%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140827035039+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140827035039+01'00') /Title (Guardians of Empire: The Armed Forces of the Colonial Powers, c.1700-1964) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4002 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Guardians of Empire: The Armed Forces of the Colonial Powers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(c.1700-1964)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is to be expected that many edited collections of essays will be somewhat disparate in content and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach whatever the overall framework. This volume, however, is even more disparate than most. David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Killingray's introduction certainly strives mightily to encompass most of the major issues respecting colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(armed forces, though largely with respect to the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In fact, most of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eleven essays in the volume, which include the introduction, are concerned with the nineteenth and twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries and only one does not have a colonial army as its focus. There are contributions on the American, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch, French, and German empires, but the majority of essays are concerned with the British empire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Killingray's introductory chapter clearly attempts to integrate some of the following ten essays within a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general framework, but in a curiously low key way, relegating eight of them to brief references in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footnotes and mentioning two not at all. The situation is not perhaps improved by the additional introduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by John MacKenzie, general editor of the Manchester University Press 'Studies in Imperialism' series, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which this volume appears, emphasising 'the myths of the military' as 'central to the justification and bluffs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of imperial rule'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Killingray's introduction does raise the particular issue of the theory of 'martial races' as well as other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradoxes of colonial military arrangements. Jaap de Moor is concerned with recruitment in his essay on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(167)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 February, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Killingray)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Omissi)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719057345)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(269pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Beckett)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7177 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch colonial army between 1700 and 1950 and addresses the 'imagined history' of some supposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(martially inclined races in the East Indies. Yet, it cannot really be said that many of the contributors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically address 'myth'. An exception is Frank Furedi's essay on the authorities' perception of the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threat from demobilised African soldiers after the Second World War, though this does link with aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the loyalty of colonial forces raised by both Killingray and de Moor. There are correctives on the perceived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('masculine' image of colonial armies in Timothy Parsons's essay on family life in the King's African Rifles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1902 and 1964, and Killingray's own separate essay on gender issues in African colonial armies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though the masculinity of colonial armies is hardly what might be termed a major myth of empire. In some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respects, as there is also an essay by Douglas Peers on sex and drink in British cantonments in India between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1800 and 1858, it might be argued that venereal disease is one of the stronger themes to emerge from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume. To be fair, however, gender issues in respect of African soldiers do come back again to the question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of loyalty, by suggesting reasons for stability within military communities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aspects of military influence over colonial policy are addressed by Kirsten Zirkel with respect to German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East Africa and German South-West Africa between 1888 and 1918, and by Martin Thomas in his essay on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French army in Algeria between 1954 and 1958. Jane Samson examines the Royal Navy's attitudes to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour trade in the Pacific in the mid-nineteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The remaining essays are those by Tim Moreman on 'watch and ward' on the North West Frontier between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920 and 1939, and by Brian McAllister Linn on the United States army's dilemma in confronting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential threat of both internal insurrection and Japanese intervention in its Pacific possessions between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1902 and 1940. In some respects, Moreman's essay reflects arguments developed in his full-length )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph, )] TJ ET BT 94.676 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Army in India and the Development of Frontier Warfare, 1849-1947)] TJ ET BT 444.308 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1998\). Linn's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution is effectively a summary of his monograph, )] TJ ET BT 307.652 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guardians of Empire: The US Army and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pacific, 1902-40)] TJ ET BT 114.008 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1997\), but does touch upon the issue of martial races. Killingray's fellow editor, David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Omissi, does not contribute an essay.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Viewed individually rather than collectively, most of the essays have points of interest and Killingray is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly correct to draw attention to the significance of military power within colonial empires and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degree of collaboration implied upon the part of indigenous recruits, who were cheaper \(and healthier\) than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white troops. He also calls attention to the increasing role of colonial manpower in the world wars of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth century, and to the relative immunity of colonial army rank and file from the political pressures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faced by police forces consequent upon the growth of nationalism. In passing, it should be noted that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Killingray confuses the British defeat at the hands of the Boers at Spion Kop in January 1900 with that at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Majuba in the First Boer War in February 1881.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As indicated earlier, the question of loyalty is taken up in varying ways by de Moor and Furedi. The Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not subscribe to a theory of martial races to the same extent as the British, yet clearly identified certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indonesian peoples as more reliable than others, though the identification changed over time. Thus, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a largely negative military image of the Javanese in the mid-nineteenth century until the success of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Korps Marechaussee)] TJ ET BT 135.668 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the Aceh War in the 1890s. By contrast to the Javanese, who had always come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward in relatively large numbers, the Ambonese, who were regarded much more favourably as soldiers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not be induced to enlist until the 1890s. Ironically, they became the most steadfast of the allies of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch, fighting on unsuccessfully to secure independence for the South Moluccas and becoming the nucleus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the exiled Moluccan community in the Netherlands. Furedi examines the widespread acceptance after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1945 by colonial authorities \(and historians\) of the idea that demobilised colonial soldiers represented a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threat to imperial order and, as a result of their wartime experience, agents of nationalism. A sociologist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than an historian, Furedi is much given to discussion of 'discourse', interpreting the acceptance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threat in the absence of any effective evidence of unrest amongst the demobilised, as revealing 'deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rooted fears about Britain's ability to retain control over the Empire'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As suggested earlier, issues of loyalty also arise from the discussion of gender issues. This is most evident in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6204 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Killingray's concluding essay to the collection, where he argues that the wives, children and assorted camp )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followers associated with African colonial armies, and even more marginalised in the 'new' African history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 1960s and 1970s than the men themselves, encouraged monogamy. As suggested by Parsons, it also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant a high degree of social stability among self-perpetuating military communities. The two world wars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly created significant difficulties in terms of the regulation of sexual relationships, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given the perennial stereotypical fears on the part of the authorities that sexuality might release a dangerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volatility subversive of discipline and, conceivably, a threat to white female sanctity and the 'racial codes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental to the colonial order'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the focus of Killingray and Parsons is upon African soldiers, including, in the case of Parsons, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of sanctioned brothels, Peers examines the question of British troops in cantonments and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular challenges to the authorities represented by venereal disease and drink. Providing )] TJ ET BT 476.924 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inter alia)] TJ ET BT 521.264 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful survey of the differing kinds of cantonments and a discussion of the changing policy towards lock )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hospitals, Peers suggests the authorities were more concerned to target supply than demand. This rested on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the belief that Indian society itself represented an extraordinary threat to moral health in a situation in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it seemed all but impossible to reform the character of the British soldier. Greater regulation of cantonments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as represented by Act XXII of 1864 was a product of the Indian Mutiny. Peers also alludes to the greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts to encourage temperance in the late Victorian army. It would perhaps have been useful, therefore, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either Peers, or Killingray in his introduction, had drawn greater parallels with the regulation of prostitution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and drink in the Victorian army at home with particular reference to the Contagious Diseases Acts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In terms of the influence of colonial armed forces over colonial policy, Zirkel shows how a very small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial military establishment, which was never part of the regular army and which relied largely upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reserve officers, came to exercise influence far in excess of its numerical strength in the German African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies. At the same time, Kirsten has interesting comments on the evolution of )] TJ ET BT 424.988 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(schrecklichkeit)] TJ ET BT 496.964 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( under von )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trotha in German South-West Africa, pursued, but deliberately so, only once a clear-cut military victory no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer appeared possible. By contrast, there was a more haphazard emergence of the same policy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extermination against the Maji-Maji rising in German East Africa. As in so many other areas of colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy, the actions of those on the spot determined events. Similarly, Thomas's study of the French army's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military operations in Algeria in the closing years of the Fourth Republic demonstrates how assumptions on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the part of the French military about the nature of the FLN and its military wing, the ALN, drove the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government's response to the war. In the process, the war widened, necessitating the use of more and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscripts. This had particular consequences for the French metropolitan population's commitment to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict. Widening the war also had consequences for the Muslim population's ability to avoid taking sides. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In taking a critical view of the French army's military results, Thomas notes that the army effectively 'co-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opted' the reform process in Algeria, the concept of order before reform having become one of order as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means of imposing reform.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the French army failed to comprehend the nature of its enemy,in the only essay concerning naval as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed to military policy, Samson demonstrates the way in which the humanitarian sympathies of officers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the Royal Navy's Australia Station led them to seek to suppress an all but imaginary Pacific 'slave labour' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade. The lack of success in catching slavers supposedly supplying the sugar and copra plantations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Queensland and Fiji was invariably attributed to the paucity of naval resources rather than the absence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade itself.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4474 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a way, Linn, too, points up policy failures though, in this case, those of government rather than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military. The hapless American army commander on Hawaii was sacked after Pearl Harbor for concentrating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his aircraft 'wing-tip to wing-tip' in a way which made them sitting targets for the Japanese. This unfortunate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision had been made, however, to facilitate guarding the planes because Washington had insisted that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internal sabotage was as great a threat as external attack. As in his monograph, Linn charts the army's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dilemma in seeking to meet both possibilities. At the same time, he usefully reminds us of the US army's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure to learn the lessons of its pacification campaigns in the Philippines, of the martial usefulness of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macabebes, and of the superiority of the Philippine Scouts over the Philippine Constabulary for pacification )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duties.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In part, therefore, Zirkel, Thomas and Linn all address military operations. This, too, is the principal theme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Moreman's study of the 'modified forward policy' adopted for the North West Frontier in 1923 and re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affirmed in 1939-40. The lessons of the frontier did not perhaps guide post-war British counter-insurgency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice as much as Moreman suggests, but the experience was clearly significant. Moreover, as Moreman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes clear, keeping 'watch and ward' required an extraordinary effort, which underlines Killingray's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introductory remarks on the necessity of military power as the basis for empire. Indeed, in 1944, with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major war being fought against the Japanese in Burma, no less than 48 battalions were stationed on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frontier. This represented 38 per cent of the Indian army's peace-time establishment and, according to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frontier Committee report of 1945 quoted by Moreman, 'the cheapest concentration camp for allied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servicemen the Axis ever possessed'. At least, these were largely Indian servicemen and, in that sense, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cost was still cheaper than if they had all been British soldiers, which also reinforces Killingray's point about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relative cheapness of locally raised indigenous armed forces.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is suggested in the brief editors' note that publication has been somewhat delayed, presumably by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('extensive reworkings of a number of the draft chapters' also mentioned. The editor's lot is not always a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happy one, and it is to the credit of Killingray and Omissi that, despite its disparate nature, the volume is of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value. Some of the individual parts, however, are arguably more interesting than the sum of the whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is pleased to accept the review and will not be responding further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 346.831 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 329.051 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 329.051 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/167)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 327.657 m 322.316 327.657 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 302.680 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 288.280 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1127)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.880 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 327.9715 322.3157 339.8515 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/167) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000576 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000004712 00000 n 0000004821 00000 n 0000004931 00000 n 0000005040 00000 n 0000008601 00000 n 0000008729 00000 n 0000008813 00000 n 0000008878 00000 n 0000016108 00000 n 0000016173 00000 n 0000022430 00000 n 0000022514 00000 n 0000027041 00000 n 0000027169 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 27264 %%EOF