%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728133910+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728133910+01'00') /Title (King Death. The Black Death and its Aftermath in Late Medieval England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5067 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(King Death. The Black Death and its Aftermath in Late Medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The study of the Black Death has undergone something of a renaissance in recent years. A flurry of articles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(including J. Hatcher, 'England in the aftermath of the Black Death', )] TJ ET BT 363.608 308.963 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present )] TJ ET BT 448.604 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(144 \(1994\)\), a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selection of sources \(R. Horrox, )] TJ ET BT 190.316 294.707 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Black Death )] TJ ET BT 273.968 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1994\)\) and two syntheses \(this one and M. Ormrod and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Lindley, eds., )] TJ ET BT 115.016 280.451 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Black Death in England )] TJ ET BT 254.672 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1996\)\) have dealt specifically with late medieval plague. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other studies have taken plague as a focus or point of departure, for example, L.R. Poos, )] TJ ET BT 462.932 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A rural society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(after the Black Death. Essex 1350-1525 )] TJ ET BT 228.320 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1991\). This interest stands in contrast, as Hatcher points out, to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of the Black Death taken by historians at mid-century and it may be that the social and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of late medieval English society has emerged from the shadow of historians such as Postan and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Levett, where the Black death was seen as a catalyst, not a prime mover. Colin Platt's )] TJ ET BT 446.444 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(King Death. The Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Death and its aftermath in latemedieval England)] TJ ET BT 268.676 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a work of synthesis which continues this trend. Written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a fairly chatty style \(phrases such as 'Mickey Mouse numbers' and 'rich old ladies' abound\) with a liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sprinkling of modern marketing-speak \('shopping blight', 'customer base' and 'market spread', for example\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is a personal tour through a great deal of the recent secondary literature, largely generated by historians of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(town and countryside; the book also offers a brief survey of postplague art and architecture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beginning with Bridbury's well-known characterisation of the Black Death as 'more purgative than toxic', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Platt treats his introductory chapter as an opportunity to run through much familiar material, including a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quotation from the most obvious continental source, Boccaccio's )] TJ ET BT 347.144 83.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Decameron)] TJ ET BT 403.124 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. From late fourteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, Knighton's chronicle is also quoted as is the chronicle of Meaux before Platt turns to examine data )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on mortality compiled by Hatcher and Harvey from the monastic communities of Canterbury and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 December, 1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colin Platt)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University College London Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillip Schofield)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7877 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westminster respectively. Poos' work on tithing data is also briefly considered and other local studies which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(touch on Black Death mortality are tapped in the search for some general percentage of plague deaths. Platt, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as anyone who attempts a synthesis of this kind, is at the mercy of the historians whose work he uses. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Important work by Razi on Halesowen and by Lock on Walsham-le-Willows is quoted and the figures given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are accepted, seemingly without reservation. However the authors of both of these studies have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumed that the manor court rolls, upon which their research is based, offer records of total populations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which they may well not; further, both Razi and Lock attempt to break down the tenant population according )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to age and produce very interesting but highly speculative results. Using the Walsham-le-Willows data, Platt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is happy to report that 90 per cent of the elderly in the village died in 1349 whilst the plague spared most of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those in their twenties \(14 per cent mortality\) and thirties \(20 per cent mortality\). Thus, he explains, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure of landholding could happily recover from the removal of what was, essentially, surplus. The swift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recovery which followed the first plague outbreak is, as he notes, well-attested and the seemingly eager )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptance of new opportunities by the offspring and lateral kin of the deceased is familiar. This is described )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in particular detail by Razi for Halesowen. But the interesting, and possibly problematic, thing about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Halesowen and Walsham-le- Willows data is that the age-structure of mortality, if such it is, runs counter to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much that has been written on age- specific plague mortality in later periods. The cautionary note which both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians include with their results has been largely ignored by Platt and as a consequence the general reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will be left with an unrealistic expectation of what the demographic study of manorial court rolls can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieve. More demographic research of recent years is also presented as cut and dried \(the manor of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coltishall in Cambridgeshire, recently studied by Bruce Campbell, is described as 'small but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative...of the region' \(p.11\)\) when, in actual fact, most of the information is standing in the field, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still waiting for the scythe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This uncritical approach is most evident in Platt's description of household formation and age at marriage in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rural communities where he examines the work of those historians who have recently attempted to show that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(low fertility rather than high mortality explains the population doldrums in which late medieval England fell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becalmed. Platt embraces the fertility model of late medieval population stagnation wholeheartedly, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mortality which, of course, cannot be denied a major role in initial outbreaks is subsequently relegated to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bit-part. Rural communities were 'relatively immune from plague', writes Platt \(p.34\), and, having raised the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem of why population failed to recover in the century and a half after the arrival of plague, he then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proceeds to describe recent research, particularly that by Poos on rural Essex, which has promoted the thesis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a shift to late marriage and the nuclear family subsequent to 1348/9.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are a number of problems here which Platt does not address. Firstly, it is far from inconceivable that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plague did continue to have an effect on rural populations, even in the fifteenth century. Jim Bolton, in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own recent overview of the social and economic impact of the Black Death, which includes a brief but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable discussion of some of the epidemiological literature, seems to suggests that plague had become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enzootic in late medieval England \(J. Bolton, 'The world upside down'. Plague as an agent of economic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social change' in Ormrod and Lindley, eds., )] TJ ET BT 246.140 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Black Death in England )] TJ ET BT 385.796 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( p. 27\); Robert Gottfried's well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known discussion of fifteenth century plague, although open to question, also argues that plague, travelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along the routes of commercialised late medieval England, continued to have an impact in the East Anglian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countryside \(R.S. Gottfried, )] TJ ET BT 170.672 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Epidemic disease in fifteenth century England. The medical response and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(demographic consequences )] TJ ET BT 169.316 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1978\)\). A second point which can be made here concerns family structure; Platt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes two very distinct periods in the history of medieval rural household formation: a pre- plague period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when rural families lived in extended households and a post-plague period when these complicated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures were replaced by nuclear families as individuals made new choices about household formation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, in terms of what is known about household formation systems, both past and present, even where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended families are seen as an optimum, the majority of household structures at any one time are likely to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be simple rather than complex. This point offers a change of emphasis rather than of content in Platt's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion but it is not where the real problem lies. The almost insurmountable problem which any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussant of rural, and, in particular, peasant, family structure faces for this period is that there is very little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence which can shed light on peasant family and/or household forms at all: Platt, noting that large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(households could still, exceptionally, be found in the century after the Black Death, has to turn to the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7816 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobility for an example \(p.37, referring to the 23 children Richard de Neville, Earl of Westmoreland\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thirteenth century serflists, discussed by Hallam and, latterly, by Smith, are, prior to the 1377 and 1381 poll-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taxes, the only nominative listings which can offer detailed insights into peasant family structures. Studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manorial court rolls have, and may still, shed light on this area as may archaeology but, at present, there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the evidence to justify the categorical argument which Platt propounds. In fact, it is not inconceivable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that population decline in the mid- to late fourteenth century could, in certain cases, have generated complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(households as sons, with the added leverage of the threat of mobility, hastened the retirements of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parents; although this would seem, given late medieval evidence on mobility and the widespread availability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of land, an unlikely scenario, the reality is, that for a good deal of the English population, we simply do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know. Further, although there is evidence for life- cycle service in late medieval England, this still needs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testing outside of the regions, notably Yorkshire and Essex, in which it has so far been identified. Mark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bailey's combative and important article, published earlier this year in )] TJ ET BT 373.796 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History Review )] TJ ET BT 501.440 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the appearance of )] TJ ET BT 121.640 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(King Death )] TJ ET BT 180.308 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, raises a number of questions about the overall validity of the demographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observations made by Poos and Goldberg: whether it provokes a response remains to be seen but Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Platt's observations should certainly be read with Bailey's caveats in mind.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Extended attention has been given to the demographic discussion of plague's impact for the reason, already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given, that this is an area of unresolved debate and, consequently, any attempt at an overview must be of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest. It is, however, not the only area of recent historical debate to which Professor Platt turns his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention; the related question of the extent of the plague's impact on the late medieval economy is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered. In a chapter entitled 'shrunken towns', Platt reviews a number of the recent studies which have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(added their separate and often disharmonious voices to the 'urban decay' debate. Towns such as Wells, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boston, and Winchester are seen as, to a greater or lesser extent, 'genuine victims' of plague- induced, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population decline; in contrast, the decline of Great Yarmouth, for example, cannot be so easily explained in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of excessive mortality. However, Platt is keen to promote the demographic aspect of urban decay and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes this chapter by suggesting that it was the failure of the countryside in the late middle ages to boost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban populations by migration that helps explain urban decay in this period. This is by way of introduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to his discussion of the demographic developments in villages, which has been considered, above. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extension, Platt suggests that fertility and not mortality also explains the problems faced by towns in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In subsequent chapters, Platt presents an analysis of the plague-related experience of the different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(components of late medieval society: nobility, gentry, and monks and nuns. In discussing the fortunes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobility in the later middle ages, Platt examines the experience of lay landlords, offering examples from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stafford and Arundel estates, amongst others. The leasing of the demesnes is described here before Platt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers some thoughts on why English noble families did not generally replicate the success of the Grey's into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sixteenth century. Flawed succession, which opened the door to long-lived widows, seems to be the final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(verdict and Platt, in a style that is likely to prove provocative, wishes the dowagers ill. His approach stands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in contrast to J.M.W. Bean's brief discussion of widow's dower in volume III of )] TJ ET BT 419.288 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Agrarian History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England and Wales)] TJ ET BT 128.012 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, where he suggests that 'landowners showed no concern about this aspect of feudal land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law'. 'Biology - more than war, economic recession or the everlasting folly of politicians' also, according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Platt, explains the severe fluctuations in the fortunes of individual families of poorer knights and gentry in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this period. Well-placed to take advantage of the failures of their social superiors, opportunity knocked in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of political office and land, available through marriage. In order to preserve their estates, the gentry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed legal devices intended to ensure male succession and, increasingly, came to restrict rights of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widow's dower. However, as Platt acknowledges, actual attempts to restrict dower were few and tardy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which seems to return us to Bean's comment, quoted earlier.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The decline, often severe, in the numbers of monks and nuns is also described by Platt. The ultimate failure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of religious communities, done to death in the first half of the sixteenth century, was preceded by some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier demises, the root cause of which may have pre-dated the Black Death but ends nonetheless that may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been hastened by the arrival of plague. A fall in numbers was also accompanied, eventually, by a loss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of income as landed estates failed to make the returns which they had in earlier decades. Having described )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7880 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the increase in the monks' standard of living in the late fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, Platt suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the monastic existence became more lethargic and corrupt subsequent to plague's arrival. Quoting, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion, Erasmus, he hints that the Reformation gained impetus from this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two chapters touch on the effect of plague on piety \(chapter 7: 'Like people, like priest'\) and on revolt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapter 8: 'Protest and resolution'\). In the first of these Platt begins with a discussion of the mortality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst the clergy, which seems to have been significantly higher than that of the lay population., before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proceeding to examine the spiritual impact of the plague and, in particular, the growing importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chantries. In concluding the chapter he suggests that a scarcity of priests subsequent to 1349 had turned into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an excess by the early sixteenth century which, in turn, had led to their alienation by a society which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly saw clerics as preoccupied with secular advancement. Platt's interpretation of the fluctuation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinations contrasts quite markedly with Christopher Harper Bill's recent overview of English religion after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Black Death, where the latter argues that the beginning of the decline in numbers of ordinations pre-dates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the arrival of plague and that the sustained level of ordinations in the first decades after 1348/9 was a mark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of genuine religious fervour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter on protest deals more with developments in the criminal legal machinery after the Black Death, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than simply rehearsing again the events of 1381. Touching upon seigneurial reaction in the wake of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plague and peasant, particularly villain, resistance to this, Professor Platt proceeds to discuss some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent literature describing late medieval developments in the common law and in office holding. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing use of arbitration is also described and set within the context of the fifteenth century and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence of the nobility. The message with which Platt leaves us is that legal cards are not dealt even-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handedly and it is the dealers who tend to win; he recognises that if this is true for the post Black Death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period it removes any claim of novelty for that time, at least in terms of justice. In his concluding chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Platt returns to the theme of revolt, speculating that the plague helped spare England from rebellion. He sees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plague in England as a defining moment which liberated great hordes of people \(to a greater degree than any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution could\) but there is a danger here, which Platt acknowledges, of misrepresenting pre-plague )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England: the mobility, the security, the tolerated level of social protest which Platt describes for post-plague )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society does not, in all respects, stand in sharp and positive contrast to what went before. Poos, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is keen to suggest, in a contentious thesis, that the population of Essex was highly mobile even before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1348/9 \(Poos, )] TJ ET BT 103.688 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rural society)] TJ ET BT 167.348 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\); further, the decline of serfdom also saw the disappearance of certain customary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devices, such as widow's dower, that had offered a measure of protection to at least some sections of peasant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society; finally, what we know of ecclesiastical courts from the late thirteenth and early fourteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(admittedly very little\) suggests that the public shaming of cuckolds and similar expressions of rule and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misrule enjoyed a prominence in rural society which does not stand in contrast to what followed. None of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is to say that the Black Death did not have extraordinary and far-reaching effects on English society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, obviously, it did; instead, some greying of the distinctions is called for. For instance, one very real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good which the Black Death and the Peasant's Revolt did combine to bring to an end was excessive taxation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the poorer elements of society. If, however, society's burden was being shifted in this way, other weights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were being added and we should note that Harper-Bill, following Miri Rubin, suggests that it was the plague )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which first threw the 'sturdy beggar' on to the English social stage C. Harper- Bill, 'The English Church and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English religion after the Black Death' in Ormrod and Lindley, eds., )] TJ ET BT 363.464 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Black Death in England )] TJ ET BT 503.120 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 116.\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(King Death)] TJ ET BT 89.684 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not, however, just an attempt at a synthesis of recent work and there is much in the book that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is generated by Professor Platt's particular research interests and expertise. Archaeological evidence is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usefully integrated into the discussion on a number of occasions and Platt describes the plague's effect on art )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and architecture in the penultimate chapter. The late medieval culture of death is reviewed here and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of examples of )] TJ ET BT 147.992 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(memento mori )] TJ ET BT 219.980 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given. This chapter is well-supported by photographs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrations; carefully chosen and well-integrated with the text, these are amongst the highlights of the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in general \(an aerial photograph of Ingarsby Grange in the snow, in the chapter entitled 'Of monks and nuns', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is particularly appealing\) and are at their most impressive here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a concluding chapter, sections of which have already been discussed, it is suggested that historians have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been forced into tunnel vision by the periodisation of the subject. With this in mind, Professor Platt attempts )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1697 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to assess the plague's overall impact but still, despite his warning to avoid a too strict division of history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encourages us to see the Black Death as a point of crisis from which English society made real recovery. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alongside his concluding view that plague achieved what no English revolution could, the changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception of death is also considered and a brief return is made to discussion of the art of dying. We are told )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the legend of )] TJ ET BT 120.668 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The three living and the three dead )] TJ ET BT 292.316 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lost its levity after the Black Death; if it was a great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(joke beforehand then the mid- fourteenth century marks a very real watershed indeed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 679.951 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 662.171 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 662.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/17)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 660.777 m 316.316 660.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 635.800 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.400 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/210)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 661.0915 316.3157 672.9715 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/17) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000580 00000 n 0000000662 00000 n 0000005781 00000 n 0000005890 00000 n 0000006000 00000 n 0000006109 00000 n 0000009670 00000 n 0000009798 00000 n 0000009882 00000 n 0000009947 00000 n 0000017877 00000 n 0000017942 00000 n 0000025811 00000 n 0000025876 00000 n 0000033809 00000 n 0000033893 00000 n 0000035643 00000 n 0000035771 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35865 %%EOF