%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818230956+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818230956+01'00') /Title (Charlemagne) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4493 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Charlemagne)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The lack of synthetical treatments of the reign of Charlemagne is both striking and surprising. In spite of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever-growing volume of academic monographs and articles on the Carolingian period, there is no even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vaguely adequate introduction in English, French or German. Yet, thanks in no little part to that remarkable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cohort of English early medievalists which includes Roger Collins amongst its number, our understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the culture, politics and society of Carolingian Europe has been transformed in the past decades. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication of a well-marketed, nicely-produced and keenly-priced biography is thus timely: here is an ideal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity to tap and inform the burgeoning interest in early medieval history amongst both undergraduates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the documentary-watching and book-buying public, through an exploration of the career and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements of the early medieval ruler par excellence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Collins is well aware of the problems facing a would-be medieval biographer, even one whose subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a ruler who was the focus of contemporary attentions to an extraordinary degree. Modestly setting his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sights on producing 'a monograph-length treatment of the reign', Collins robustly asserts that 'it is not really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible to write a biography of Charlemagne, in the sense of a work that uncovers its subject's personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hopes, fears, aims, ambitions, phobias and foibles, and tries to explain what he thought, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something of what he did' \(p. viii\). Although not written along strictly chronological lines, Collins' book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially a recounting of the unfolding of political events. After two introductory chapters, one dealing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the sources, the other rehearsing the political development of the Frankish kingdom up to 771, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual chapters take through the story of Carolingian involvement in particular areas, in the order in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which they became prominent in the reign. The fact that five of these seven chapters concern military and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political dealings with various of Charlemagne's neighbours up to their conquest \(Saxons, Italians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(166)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 January, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Collins)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780333650549)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Innes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7615 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spaniards, Bavarians, and Avars\), whilst the final chapter deals with 'Frontiers and Wars, 793-813', gives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some clue as to the controlling narrative and overall focus of the book; developments within Francia are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealt with in chapters on the growth of a reform programme, the Council of Frankfurt and the building of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aachen palace; and on the Imperial coronation and its aftermath.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As is clear from this summary of its contents, Collins' book offers rather more about what Charlemagne did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than about the society in which he lived. The reasons for this appear to lie in Collins' views on the proper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of the historian. In a gnomic swipe at unnamed contemporaries in the preface, he remarks that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depends 'more upon the primary sources of evidence for the period, reference to which will be found in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes, than upon modish or other methodologies'. Of course, Collins is quite correct to insist that primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence is the basis of historical knowledge. But it certainly is not the case that the type of history essayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Collins himself is the inevitable and only result of close reading of the sources, or somehow 'truer' or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more neutral than its alternatives. Collins does what he does well, but I would have thought that the greatest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lesson of the flowering of early medieval history inspired by the work of Collins' generation is that there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(room for a thousand flowers to bloom.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The contention that 'methodology' is somehow incompatible with source-based study allows Collins to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delimit his subject matter, and deal with the flow of political events in isolation from their wider cultural, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic or social context. In a book of this scope aimed at this readership this is particularly unfortunate as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it leads to a relatively restricted view of the period, and means that many of Collins' readers will depart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unaware of the most exciting and important developments in early medieval scholarship. And, arguably, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career of an early medieval ruler is particularly unsuited for such a resolutely high political treatment: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informal and uninstitutionalised nature of early medieval politics makes the identification of a formally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separate and discrete sphere of political action problematic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collins' concentration on the sources brings the reader into frequent and welcome acquaintance with those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts upon which our knowledge of Charlemange is based, and the problems they pose the modern historian. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For those intending to use this book in teaching, this should be a welcome encouragement for students to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think about the processes of interpretation on which judgements are based. Rather like the detective in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good whodunit, Collins sees his job as the careful evaluation of the witnesses supplied by his contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written sources; like the statements of the cast of a whodunit, their accounts need treating with the utmost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspicion, subjecting to close inspection and comparison to test them and uncover misrepresentations or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deceptions. Much of Collins' own published research on the Carolingian period has shown the value of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an approach, and cast doubt on what had previously been agreed 'facts'. Teasing out an outline of events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from fragmentary and often contradictory material is very much Collins' forte: he is a distinguished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descendant of the great nineteenth-century positivist German tradition of )] TJ ET BT 386.288 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Quellenkritik )] TJ ET BT 452.612 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which aimed at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructing a 'true' narrative of political and military events. Much recent early medieval scholarship, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in the Anglophone world, has gone further, in the process shifting the object of source-criticism: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by very firmly placing written accounts in their contemporary context, they have been read as works of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partial and polemical argument which, carefully handled, can provide a road into the social, political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural universe in which they were written. Collins occasionally hints at these possibilities, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominantly sticks to a more traditional approach. If Collins occasionally lets his enthusiasm for source-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism get the better of him - for example in the paragraph in which it is established that the 'Council of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regensburg' of 792 was 'probably just the ecclesiastical section of the general assembly that was held at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regensburg early in 793' \(p.132\) - by and large he balances the need to discuss the sources and to press on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with his narrative successfully, producing an accessible and readable introduction to the course of the reign.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately, sources, not people, are what Collins writes about; criticism of their failings, not description of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past society, is his preferred discourse. In Collins' hands, source-criticism becomes a means for determining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('reliability' and so including or excluding testimony in the canon of witnesses who can contribute to working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out a narrative of military and political events. Like the best detective, he is no respecter of reputations: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed, he begins by cutting down the star witness to size. The biography of Charlemagne written after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emperor's death by his sometime courtier Einhard is sidelined on the grounds that 'he made it clear that his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purposes did not include providing a detailed narrative of his subject's life and times'. Collins' attitude )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7697 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards Einhard rests on the fact that the )] TJ ET BT 233.312 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life of Charles)] TJ ET BT 305.324 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is of relatively little use in supplying 'information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or additional details not to be found in other sources' \(p.1\). This position is almost identical to that essayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Louis Halphen in 1921, who dismissed Einhard from the canon of reliable sources of the grounds of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uselessness for the purveyor of military and political narrative. Yet scholarship in the eight decades since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Halphen has suggested ways in which Einhard's complex literary text can be read as an interested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation of Charles' exercise of kingship. The )] TJ ET BT 284.120 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life of Charles )] TJ ET BT 359.132 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly offers the most attractive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible road for the uninitiated into the reign, and an opportunity for students to think critically about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex relationship between sources, their authors, and their subjects; Collins' lack of interest in discussing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how historians have come to use it, in spite of its relative uselessness in providing factual details to fill out a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and military narrative, is unfortunate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact, Einhard escapes relatively lightly for Collins is downright distrustful of contemporary attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(write even political and military narratives: 'most other Frankish historical writings of the time prove to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equally idiosyncratic, partisan and occasionally downright mendacious' \(p.ix\). The most immediate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal sections of the book, indeed, are those in which Collins allows himself to comment on what he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes comes close to presenting as a battle of wits with a group of singularly disingenuous and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncooperative witnesses, as in his exclamation at p.81, 'even for this source this is an amazing travesty of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truth'. At points, though, this almost instinctive distrust seems to encourage Collins to throw the baby out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same window as the bath water \(see, for example, the excoriation of Einhard's description of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charlemagne's last will and testament at pp.158-9\). The overriding concern with the reporting of particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events can also lead to a strangely disembodied reading of the narrative sources, which can become simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quarries for uncontextualised nuggets of testimony. Collins is quick to stress consistent patterns of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misrepresentation in the sources, for example in the Royal Frankish Annals' depiction of Charlemagne's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship with Tassilo of Bavaria. Unlike many recent historians, he is less interested in proceeding from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these patterns of misrepresentation to a reading of some at least of these narratives as conscious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of the recent past written to influence a current public. Yet such a reading can deepen our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the politics of the reign. Karl Brunner's work on the )] TJ ET BT 369.128 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annales Nazariani)] TJ ET BT 458.804 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for example, has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shown that this particular presentation of the past was an attempt to reconcile conflicting political pressures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the newly-integrated provinces east of the Rhine, which can provide an important insight into the motives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of those aristocrats who plotted against Charlemagne in 785-6.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whilst Collins' attitude towards the historical narratives of the annals is that of a protagonist in a battle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wits, other genres of source-material have little part to play in his account. The surviving poetry, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, has proved one of the most fruitful sources for the reconstruction of the social and cultural life of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charlemagne's court, but is conspicuous by its absence. Similarly, the letters of Alcuin are used so far as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they can shed light on the debates leading up to the coronation of 800, and changing policy towards forced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversion among the Saxons, but not for the insights they allow into the community of the court. Collins' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision to work primarily from one group of sources, the annals, and to concentrate on political narrative, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means that whole areas of Frankish political culture are omitted: the treatment of royal ritual, for example, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited to a discussion of Carolingian palaces which attempts to undermine any function between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architectural form and ceremonial function.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Real people are strangely absent. One of the real achievements of recent scholarship has been to populate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frankish court, and the 'small worlds' that made up Charlemagne's Empire. Even those articulate, evidence-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(producing, intellectual advisors who have always loomed large in the historiography of the reign are elusive. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus Alcuin's career is discussed in a bare page, and his presence or possible influence mentioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasionally in passing, and he towers over his peers ! Women, even royal women, are effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('vanished': Collins' political and military focus and his implicit reliance on a restricted definition of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power in formal terms \(both of which are scarcely gender-blind\) lead to the potential importance of women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through informal influence on their kinsmen being ignored. Carolingian women are not spectres conjured up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by 'methodology': they are there in the sources, study of which has demonstrated their importance in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics of the period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laymen, even those of the highest social standing and political importance, fare worse still, and are )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4768 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciously and explicitly excluded: 'not enough has survived to provide the kind of reconstructions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family and institutional property holdings, and the impact of these on local and kingdom-wide politics, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be undertaken in so many cases in the later medieval centuries' \(p.10\). The claim that studying the land-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owning classes and their relationship to royal government is not worth the candle must come as a surprise to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialists. After all, the most striking advances in our understanding of the political history of the Frankish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingdoms have come through the painstaking research inspired by the work of the late Gerd Tellenbach and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karl Schmid, and continued over four academic generations by the 'historical prosopographers' of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freiburg and Mnster schools \(although the uninitiated reader of Collins would be wholly unaware of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work\). Whilst the claims of prosopography have had plenty of critical discussion, few practising scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would dismiss them altogether, or totally ignore their implications for our reading of politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collins dismisses the possibility of reaching any meaningful conclusions about aristocratic power without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really engaging with either the German prosopographers, or the large and growing recent body of research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which uses documentary evidence to investigate the workings of rural communities and the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of reciprocal relationships between churches and their lay benefactors. For example, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the value of the charters as evidence highlights the two monasteries of Fulda and St-Gallen as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('exceptional' in the preservation of 'relatively large numbers of early charters' \(p.10\). Unfortunately, most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers, including many researchers whose expertise lies elsewhere, will understand Collins' comments as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicating that the Fulda and St-Gallen archives are the only substantial sources for land holding and legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transactions, and thus depart unaware of the riches of the surviving charter traditions preserved by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolingian ecclesiastical institutions from Corvey in Saxony to Farfa in central Italy, from Redon in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brittany to Freising in Bavaria. Elsewhere, Collins claims that unless we have a last will and testament we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot uncover the full extent of an individual's holdings and so meaningful conclusions are impossible. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such a stance seems odd from an early medievalist, whose profession, after all, is founded on the careful and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical handling of inevitably fragmentary evidence; it also does not really engage with what has been done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on aristocratic families. And Collins fails to discuss that the handful of wills which do survive, notably that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Fulrad of St-Denis, which has long been recognised as an important sources in understanding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanisms of Carolingian expansion and consolidation in south-western Germany. Collins' pessimism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the charter evidence is all the more puzzling given his own participation in the anthology produced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Bucknall group in 1986 \(W. Davies and P. Fouacre, eds., )] TJ ET BT 328.640 385.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Settlement of Disputes in Early Medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe)] TJ ET BT 69.344 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, CUP\) which was a real landmark in highlighting the possibilities of reconstructing the workings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early medieval society from charter evidence.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7575 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the last resort, Collins' refusal to include the aristocracy in his picture does not just narrow his perspective. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I fail to see how we can adequately understand or interpret Charlemagne's reign or Carolingian politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without discussing those figures who, as Karl-Ferdinand Werner put it so pointedly a quarter of a century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ago, were simultaneously the king's only partners and main rivals. The blurb on the back cover draws vague )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and undeveloped contemporary parallels, talking of Charlemagne's 'attempt to create a single European-wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state'. The book itself contains no demonstration that this indeed was Charlemagne's objective, nor any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration of what might have constituted such an attempt in an early medieval context. Our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the process of political expansion through which the Carolingian Empire was created is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being transformed by work which has looked at the changing alignments of local elites and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical foundations: it is through such work that we can begin to reach a fuller understanding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibilities and problems of integration within the Carolingian Empire than is possible from a chronology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of conquest and revolt. Because of his failure to discuss the elites in whose hands the success or failure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Carolingian project lay, Collins can do little more than venture opinions on the balance of centrifugal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centripetal forces, dismissing 'Frankish ideas of rulership' as 'very ethnocentric' \(p.150\) and once mentioning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the possible role of Christianity as an integrating factor \(p.151\). Similarly, only by studying the changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanisms through which local elites exercised their power, and the interrelationship between public office )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and family inheritance in creating that power, can we understand the functioning of Carolingian government. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Again, Collins simply offers dismissive asides: legislation was 'possibly impractical', whilst 'practice is all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too likely to have fallen short of these [royal] injunctions' as 'the governmental machinery at Charles' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disposal was insufficient' \(p.156\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact, Collins' book is ultimately unable to answer the central questions posed by a study of Charlemagne's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reign. The methodology he uses to shape a political narrative from the annals does not allow the kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structural analysis that is necessary if fundamental issues about the integration of regional elites into an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imperial polity, and the transmission of orders from court to locality, are to be addressed. When it comes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering the functioning of government and the relationship between the ambitions of rulers and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realities of local power, Collins suddenly and jarringly departs from the sources: narrative gives way to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad interpretative statements, made with no indication of the contested and evolving historical arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from which they are derived. Collins advances an ultimately pessimistic verdict on Charles' achievement as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doomed to long-term failure because of the lack of 'an adequate centralised administration', but fails to offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any discussion of how government may or may not have worked, or what might have constituted 'an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adequate centralised administration' in a world where land was power: his source-based political narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and dismissal of the documentary evidence leaves no space for such evaluation. It is not only when dealing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with structural questions that Collins' abandons strictly source-based neutral comment. Value judgements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about Charlemagne's 'less than satisfactory successor' \(p.158\) are made without any justification: they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contested arguments about historical interpretation, not unmediated truths found in the contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources. Nor could the interested reader go away and find reference in the sources to the vivid image of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frankish helplessness against Vikings marauders in the 830s because 'Charlemagne's war fleet .may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rotted away' \(p.171\). The shadow of Collins' perception of ultimate failure falls long over this Charlemagne, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet at no point is that perception of failure discussed or justified from the primary evidence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In terms of his own stated aims, Roger Collins' book is a definite success: here is an accurate and accessible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative whilst explaining its basis in the problematic primary sources. Nonetheless, it is unfortunate that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many readers will remain unaware of the breadth and diversity of current approaches and interpretations, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the good-natured and lively debate that typifies recent research. And it is impossible not to wonder whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author of seminal studies of law, literacy and regionalism in early medieval Spain could not have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successfully attempted something more ambitious and more important. Better, I would have thought, to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explained that there were areas of research which authorial choice and the structure of this book made it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to integrate, than to attempt to argue whole swathes of the historiography out of existence. Roger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collins should be thanked for giving us a solid and easy-to-use account of Charlemagne's reign, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessibility and price are guaranteed to bring it to the attention of a wide audience. But there remains the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need for a treatment of Charlemagne that locates a convincing account of the events of the reign within an )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 836 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible exploration of their wider cultural, social and political contexts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 751.231 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 733.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 733.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/166)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 732.057 m 322.316 732.057 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 707.080 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 692.680 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1125)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.280 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 732.3715 322.3157 744.2515 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/166) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000528 00000 n 0000000610 00000 n 0000005155 00000 n 0000005264 00000 n 0000005374 00000 n 0000005483 00000 n 0000009044 00000 n 0000009172 00000 n 0000009256 00000 n 0000009321 00000 n 0000016989 00000 n 0000017054 00000 n 0000024804 00000 n 0000024869 00000 n 0000029690 00000 n 0000029755 00000 n 0000037383 00000 n 0000037467 00000 n 0000038355 00000 n 0000038483 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38578 %%EOF