 187.652 79.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Marriage and Remarriage in Populations of the Past)] TJ ET BT 442.652 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(London, 1981\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 526.976 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 526.976 78.291 m 554.636 78.291 l S BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 64.035 m 90.344 64.035 l S endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 176.9837 457.7575 190.9757 469.6375 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 526.9757 78.6055 554.6357 90.4855 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 64.3495 90.3437 76.2295 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 2000 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Houlbrooke, \(ed\),)] TJ ET BT 163.664 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Family Life, 1576-1716. An Anthology from )] TJ ET BT 417.332 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Diaries)] TJ ET BT 453.332 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(London, 1988\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 780.819 m 118.004 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. Colclough, )] TJ ET BT 132.692 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Widows and Widowhood in Early Modern Venice)] TJ ET BT 370.676 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, unpublished PhD dissertation, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Northumbria, 1999.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 225.668 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 225.668 752.307 m 279.656 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 697.539 m 240.992 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 694.207 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 676.427 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 676.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/165)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 675.033 m 322.316 675.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 650.056 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.656 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1123)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=3700)] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 781.1335 118.0037 793.0135 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 225.6677 752.6215 279.6557 764.5015 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 697.8535 240.9917 709.7335 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=3700) >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 675.3475 322.3157 687.2275 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/165) >> endobj xref 0 43 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000555 00000 n 0000000637 00000 n 0000005163 00000 n 0000005272 00000 n 0000005382 00000 n 0000005491 00000 n 0000009052 00000 n 0000009180 00000 n 0000009264 00000 n 0000009355 00000 n 0000017212 00000 n 0000017242 00000 n 0000017370 00000 n 0000017406 00000 n 0000017436 00000 n 0000017564 00000 n 0000017600 00000 n 0000017665 00000 n 0000025564 00000 n 0000025662 00000 n 0000033169 00000 n 0000033199 00000 n 0000033327 00000 n 0000033363 00000 n 0000033489 00000 n 0000033544 00000 n 0000033668 00000 n 0000033723 00000 n 0000033828 00000 n 0000035881 00000 n 0000036008 00000 n 0000036063 00000 n 0000036191 00000 n 0000036246 00000 n 0000036373 00000 n 0000036473 00000 n 0000036601 00000 n trailer << /Size 43 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36696 %%EOF