%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141023010817+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141023010817+01'00') /Title (Famine, Land and Politics: British Government and Irish Society, 1843-50) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4929 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Famine, Land and Politics: British Government and Irish Society, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1843-50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The sesquicentenary period of the Great Irish Famine has seen a great outpouring of books, articles, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspaper features, TV and radio programmes. Mary Robinson made a big issue of the famine as something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which held up Anglo-Irish rapprochement in a Northern Ireland context; Tony Blair duly apologised for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then British government's role during the crisis of the late 1840s. Popular audiences and academics, too, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have shown a voracious appetite for works on this human tragedy, what Gray himself describes as 'western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe's most profound social crisis of the modern era'. They have come to understand that the famine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot be airbrushed from history and that its legacy needs to be met full on.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the fact that so many works have appeared in the past five years or so is interesting because, for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long time \(perhaps until the famine's centenary period, 1945-51/2\), very little had been written that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempted objectively to assess the scars-economic, social, political, psychological-of )] TJ ET BT 446.624 211.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Gorta Mr)] TJ ET BT 515.288 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish society. The appearance of T.W. Moody and Robin Dudley Edwards' )] TJ ET BT 394.100 197.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Famine)] TJ ET BT 482.756 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in 1952, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marked something of a watershed. It was a dense, scholarly collection of essays in the 'Oxford History of'-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(style, with leading scholars and younger historians commissioned to work on important features of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famine and its legacy. The 1960s were dominated by Cecil Woodham Smith's popular novel-style history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Hunger)] TJ ET BT 122.672 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a haunting, lyrical, accusatory book which aimed to deal a series of withering blows at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British body politic, excoriating the principal players, especially Charles Trevelyan and Charles Wood. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Hunger)] TJ ET BT 122.672 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( almost immediately struck a popular chord with its flowing literary style; its presentation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of some of the most horrific images of famished life and ghoulish death that contemporary observers could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muster. The contrast between these two volumes captures well the problem of assessing whether the Famine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a tragedy made worse by blunder or by a piece of intentional evil masquerading as political economy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice. Either way, the British political and administrative systems stood in the dock. For all that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(173)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 February, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Gray)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish Academic Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald MacRaild)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7725 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodham Smith struck a chord, however, her book hardly stands as a sufficient monument either to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffering of the victims or the complexities of those who deliberated on Ireland's future. Christine Kinealy's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(This Great Calamity)] TJ ET BT 132.692 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(the title comes from a phrase borrowed from one the principal actors of the time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Trevelyan\) sought to deal with much of the ground covered by Gray, although her study focuses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily on the administration, or maladministration, of famine relief. While Kinealy's book is very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different from Woodham Smith's \(for one thing, the research is deeper\), the basic 'bad Britain' is still quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close to surface. This is likely to be the case when one focuses on the administration: it was cruel by almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any standards. However, while such a position is defensible, it does mean all the angles have to be covered-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and this is where, for me, Gray's book comes into its own.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gray takes the level of learning to new depths. He is determined to provide a rounded account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and intellectual world that enveloped the administration of famine relief and explained the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates about what was to be done for the Irish. Though he undeniably and correctly concludes with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passionate, but balanced attack on the harshness of political economy in action, he strives to bring an old-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashioned and much-maligned epistemological concept, objectivity, to bear on proceedings. Gray declares )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that his sphere of interest is old-fashioned 'high politics', and, in so doing, does himself a disservice. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British politicians were to blame for the calamity that followed the natural disaster of )] TJ ET BT 445.964 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(phytophtora infestans)] TJ ET BT 550.304 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Potato Blight'-and it can very easily be argued that they were-then 'high politics' is surely a sphere we would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglect at our peril. I must say that I did not find the approach of Gray to be boring, elitist or somehow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uninteresting. Instead, I felt electrified and terrified by the author's skill in uncovering his subjects' will. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who are familiar with the somewhat inaptly named 'nationalist-revisionist' debate in Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography, Gray's plea for objectively will be additionally interesting. Some scholars seem to favour an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative 'subjective' reading of Irish history to counter supposedly spurious claims to objectivity from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those with different views. Some prefer to see objectivity as a sort of Anglo-Saxon \(possibly Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germanic\) conspiracy conferred upon the Irish academe by a generation of servile professions who aped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their Rankeian counterparts in Oxford and Cambridge. Scholars without axes to grind, and those who have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protected their senses from the sirens of postmodernism, will admire Gray's method, work-rate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is by far the best book written on the Famine: perhaps only Donal Kerr's )] TJ ET BT 408.464 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Nation of Beggars)] TJ ET BT 506.804 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( comes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close to Gray's understanding of complexities of what unfolded when social crisis in Ireland met political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recalcitrance in England. What, then, does Gray tell us? With a subject so politically loaded as the Famine it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be as well to begin at the end, with the author's conclusion. He cites what he calls a 'providentialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apology' written by Anthony Trollope in 1860, in which the writer casts famine, pestilence and emigration as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('three wonderful events' that were 'blessings coming from Omniscience and Omnipotence by which the black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clouds were driven from the firmament.' Given that emigration from western Ireland had not reached its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peak in the year when Trollope wrote, Gray is additionally correct to stress, in relation to Trollope's remark, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that 'the historian would find it impossible to conclude that the ends of policy justified the appalling and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unnecessary cost in human life.' The author's position is quite clear, then; what is more important, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the way he seeks to explain precisely what government did, what underpinned the frame of mind behind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy, and how the approaches of London-based ruling elites impacted upon Ireland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What Gray attempts to stress is the centrality of land in determining the execution of British policy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland. Catholic Emancipation showed that other things mattered to the Irish. However, while the country )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained so poor, and while its poor remained so dependent on subsistence farming of potatoes, and so long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as social cleavage between landlords and tenants defined relations, then the way in which land was used, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left idle, and the role played by those who owned most of the country, were bound to dominate Irish lives. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The decade after 1845 demonstrated to all and sundry just how important the land was. Opinion may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differed as to the resolution of this crisis, but the interest in Ireland remained high irrespective of viewpoints. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The famine undoubtedly increased the eagerness of the British ruling elite to find an answer to Ireland's land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem. That they were still struggling with the problem in 1900 should not deflect us from an appreciation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of just how intently some people viewed Ireland's land issue, even if they themselves could not feel the pain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the people where it really mattered. For the proponents of liberal economics, the Famine also offered an )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7557 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity to engineer a new social system in Ireland based upon a reformed system of landholding. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why early state initiatives for assisted emigration \(paltry as they were\) were brought into being during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famine storm; this is also why poor law reforms denied the right of those most in need to hold on to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land and receive relief. But the epithets were not reserved only for the poor who held up progress. The dream )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a new future for Ireland was also meant to involve sacrifices for the landholders. Critics of Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landlordism, such as John Stuart Mill \(who wrote a famous series of articles in the )] TJ ET BT 431.972 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Morning Chronicle)] TJ ET BT 524.972 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early years\) characterised Ireland's landowners as under-taxed absentees who lacked the social responsibility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their English counterparts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gray's book builds on Irish traditions but also English ones. It is a book that locks closely into the debates on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland's most apocalyptic famine, as they have been developed by Irish academics; but he also engages with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a mainstream historiographical interest in the role of elites in British politics. This is entirely apt, for, in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense, Gray's approach perfectly mirrors the way in which the famine drama unfolded. Whilst the dying was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done down country lanes in remote parts of western Ireland, as well as on the streets and in the crowded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workhouses of Irish towns, much of important talking, helpful or otherwise, took place in London. Gray's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study thus develops and significantly enhances a line of thinking, about high politics and political economy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously discussed by writers such as Boyd Hilton and Peter Mandler. As well as a contribution to our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciation of famine policy this book is also a very detailed and original examination of the coalition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests that comprised the Whig-Liberal alliance of the period. Gray notes three key groupings. 'The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foxites', with their ethos of necessary reformism, who were led by Lord John Russell himself. The 'moderate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberals included Anglo-Irish landowners who, as adherents to orthodox political economy, were bent upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improving Ireland, not least by sweeping aside those obstacles which blocked their progress. The third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group, 'the moralists \(whom Gray sees as ultimately dominant\) were driven by a providential zeal; for them, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the famine was an act of God, with death and suffering divinely ordained as a vital precursor to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of a new order. For the moralists, society was governed by moral laws, which, in the case of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland, would lead to a new independence-just so long as those laws were allowed to operate in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfettered fashion. The moralists' viewpoint does seem to have received the nod in the press. It had the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantage of costing less than the other approaches, though this is not why the )] TJ ET BT 413.636 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times )] TJ ET BT 445.304 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provincial papers supported the idea that God's hand could be discerned to be at work in Ireland in 1845. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is impossible to know how far the moralist line was independent of the new anti-Irishness of 1848. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish Rising of 1848 turned even the once supportive )] TJ ET BT 289.652 371.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Punch)] TJ ET BT 320.312 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( against the Irish people, and local papers copied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nationals in denigrating the Irish as selfish ingrates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(None of this is to say that government did nothing in Ireland. Peel's short tenure, down to his fall over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeal of the Corn Laws, saw greater exertion by government than did Russell's tenure, although, as Gray )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, there was greater continuity in public policy between these administrations than some scholars have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noted. Gray's book points out just how tortuous debates about what to do for Ireland could be. More than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, however, it also demonstrates that, whatever the tenor of the debate, policy was almost always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpinned by some supposedly loftier sense of direction. \(The fact that God led the way while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrators genuflected to the cruel calculus of political economy does not mean that this was an aimless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journey.\) Liberal policy-makers in the mid- to late-1840s believed that a government's job was to facilitate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change; that laissez-faire did not mean absolute non-intervention but an involvement ordered by moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration. This is why, today, there is no escaping the harshness of what was done-and what was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done. The 'Justice for Ireland' slogan which had connected O'Connellites to Russell's Foxite caucus at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of the famine began to sound hollow and was lost as the cruel providential idealism of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moralists began to win ground.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Gray has produced a book of enormous scholarship. It is essential reading for historians of Ireland and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain alike. The depth of the scholarship \(not least the immense range of MS sources and contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings\), the balance of the conclusions, and the overall confidence with such as difficult terrain is probed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will surely guarantee a pressing relevance and importance for years to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is pleased to accept the review and will not be responding further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 37.925 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 653 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 791.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 773.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 773.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/173)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 772.569 m 322.316 772.569 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 747.592 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1137)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 772.8835 322.3157 784.7635 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/173) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000575 00000 n 0000000657 00000 n 0000005638 00000 n 0000005747 00000 n 0000005857 00000 n 0000005966 00000 n 0000009527 00000 n 0000009655 00000 n 0000009739 00000 n 0000009804 00000 n 0000017582 00000 n 0000017647 00000 n 0000025257 00000 n 0000025341 00000 n 0000026046 00000 n 0000026174 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 26269 %%EOF