%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818121036+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818121036+01'00') /Title (Prime Ministers and the Rule Book) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5656 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Prime Ministers and the Rule Book)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is one of those quirky features of our ancient, but constantly changing, Constitution that one particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cabinet Office document may warrant such an extensive enquiry. However, Amy Baker's )] TJ ET BT 467.408 358.859 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prime Ministers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and the Rule Book)] TJ ET BT 122.336 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( rises to the challenge and produces a convincing and illuminating study. Her book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charters the origins and evolution of a document that has become an indispensable part of the Cabinet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system since 1945. Yet )] TJ ET BT 148.340 316.091 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Questions of Procedure for Ministers)] TJ ET BT 327.668 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \('QPM'\), now known as the )] TJ ET BT 464.972 316.091 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ministerial Code)] TJ ET BT 546.644 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was neither anticipated nor intended to be an immovable feature in the British political system. Clement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Attlee's guidelines were particular to the needs of his new government and as Baker's research reveals, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nearly abandoned altogether on Churchill's return to office five years later. )] TJ ET BT 395.420 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 421.412 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( remains the creature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prime Minister and as Lord Butler, former Cabinet Secretary, points out, may be dispensed with if and when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its master sees fit. The practice of prime ministerial and Cabinet government has, however, been rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different. Since John Major approved its publication in May 1992, )] TJ ET BT 355.316 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 381.308 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has attracted strong interest from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars, journalists and politicians alike. Yet, as Professor Peter Hennessy so rightly points out in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction, never before has there been such a meticulous unveiling of its origins, revisions and extensions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amy Baker's book fills an important gap in our knowledge of the rules that are intended to guide the practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of government. It is true that they do not bind ministers; the )] TJ ET BT 323.672 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ministerial Code)] TJ ET BT 405.344 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( lacks statutory status \(and may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardly be described as a solid plank of the Constitution\), but it has evolved into something that few ministers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can afford to ignore as the events of the 1990s have shown. Not only does this book raise pertinent questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about )] TJ ET BT 63.680 130.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM's)] TJ ET BT 96.908 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 'constitutional' significance, it also delves into the rumbling debate about open government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prime Ministers & the Rule Book)] TJ ET BT 194.336 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( unravels the history of )] TJ ET BT 307.988 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 333.980 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( into three interesting lines of enquiry. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relate to the development of the document itself, the impact of events and personalities and the controversy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it has encountered since publication in 1992. The first examines )] TJ ET BT 364.640 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM's)] TJ ET BT 397.868 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( evolution as a compendium of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rules of procedure and conduct at the heart of government. Each chapter chronicles how successive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(171)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 February, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amy Baker)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Politico's Publishing)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Snowdon)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8652 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incumbents from Attlee to Blair left their characteristic stamp on the document. The author is keen to point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out at the beginning that a template for )] TJ ET BT 223.328 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 249.320 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was already in place before 1945. The first Secretary to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cabinet, Sir Maurice Hankey, drafted the original version, )] TJ ET BT 316.964 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rules of Procedure)] TJ ET BT 409.616 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1917 \(only one year after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the creation of the Cabinet Secretariat\) and was privy to collective approval by Cabinet. The Cabinet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secretary was to be its custodian, but neither Hankey nor his successor, Sir Edward Bridges, sought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expand upon its initial function. What is particularly revealing in Baker's account of )] TJ ET BT 440.120 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM's )] TJ ET BT 476.348 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact that the document rarely came to the attention of ministers, let alone the office of the Prime Minister. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The document was solely the creature of the Cabinet Office in the interwar period. Yet all was to change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the experience of wartime government with the array of new procedures and practices. Such an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unobtrusive document was to become a useful device for the Prime Minister in shaping the 'rules of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(game' of his government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter accurately recalls just how determined Clement Attlee was to lay down the rules in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wake of the Coalition Government. If his administration were to achieve its ambitious plans, ministers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have to be aware of clear, consistent and co-ordinated rules of procedure in government. Attlee would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not tolerate anything else but an efficient business-like approach in his Cabinet. Indeed he frowned upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inefficiencies of his predecessors, namely Ramsay MacDonald and Winston Churchill. As Baker mentions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Attlee's blunt comment to Churchill that 'a monologue is not a decision' illustrates how differently he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(envisaged the chairmanship and handling of Cabinet. Streamlining decision-making procedures, namely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chairmanship of Cabinet committees, were vital to Attlee's style of Cabinet government. )] TJ ET BT 460.796 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 486.788 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( also included )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to guidelines of a 'problem-solving' nature, particularly with regard to 'leaked' information, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periodically blighted the 1945-50 Labour Government. The expansion of )] TJ ET BT 387.296 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 413.288 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( into a compendium of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed guidelines would not have been possible were it not for Attlee's interest in the minutiae of Cabinet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government. Although he enjoyed a greater scope in shaping the contents of )] TJ ET BT 402.284 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 428.276 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Attlee intentionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoided making any reference to the constitutional principles and precedents of the Cabinet system.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 60.008 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( essentially remained the Prime Minister's 'rulebook')] TJ ET BT 314.132 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offering advice to ministers until the 1990s. It did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not attempt to define the role of Cabinet ministers constitutionally nor did it set in stone rigid obligations for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ministers to adhere to as Baker points out early on in the book. The subsequent revisions to )] TJ ET BT 474.644 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 500.636 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1950s reflected this position, but the document could have very nearly been jettisoned altogether by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill's post-war administrations after 1951. Churchill's deep distrust for Attlee's reforms meant that )] TJ ET BT 535.112 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was far from established as non-partisan guide for good practice in government. Following what Sir Robin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butler describes as the 'scissors and pasting' exercise, Churchill approved a document, which retained the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('bare essentials' of Attlee's version. Baker's detailed account of such revisions indicates that many an hour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was spent in the Public Record Office discovering who did most to save )] TJ ET BT 382.976 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 408.968 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from extinction in 1951. Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norman Brook, Churchill's Cabinet Secretary, among others was crucial in presenting an acceptable version )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Prime Minister. The redrafting of )] TJ ET BT 227.324 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 253.316 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to include previous prime ministerial instruction has been vital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the continuity of the document for fifty-five years. What is particularly noteworthy in Baker's account is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the identification of the senior mandarins, who did most to ensure its survival after the first post-war change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most significant additions to )] TJ ET BT 195.020 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 221.012 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the 1950s related to policy presentation in light of the expansion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadcasting and television. Anthony Eden's concerns led to the incorporation of strict rules for ministers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about accepting invitations to television programmes and acquiring prime ministerial approval before any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance. These soon became impractical and were relaxed in the 1958 version of )] TJ ET BT 441.224 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM.)] TJ ET BT 470.216 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Harold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan was the first Prime Minister to enthusiastically embrace television as an effective publicity tool. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He was also increasingly aware that ministers were to be given guidance about the use of television in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presenting the Government's case. Paragraphs relating to policy presentation and the media became a key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(component of an expanded )] TJ ET BT 166.652 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM.)] TJ ET BT 195.644 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The growth of broadcasting and media interest in ensured that ministerial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct came increasingly under the spotlight towards the end of the decade and into the 1960s. Macmillan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responded to an array of affairs and instances of perceived ministerial misconduct by drafting the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formal code of conduct ever to be circulated to ministers. As Baker points out, it was felt that the 'good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chaps' could no longer be trusted with discretion and common sense over matters of private interest such as )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8631 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directorships and shareholdings. Clear guidelines dealing with the acceptance of gifts from companies were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus incorporated into )] TJ ET BT 142.340 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 168.332 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. As the author points out it was under the Macmillan government that )] TJ ET BT 508.304 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turned into something more than a simple guide for procedure. It was now also a code for propriety and good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct in public office. The Profumo Affair and other instances had not destroyed the 'good chaps' ethos )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completely, but the changing shape of )] TJ ET BT 219.656 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 245.648 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( definitely reflected a sea change in the culture of government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harold Macmillan famously observed that 'events' were always around the corner waiting to unnerve a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prime Minister and his government. Indeed the impact of events and personalities on the evolving status of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 60.008 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( features prominently in the book. The increase in workload for Cabinet ministers was particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noticeable during the 1960s and 1970s. As the volume of business increased, Wilson tightened the operation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Cabinet system by introducing a number of amendments and additions to )] TJ ET BT 418.988 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 444.980 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Rules governing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circulation of Cabinet memoranda and consultation with the Treasury took on a greater stringency than ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before. Indeed the mounting pressures and constraints from industrial crises and membership of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European Community meant that )] TJ ET BT 196.676 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 222.668 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was yet further expanded and clarified to promote efficiency in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government. One of Baker's most illuminating comments is that "no previous Prime Minister had formally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required such a high degree of centralisation around Number 10 and only Tony Blair, since then, has gone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further" \(p. 31\). Even more revealing is her account of how Wilson attempted to quell ministerial disputes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and suspicions by waving the rulebook at his colleagues. The fall out with Tony Benn, who blatantly ignored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any authority that )] TJ ET BT 121.676 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 147.668 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( may have had, demonstrates just how controversial the deployment of the document )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became behind closed doors. The chapter on the Wilson years provides a tantalising read of just how bitter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal grievances and grudges became. It is also comforting to see an array of references made to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diaries of Messrs. Benn, Castle and Crossman as well as that invaluable research tool - the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The events of the Thatcher years certainly had a decisive impact on the nature of )] TJ ET BT 424.244 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 450.236 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The scandals of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lloyd's of London and the Westland Affair were particularly embarrassing for the Thatcher government. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(QPM was tightened to prevent further serious conflicts of interest as well as the codification of other long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing rules about confidentiality and legal advice. However, it was the Clive Ponting affair that really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sent shivers down the spines of Sir Humphry and his ilk. In response to the affair and an increasingly active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judiciary, two major additions were made to )] TJ ET BT 249.320 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 275.312 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Constitutional conventions governing individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ministerial responsibility and proper relations between Ministers and civil servants were now codified and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included in the rulebook for the first time. As the author points out these were not simply rules pertaining to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('practical guidance' - they laid down conventions that were of long-standing constitutional importance. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rules of conduct had been significantly expanded upon as a result of the embarrassing events and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments during these years. Indeed the author comments that by the 1980s, it was far easier for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prime Minister to tighten and add to existing rules, rather than make any significant deletions. By the time of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication in 1992, )] TJ ET BT 133.352 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 159.344 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( resembled a markedly strict and precise compendium of rules.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The life of )] TJ ET BT 87.668 235.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 113.660 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( after publication constitutes the third and final fascinating line of historical enquiry in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. The decision to publish and the efforts made to restructure and redraft )] TJ ET BT 402.608 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 428.600 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( will remain one of John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Major's enduring legacies vis--vis open government. The document became public property and served as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first official yardstick of ministerial conduct and procedure in Cabinet government. It was now open to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public scrutiny and no sooner did this happen than in the years immediately to follow. One cannot help )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feeling that the decision to publish )] TJ ET BT 202.676 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 228.668 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was one of those apparently selfless acts made by governments, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which only return to haunt them when events are not on their side. Things certainly did get worse as one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ministerial scandal after another rocked the Major Government. The allegations of sleaze and impropriety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the subsequent investigation by the Nolan Committee on Standards in Public Life transformed the nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and tone of )] TJ ET BT 91.004 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 116.996 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Indeed Baker's chapter entitled 'Nolan, Scott and Sleaze' sheds light on what exactly was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporated into the document during these rather unsavoury episodes in British political history. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Major Government, eager to save the reputation of public life let alone its own face, revised )] TJ ET BT 477.920 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 503.912 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to criticism that it was too limited in scope. Notable gaps were to be found in the rulebook relating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to proper ministerial conduct. As a consequence, a code of ethical principles for public office was swiftly )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6882 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted. The implications of the Nolan reforms still resonate today and extend far beyond the textual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amendments of )] TJ ET BT 110.672 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM.)] TJ ET BT 139.664 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The post-Nolan world has had significant impact on the expectations and standards of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public life. Indeed the )] TJ ET BT 142.328 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ministerial Code)] TJ ET BT 224.000 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, renamed in 1997, refers to these broader changes. The Nolan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Committee also recommended that 'a free-standing code of conduct' or expressing the ethical principles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpinning )] TJ ET BT 101.012 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 127.004 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( could be created. To this day no such code has been drafted and the author is keen to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point this out in her conclusions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The modern controversy surrounding the rulebook draws together the strands of historical enquiry employed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this thought-provoking book. The uncloaking of an internal document, which offers guidance to ministers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about procedure and conduct, ensured that it would become a public yardstick with which to measure their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performance. Tony Blair's recent alterations and rebranding of )] TJ ET BT 336.428 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 362.420 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were intended to go part of the way in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restoring public confidence in the British system of government and the greater transparency it has acquired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the last decade or so. The )] TJ ET BT 183.308 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ministerial Code)] TJ ET BT 264.980 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( now has a very formal status, which reflects the changes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political life and behaviour in the 1990s. As Baker remarks in her conclusion, the document has acquired a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more complex role in government than simply offering guidance to ministers on procedure. The events of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1980s and particularly the 1990s have transformed it into a much more dynamic feature of Cabinet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government. The history of )] TJ ET BT 168.332 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(QPM)] TJ ET BT 194.324 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reflects the development of government in the second half of the twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century and for this reason, contemporary historians will find )] TJ ET BT 331.304 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prime Ministers & the Rule Book)] TJ ET BT 491.624 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resource. The inclusion of Attlee's 1946 version and the )] TJ ET BT 304.796 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ministerial Code)] TJ ET BT 386.468 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of 1997 not only provides a useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference point throughout the book, but also an essential means of comparison during its fifty-five year )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. This book is as thoroughly footnoted as any work of fine academic standing and if any fault is to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found in this respect, it is the lack of separate bibliography and index.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By means of a conclusion, one is assured that political scientists will also find this a stimulating read, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it legitimately questions the curious status of this public document in the modern polity and argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with some force, that it has become a key 'constitutional player'. Nevertheless, the )] TJ ET BT 430.268 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ministerial Code)] TJ ET BT 511.940 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( remains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Prime Minister's rulebook and as the Blair administration has demonstrated, it may be used a public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations tool intended to restore faith in good and governance. Amy Baker's case for reform - that it is time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to remove the present dichotomy that exists in the )] TJ ET BT 276.332 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ministerial Code)] TJ ET BT 358.004 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, by creating a free-standing formal code )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of conduct certainly draws attention to the fact that the government's perception of the function of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rulebook and that of the public and Parliament are by no means the same. But to give the previous and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present governments credit, the )] TJ ET BT 187.652 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ministerial Code)] TJ ET BT 269.324 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has been adjusted to match the expectations of the post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nolan era. If we are to place the formation and amendment of such rules in the hands of those outside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cabinet Office and Number 10, whether they are backbench MPs, lawyers or a panel of independent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advisers, we might lose altogether any sense of trust in the means of self-regulation and responsibility in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central government. One only hopes that enough confidence has been restored in conduct and procedure so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the rulebook may continue to serve it's proper purpose in the British system of government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 242.527 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 224.747 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 224.747 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/171)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 223.353 m 322.316 223.353 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 198.376 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 183.976 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1133)] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.576 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 223.6675 322.3157 235.5475 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/171) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000536 00000 n 0000000618 00000 n 0000006326 00000 n 0000006435 00000 n 0000006545 00000 n 0000006654 00000 n 0000010215 00000 n 0000010343 00000 n 0000010427 00000 n 0000010492 00000 n 0000019197 00000 n 0000019262 00000 n 0000027946 00000 n 0000028030 00000 n 0000034965 00000 n 0000035093 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35188 %%EOF