%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150629173921+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150629173921+01'00') /Title (Donors, Devotees, and Daughters of God: Temple Women in Medieval Tamilnadu) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4831 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Donors, Devotees, and Daughters of God: Temple Women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Medieval Tamilnadu)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The figure of the )] TJ ET BT 117.992 323.219 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(devadasi)] TJ ET BT 160.652 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or ?temple-woman?, who entertained Hindu gods at festivals, hardly needs an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction. Because of her supposed sexual availability, the devadasi became a potent and notorious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbol of the corruption of Hindu society. Together, colonial officials and Indian reformers legislated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(devadasi)] TJ ET BT 76.676 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( out of existence and sanitized her dance traditions. More recently, scholars have reacted to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legacy by stressing the importance of the )] TJ ET BT 233.648 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(devadasi)] TJ ET BT 276.308 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s ritual dance and sexuality in royal and temple ritual. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What unites both of these interpretations is their assumption that the devadasi institution as ?discovered? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the colonial period reflects an India-wide tradition that stretches back to the early reaches of Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book, through an exhaustive and detailed study of medieval inscriptions, effectively challenges the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image of the )] TJ ET BT 97.004 182.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(devadasi)] TJ ET BT 139.664 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( inherited from modern reform and recent scholarship. Orr maintains that inscriptions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlike literary texts and normative representations, reveal the actuality of temple women?s lives, as they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(record specific events involving real people. Orr has examined the entirety of the Chola \()] TJ ET BT 461.588 154.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 466.916 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 950-1250\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inscriptional corpus \(and a good deal more\). The choice justified by the evidence itself, since the Chola )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records give a more complete profile on ?temple women? than north Indian inscriptions, \(though other south )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian languages have rich stores of evidence which remain to be tapped\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orr begins with the problem of terminology, noting that the term )] TJ ET BT 347.996 85.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(devadasi)] TJ ET BT 390.656 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, apparently a Sanskritization of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Tamil word )] TJ ET BT 111.008 71.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tevara iy? \(tevaratiyal)] TJ ET BT 232.652 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) \(, was neither ubiquitous nor even widespread in medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inscriptions, but only gained currency in the last century. In pre-colonial times, the historian encounters a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(169)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 February, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leslie Orr)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(305pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daud Ali)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8059 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plethora of terms which vary across region, language and period. In the second chapter, Orr concludes on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis of her survey of the Chola materials that rather than the modern figure of the devadasi, the inscriptions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest a more general category of ?temple women?. The overlapping of terms like )] TJ ET BT 437.924 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tevara iy? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(tevaratiyal\), teva ? r maka \(tevanar makal\) , patiyil? r \(patiyilar\))] TJ ET BT 366.740 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 393.068 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ta iyil? r \(taliyilar\))] TJ ET BT 491.408 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( , along with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mention of functions, privileges and specific associations with temples, indicate, according to Orr, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category of ?temple woman? as a coherent social identity. The author compares temple women to other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(types of women found in inscriptions, most notably palace women. Orr argues, against the conclusions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other scholars, that during the Chola period there was no close relationship between court and temple. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enquiry into the Tamil terms for temple woman, is equally corrective, according to Orr. The term )] TJ ET BT 503.600 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a iy? r )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(atiyar)] TJ ET BT 66.680 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), often translated as ?slave? or ?servant?, probably instead indicated the idea of a ?retainer? for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king. It also carried with it honorific connotations rooted in the south Indian religious ethos of devotion. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison with terms from other parts of India referring to temple women, which often meant slave or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prostitute, Orr finds that the Tamil terms are more honorific and devotional in meaning.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Temple women appear most frequently in inscriptions as ?donors?, making gifts of various kinds to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temples themselves, and the third chapter of the book analyses this aspect of the evidence. Compared to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other women and men associated with temples, temple women appear as donors in increasing numbers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the course of the Chola period, and as time passed, were increasingly implicated in the life of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous temples throughout Tamilnadu as a consequence of their donations. Their appearance as donors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leads to the question of their possession of property and wealth. According to the )] TJ ET BT 426.296 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dharma ? stras \(dharm a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sastras\))] TJ ET BT 72.020 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Orr points out, a woman?s access to wealth was generally mediated through her husband. But as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chola temple women remained unmarried, it seems, the question of where these women accumulated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth to make gifts to temples is both relevant, and given the author?s wish to avoid the sacred prostitution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory, a crucial one. Orr speculates that their wealth came from gifts by natal families or inheritances from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their mother as well as worship service performed on behalf of other temple patrons. Whatever their source )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of wealth, the conclusion is that in relation to married women, temple women seemed to enjoy increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic power and prosperity through the Chola period due to their relationships with temples.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fourth and fifth chapters focus, respectively, on the work of temple women and their identity with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect to geography, religion and kinship. In contrast to their male counterparts, the role of women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temple ritual, it would seem, was often incidental and optional. They were neither ritual ?specialists? nor a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ritual ?necessity? for the temple as some scholarship has recently maintained. They were most certainly not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated primarily with dance. Of the 304 Chola inscriptions that mention temple women, only four, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to Orr, use terms that refer to ?dancer?. More important was their role in menial work \(cleaning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pots and pans, washing floors\), and performance of attendance functions like flywhisk bearing and dancing. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women?s role in both of these occupations, one debased and the other exalted, increased throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chola period. Women in many cases received honoured status in temple ritual as a result of their donations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but in some \(about half of the references that mention temple service\) they seemed to received minimal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(living ?stipends?, which may have indicated that they entered temple service under conditions not of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own making. For most women, concludes Orr, temple service was not a source of livelihood, \(excepting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?slaves? acquired by the temple to perform menial services\), but was a way ?to enhance status that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already theirs? \(134\). Temple women, geographically spread throughout the Chola realm, show strong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identification in the early Chola periods with deities of particular places, but as time wore on, are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly referred to in relation to particular temples, reflecting a general trend to a more temple-based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority structure in the post-Chola period. Women?s temple service, according to Orr, was not in most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases hereditary, reflecting what she claims to be a general social fluidity during Chola times.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book places the history of temple women within the context of temples emerging as the dominant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centres of economic and political power as the Chola state declined. While such arguments are tantalising, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they remain somewhat fragmentary, and the chief thrust of the book remains its engagement with the image )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the )] TJ ET BT 64.676 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(devadasi)] TJ ET BT 107.336 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( inherited by the debates, reforms and studies of the last century. By its end, this image of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(devadasi)] TJ ET BT 76.676 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? as sexually exploited temple dancer/prostitute or the embodiment of sacred feminine power ? can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardly be sustained in any simple or unqualified way. In the final section of the conclusion, the author )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8043 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to trace briefly how the institution encountered in the 19th century by colonial officials had evolved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the Chola period. She sees the post-Chola, Vijayanagar, and Nayak periods as bringing a steady decline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the power of women. An increase in feminine symbolism and goddess imagery was accompanied by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline in the ?public? representation of women and decreasing agency in political economic and religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spheres. Hence the modern )] TJ ET BT 166.976 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(devadasi)] TJ ET BT 209.636 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The alternative image of the temple woman that Orr draws for the Chola period, however, raises many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions. That the turn to inscriptions can illuminate the lives of women in medieval India is surely proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond doubt by this book. The book also demonstrates, however, the limitations of an over-reliance on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inscriptions to the detriment of other sorts of evidence, and perhaps more importantly, a coherent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social/theoretical framework. Inscriptions, as the author points out, record only certain types of events, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealing fragments rather than an entire picture. Their interpretation is not so straightforward. If the copious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inscriptions recovered from the Chola period have supported at least three models of the south Indian state, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they are certainly capable of revealing several different images of the )] TJ ET BT 369.572 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(devadasi)] TJ ET BT 412.232 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At a general level, Orr claims that in the Chola period there was no intimate sharing of ritual forms, dance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(music, and personnel between the domains of the temple and court. She substantiates this on the paucity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inscriptions which refer to women as both)] TJ ET BT 235.988 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( tevar? iya \(tevararatiyal)] TJ ET BT 371.300 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and ?palace woman?. To my mind, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this sort of evidence does nothing to establish the argument that courtly and temple ritual were unrelated. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not at all surprising that temple women would not be affiliated to the palace, since direct service to two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masters in a patriarchal system could hardly be the norm. Because the servants of one household do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(name themselves as the servants of another can hardly serve as evidence that these households are run )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differently. Moreover, much other evidence cited by the book would seems to suggest the contrary, that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was in fact considerable parity between the practices of the palace and temple ? that the baths, meals, speech )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and buildings of both kings and gods are spoken of with the same vocabulary. The Chola period textual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence is significant in this regard, as both architectural texts like )] TJ ET BT 360.632 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mayamata)] TJ ET BT 411.956 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as well as the ea rly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pirapantam)] TJ ET BT 90.020 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( literature in Tamil, some of which refer to specific ritual events \(like the )] TJ ET BT 442.952 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ul? \(ula\))] TJ ET BT 484.616 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processional description\), clearly envision human and divine lords similarly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Equally vexing is the ?legal? status of temple women. Orr maintains on the basis of the ?honorific? character )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the term )] TJ ET BT 89.672 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a iy? r \(atiyar\))] TJ ET BT 164.660 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in Tamil )] TJ ET BT 211.664 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bhakti)] TJ ET BT 241.664 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( traditions and its use to denote royal ?attendants?, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tevara iy? \(tevaratiyal\))] TJ ET BT 159.656 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were not in fact ?subalterns? or slaves. She distinguishes these, who formed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic majority of temple women, from those who in the later Chola period clearly entered into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temple service as slaves. While such a distinction may be plausible, it is vitiated by the lack of any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the legal/theoretical boundaries of slavery, service, bondage and attendance. The inscriptions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which record women?s donations, often in exchange for privileges in temple ritual, are for their part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambiguous: they do not clearly spell out the nature of the relationship which constituted them as)] TJ ET BT 495.644 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( tevara iy? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(r \(tevaratiyar\))] TJ ET BT 103.004 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the first place. Orr seems to believe that such women had no obligation to temples, since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(none are mentioned in the inscriptions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fact that temple women were able to make donations raises related issues as to the relative freedom to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accumulate wealth and what the sources of such wealth may have been. It is not necessary to assume, as Orr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently does, that the accumulation of limited amounts of wealth precluded relations of obligation or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servitude. How such wealth would have been obtained, of course, is unclear, as the inscriptions are relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(silent on the matter. Orr suggests, borrowing from the contemporary studies she is otherwise keen to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distance herself from, that it was gained by performing acts of worship for patrons. Very plausible, but why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should we reject the same accounts which suggest that sexual favours also formed a source of income? If the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inscriptional record is silent on this matter, what is the justification for borrowing from the ethnographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence in such a selective manner?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?gender? perspective claimed by the book seems to amount to little more than comparing demographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profiles of men and women in inscriptions, rather than seeing gender as a set of ideologies and practices that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form subjectivities and agencies. Orr?s indifference to the more ?symbolic? or ?discursive? elements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender and dismissal of textual evidence has sadly handicapped a study which otherwise may have added )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 2594 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something to what most accounts of women in medieval India are vitally missing. It )] TJ ET BT 440.324 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(is )] TJ ET BT 451.328 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(healthy to use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inscriptions as a corrective to the idealising and unrooted nature of textual analysis, but it is hardly adequate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to ignore such sources altogether. What the inscriptions can tell us is in many ways as fragmentary as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary sources. Even more fundamental is Orr?s seeming understanding of ?agency? and disempowerment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as mutually exclusive categories, in a sort of statistical zero-sum game. The overarching theoretical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework of the book, to demonstrate that women exercised agency, is pursued at the cost of theorising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their oppression. Agency is hardly so simple, as most forms of oppression sustain themselves by actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bestowing certain types of agency to their victims. This is precisely how ideas of servitude and)] TJ ET BT 489.284 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( bhakti)] TJ ET BT 522.284 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval India functioned at once to ?empower? subaltern classes and compromise their autonomous agency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? making )] TJ ET BT 81.344 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bhakti)] TJ ET BT 111.344 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( perennially availability for both elitist and subaltern agendas. The complexity of the temple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman?s position, one feels, is missing from this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 608.671 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 590.891 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 590.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/169)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 589.497 m 322.316 589.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 564.520 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 550.120 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1131)] TJ ET BT 34.016 535.720 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 589.8115 322.3157 601.6915 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/169) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000577 00000 n 0000000659 00000 n 0000005542 00000 n 0000005651 00000 n 0000005761 00000 n 0000005870 00000 n 0000009431 00000 n 0000009559 00000 n 0000009643 00000 n 0000009708 00000 n 0000017820 00000 n 0000017885 00000 n 0000025981 00000 n 0000026065 00000 n 0000028712 00000 n 0000028840 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28935 %%EOF