%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 36 0 R 44 0 R 76 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818081911+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818081911+01'00') /Title (Ireland and Empire) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4811 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ireland and Empire)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many writers attribute Ireland's problems to colonialism. Most, however, make only limited reference to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature on colonialism elsewhere, and debate is hampered by the intimacy of the Irish academic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual scene, which means criticism is muffled by tact or excessively personalised.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Howe summarises this literature in a survey uncompromising in praise and criticism. In his early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters, Howe surveys the history of relations between Britain and Ireland. Employing a modernist theory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of nationalism and favouring the archipelagic model of mediaeval and early modern Ireland rather than its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("internal colonialist" rival, he argues that until the early modern era it is questionable how far "England" as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an entity existed, or whether there was an "Ireland" to be conquered. He finds the colonial parallel more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applicable to the systematic conquests and plantations of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, but of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubtful value thereafter; there was persistent ambiguity about whether Ireland was a kingdom or a colony, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and even when administrators propounded a colonial agenda their ability to implement it was limited. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howe's central point is that British rule in Ireland was always limited and mediated by heterogeneous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests, rather than an omnipotent coloniser reshaping a helpless Other.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howe notes that Irish nationalist sympathy for the victims of empire was usually selective and based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunistic support for Britain's enemies. \(This is correct, though exceptions are more significant than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howe realises. Enlightenment-inspired United Irish leaders of the 1790s extensively compared the plight of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Irish to that of black slaves - though defeated United Irishmen who fled to the southern states of America )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often changed their views)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 157.652 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 157.652 76.857 m 171.644 76.857 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 171.644 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( R.R. Madden, mid-century historian of the United Irishmen, was an active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolitionist who gave crucial evidence in the )] TJ ET BT 251.648 63.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Amistad )] TJ ET BT 293.984 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trial.\) Many nationalists anxiously distinguished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves from supposedly pre-political "savages"; some were avowed racists. The Young Irelander John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(175)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 28 February, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Howe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780198208251)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick Maume)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 157.6517 77.1715 171.6437 89.0515 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8056 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mitchel denounced British exploitation of India and celebrated Afghan defeat of the British;)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 476.612 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 476.612 795.075 m 490.604 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 490.604 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Mitchel also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocated enslavement of blacks and declared that the crowning indignity of Britain's oppression of Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was its infliction upon white men \(p.44; Howe is too lenient to Mitchel\). Howe argues that British resistance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Home Rule reflected fear of the break-up of the United Kingdom rather than the empire, and this died )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away even within the Conservative Party as the twentieth century progressed. Howe qualifies this view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Home Rule debate \(perhaps it needs further qualification\) and his view that Conservative Unionism died )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Ian Gow is slightly exaggerated.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 213.992 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 213.992 709.539 m 227.984 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 227.984 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He is stronger when pointing out that most anti-colonial writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tacitly excluded Ireland from their subject, as do most historians of empire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A chapter on Irish historians discusses the teleological nationalist historical tradition and its partial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supersession by professionalised historians associated with the journal )] TJ ET BT 374.648 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Historical Studies)] TJ ET BT 486.656 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outspoken "revisionism" of writers like Conor Cruise O'Brien. Howe finds both insufficiently concerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with comparative perspectives and criticises the excessive positivism of the scholars, but thinks this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferable to "even more methodologically retrograde" anti-revisionists, who also assume "Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptionalism" and sometimes demand an usable past irrespective of its truth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howe then explores popular Unionist historical consciousness, making enterprising use of ephemera such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the)] TJ ET BT 48.680 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Orange Standard)] TJ ET BT 135.344 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 158.672 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ulster Review)] TJ ET BT 226.328 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. "Anti-revisionists" find counterparts in Ian Adamson and Michael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hall's attempt to base a common Ulster identity on alleged descent from the Cruthin, a pre-Celtic people. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howe correctly cites archaeologists' declarations that the Cruthin are culturally invisible. For Adamson, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admires the fantasies of C.S. Lewis \(another native of North Down\) the Cruthin offer escape from political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and cultural frustration into a heroic past. For Hall the Cruthin, )] TJ ET BT 338.984 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(because)] TJ ET BT 377.636 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of their invisibility, represent the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(silent ordinary people past and present; his working-class ancestors in East Belfast, the present-day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations of republican and loyalist areas where he organises "think-tanks" of community workers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishing the results. Hall's work for reconciliation is admirable, but the myth that drives it is false.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the heart of this book lies a polemic against writers who present colonialism in cultural terms with little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or no reference to material factors, who stretch the term to cover almost any form of domination or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploitation, who base sweeping generalisations on limited and partial readings of a few literary texts. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal targets are writers associated with the Derry-based Field Day collective. Howe complains that these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers employ sophisticated theoretical apparatus to serve a simplistic interpretation of the Irish situation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that their definitions are so wide they are meaningless, and flaws and contradictions in their arguments are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glossed over by postmodernist refusal to distinguish between myth and fact and assertions that when their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(version of "liberatory" discourse attains universal hegemony all will be reconciled and opposition will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(automatically cease to exist. \(This ominously resembles the Dostoevskyan provincial intellectual hoping for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal liberty but impelled by his own logic to advocate universal slavery.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howe complains about their failure to define colonialism, which they present as an omnipresent Cartesian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demon, and their refusal to engage with Ulster Unionism, a denial of the "otherness" which they invoke. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howe takes up Francis Mulhern's point that Field Day's view of Ireland is centered on Derry and dismisses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the experience of the Republic as secondary to conflict with Britain. This should not imply that Derry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience is inauthentic, though Howe should acknowledge how this nationalist/republican view of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British state in Northern Ireland as active contributor to the conflict rather than neutral and reasonable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guarantor reflects security force activities in the early 1970s and the limitations of direct rule. The Derry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewpoint also influences Field Day's view of Northern Ireland; partition appears purely oppressive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irrational more easily if Derry with its lost Donegal hinterland and longstanding repression of a local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic majority through gerrymandering, rather than Belfast and Protestant-majority East Ulster, is taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as paradigmatic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not all Howe's specific criticisms here are correct. Luke Gibbons may not offer direct citations for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of Burke's celebration of tradition as congruent with postmodern multiculturalism, but it is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plausible reading, and Gibbons' emphasis on the resurgence of certain traditionalisms in 1980s Ireland can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be read as a statement that modernity will not arrive automatically but must be actively created and adapted. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.126\) Nonetheless, Howe is correct to point out the drawbacks of arguments which valorise "oppositional )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 476.6117 795.3895 490.6037 807.2695 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 213.9917 709.8535 227.9837 721.7335 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7909 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kinds of nationalism; decentralised, non-hierarchical, even anarchic, fragmentary and fugitive in expression, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with peasant, proletarian, female, local and minority resistances \(p.133\)". Historians of agrarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence and modern paramilitarism \(loyalist and republican\) show that while such "resistance" is often an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embryonic form of political expression, it can also manifest as cruel, arbitrary and self-serving violence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against neighbours and local rivals rather than external oppressors. Howe's reminder that for all their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limitations the "conservative" founders of the southern Irish state averted the populist chaos and bloody )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dictatorships which consumed many newly independent states, and that victory for their "radical" opponents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have produced such horrors rather than the "liberatory" Utopia of retrospective postmodernist dreams )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp236-7\), is well taken.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 151.664 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 151.664 681.027 m 165.656 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 165.656 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(It should be noted that in Ireland and elsewhere, centralised administration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often serves as a check on predatory local vested interests.\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 317.936 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 317.936 666.771 m 331.928 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next chapters, on attributions of the Irish Republic's problems to neocolonial dependency and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations of the Northern Ireland conflict as anti-colonial, display painful examples of false prophecies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and simplistic rhetoric. In the South, dependency theorists and economic nationalists explained the failure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protectionism by claiming it did not go far enough, while attributing to colonialism economic and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems shared with most advanced industrial countries and predicting indefinite stagnation a shortly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before a sustained economic boom. Many socialists in the 1970s and 1980s uncritically equated the Northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict with colonial wars elsewhere, even hinting Ulster Unionists should leave like Algerian colons. Some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminists presented all conservative and patriarchal elements of Irish life as colonial legacies which would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vanish with IRA victory, uttering pseudo-traditionalist denunciations of feminists who disagreed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howe surveys Ulster Unionism, duly sceptical towards claims by "liberal unionists" like Arthur Aughey that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Britishness with which Unionists identify is inherently modern and multicultural. Howe argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while Ulster Unionists supported the empire this was on the same terms as the rest of Britain, rather than as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separate settler community. He finds present-day Unionism fragmented, confused, often sectarian, but not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mere creation of British policy. After discussing James Loughlin's suggestion that Ulster Unionism is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British "Northern" regional identity, he favours Frank Wright's view that while the problem was shaped by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nineteenth-century decay of older colonial structures, Northern Ireland is an ethnic frontier rather than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settler colony. Howe concludes by arguing that colonialism is only part of the complex Irish experience, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which has much in common with eastern and southern Europe. He appeals for transcendence of divisions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through scholarly understanding and social democracy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No survey so wide-ranging could be flawless, and reviews, like surveys, must to a large extent be reactive. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howe's details are more easily criticised than his framework. He is sometimes unduly dismissive towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual commentators. He accuses Catherine Candy's article on the Irish-born Theosophist Margaret )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cousins \(1878-1954\) of failing "to demonstrate that Cousins was at all involved in nationalist politics in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland )] TJ ET BT 71.000 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(or )] TJ ET BT 84.668 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India" \(p.49\). Cousins' Irish political sympathies were nationalist though her main involvement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was suffragist, and she was indeed active in the Indian nationalist movement.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 404.960 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 404.960 274.371 m 418.952 274.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 418.952 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Howe's criticism of Gearoid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O Crualaoich's defence of myth is misplaced \(p.144\) O Crualaoich, a folklorist, is not presenting as myth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superior to reason but pointing out that it can convey meaning.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howe's account of nineteenth and twentieth-century Ireland too easily shades into wholesale dismissal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist viewpoints. Liberalism and social democracy may resolve the Northern Ireland problem; it is still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary to explain why, despite benefits conferred by Liberal reforms, many nineteenth-century Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalists specifically repudiated liberalism as a hypocritical mask for patronage and power, why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labourism failed to overcome sectarianism under Stormont. Domination and exploitation may not be colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and still rankle; one does not have to substitute myth for reason to respect and decipher the unfamiliar and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes unpalatable idioms in which the maimed tried to express their situation. Mitchel's claim that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great Famine was a premeditated act of genocide is unsustainable, and the incongruity between his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocacy of Irish liberty and African enslavement has always jarred, but his angry anti-liberal rhetoric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed to many Irish nationalists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to explain something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the condition of Ireland they experienced.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howe's account of Arthur Griffith, founder of Sinn Fein \(pp44-8, 250n1\), reproduces flaws in the literature )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 151.6637 681.3415 165.6557 693.2215 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 317.9357 667.0855 331.9277 678.9655 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 404.9597 274.6855 418.9517 286.5655 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 8030 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for which I am partly responsible. Griffith's pamphlet )] TJ ET BT 293.804 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pitt's Policy)] TJ ET BT 352.040 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, often cited as claiming Ireland should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(share the British Empire, tried to disprove by comparison with the actual state of affairs Unionist arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Ireland benefited from incorporation in the United Kingdom; it does not represent Griffith's own views. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Griffith saw Mitchel's racism as irrelevant to his stature as an Irish nationalist, but did not endorse it \(though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he shared Mitchel's anti-Semitism\); his early journalism contains impassioned denunciations of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(atrocities against the Matabele \(though he ignored similar atrocities by Afrikaners\). Vincent Tucker's view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Griffith as prototype for Third World anti-colonial socialists \(p.62\) rests on the same misunderstanding as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar claims for earlier figures. Like his eighteenth and nineteenth-century precursors, Griffith believed an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent Ireland would replace British-sustained structures of privilege and patriotism by egalitarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizenship and economic nationalism would spread prosperity. His historiographical misfortune was to clash )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with socialists who emphasised his faults while misunderstanding earlier figures who shared his outlook as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precursors of their own)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 145.652 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 145.652 638.259 m 159.644 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In criticising Gibbons' claim that the national-Marxist James Connolly was influenced by economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist arguments, Howe dismisses Connolly as uncritically reliant on romantic nationalist historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.63\). This understates Connolly's originality; his )] TJ ET BT 278.180 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Labour in Irish History)] TJ ET BT 390.524 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1910\) challenges economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalists \(anticipating modern economic historians\) by arguing that pre-Union economic growth derived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the Industrial Revolution rather than the Irish Parliament, and that a non-socialist Irish state would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serve the Irish bourgeoisie rather than the general interest. \(The nationalist economic historian George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O'Brien tried unsuccessfully to refute Connolly, fearing this "would deprive the Irish nation of one great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument in favour of the restoration of its parliamentary liberty".\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 354.188 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 354.188 512.211 m 368.180 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howe discusses the Irish Republic in terms of the failures of economic nationalism and dependency theory; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more should be said about its cultural debates to explain why many southern intellectuals emphasise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernisation rather than colonialism. This gap reflects Howe's over-ready assumption that Irish nationalists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were historically concerned with state power and cultural determinism is a recent development. In fact the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1880s and 1890s produced a cultural nationalism which reacted to perceived limitations of parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics by arguing that cultural self-confidence was necessary for political and economic revival, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trying to work the British system the Irish unwittingly abandoned the sources of their strength. This drew on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(older critiques by Irish Tories who reacted to Irish nationalists and British reformers by posing as defenders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of local pieties and opposing to universalist reformism a projected national culture reconciling all Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes and creeds to the status quo; a project partly co-opted by nationalist intellectuals like Davis who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substituted nationalism as the basis of cultural reconciliation. \(Knapp's view that Lady Gregory's primitivism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected social conservatism as well as cultural nationalism \(p.144\) is less implausible than Howe suggests.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The romantic Tory and Gaelic revivalist Standish O'Grady complained that scholarly historians ignored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heroic virtues visible to the synthesising eye of the artist; this philosophy was adopted by the cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist Daniel Corkery, who attacked "scientific" history as futile sifting of colonial archives and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceived his study of the eighteenth-century Gaelic poetic tradition as a national epic of "Land, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nationalism, and Religion". \(This resembles recent anti-revisionist critiques.\) Some political nationalists saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culturalism as mystification distracting attention from statehood, but it was significant in the Literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revival and the Irish-language movement and retrospectively perceived as inspiring the rebels of 1916-23. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(version became the official ideology of the newly independent state, cited to justify various forms of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repression, and devastatingly attacked by consciously realist and modernist intellectuals such as Conor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cruise O'Brien. \(Much twentieth-century scholarship celebrates the bureaucratic rationality of the civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service as saviour from the self-serving fantasies of political activists.\) Many southern intellectuals thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accuse neo-nationalist cultural theorists of reviving a failed past, while some theorists' contortions reflect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to explain neo-traditionalism as externally imposed distortion of a valid project.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howe's account of Unionism misses intriguing undercurrents. He overlooks a development which devastated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unionist self-confidence and self-perception; sections of the upper and upper-middle classes which formerly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided leadership and were associated with a "British" as distinct from "Ulster" ethos have dropped out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(active political involvement \(because of the erosion of the regional economic base which underpinned their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power, and increasing distance between the metropolitan "Britishness" with which they identify and the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 145.6517 638.5735 159.6437 650.4535 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 354.1877 512.5255 368.1797 524.4055 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 47 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 10036 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("Ulster Britishness" of traditional Unionism.\) The gap has been filled by more provincial figures and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on Ulster-Scots traditions associated with Presbyterianism. This provides a history of disadvantage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and antiestablishment protest which fits present-day discontent and provides rhetorical counterweight to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist accounts of their own oppression; it is also more reminiscent of sentimental nineteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("kailyard" literature than of contemporary Scotland, and weakened by withdrawal of the institutional support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which mainstream Presbyterianism provided to earlier manifestations. Ulster-Scots revivalism produced the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only significant bicentennial Unionist reinterpretation of the 1798 Rising, overlooked by Howe. David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hume, a local historian from Ballycarry in East Antrim \(a centre of United Irish activity in 1798\), active in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the "cultural Unionist" Ulster Society and Ulster-Scots revival projects, presents the rising as reflecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically Scots-Presbyterian radicalism renewed in tenant-farmer and Independent Orange protest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movements of the early twentieth century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 236.648 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 236.648 652.515 m 250.640 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howe overlooks instances where contemporary defenders of Unionism come from Catholic/nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backgrounds \(notably Rory Fitzpatrick, author of )] TJ ET BT 272.984 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(God's Frontiersmen)] TJ ET BT 369.212 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p.102\) and many British and Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communist Organisation writers associated with the intellectually-eccentric Brendan Clifford \(pp178-80\), a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secularist from a Southern Catholic rural background, who after advocating "two nations" theory and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electoral integration reverted to a pro-republican viewpoint in the early 1990s.\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 413.600 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 413.600 569.235 m 433.592 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These shortcomings reflect gaps in the literature. Much remains to be done; Howe rightly calls for Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars to expand their comparative range, "inserting Irish history, including... its radical, socialist and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminist movements, into the myriad stories of the North Atlantic archipelago [J.G.A. Pocock's name for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former British Isles], of Europe, of the Atlantic world ...[into] a genuinely rather than rhetorically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative colonial and postcolonial historiography" \(p.145\). He deserves commendation for addressing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his subjects and readers as equals rather than mystified puppets or keepers of ineffable mysteries, and for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharpening the tools of our labours.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 423.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 393.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David A. Wilson )] TJ ET BT 148.676 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(United Irishmen in the United States: Immigrant Radicals In The Early Republic)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cornell University Press, 1998\) pp133-40.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 272.000 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 272.000 377.667 m 325.988 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 364.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Mitchel )] TJ ET BT 130.016 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jail Journal)] TJ ET BT 188.348 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1854\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 282.656 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 282.656 363.411 m 336.644 363.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 350.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It ignores the linking by sections of the Tory Right of compromise in Northern Ireland with European )] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(union as threats to British sovereignty \(e.g. Peter Hitchens )] TJ ET BT 346.988 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Abolition of Britain)] TJ ET BT 462.008 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1999; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rev.ed. 2000\) pp331-2, 337, 358-62\), though this has very restricted political leverage.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 478.280 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 478.280 320.643 m 532.268 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Garvin 1922: )] TJ ET BT 156.344 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Birth of Irish Democracy)] TJ ET BT 298.328 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 375.656 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 375.656 306.387 m 429.644 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Daly )] TJ ET BT 119.336 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Buffer State: The Historical Roots of the Department of the Environment )] TJ ET BT 492.656 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Dublin, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997\) pp297-320.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 150.008 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 150.008 277.875 m 203.996 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James and Margaret Cousins )] TJ ET BT 205.328 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(We Two Together)] TJ ET BT 290.660 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Madras, 1950\); Kumari Jayawardena)] TJ ET BT 475.604 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The White )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Woman's Other Burden: Western Women and South Asia during British Rule)] TJ ET BT 433.892 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Routledge, New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995\); )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.348 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women's Marginal Role in Politics - Madhu Kishwar.)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.348 235.107 m 357.824 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 360.824 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 374.816 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 374.816 235.107 m 428.804 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Maye )] TJ ET BT 124.004 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Arthur Griffith)] TJ ET BT 195.020 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 1997\); Patrick Maume )] TJ ET BT 352.340 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Long Gestation: Irish Nationalist )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Political Life 1891-1918)] TJ ET BT 182.024 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 1999\); ibid. "Arthur Griffith, Young Ireland, and Republican )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ideology: The Question of Continuity")] TJ ET BT 250.244 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Eire-Ireland)] TJ ET BT 313.232 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 34, 2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 343.232 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 343.232 192.339 m 397.220 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George O'Brien )] TJ ET BT 142.820 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History of Ireland in the Eighteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 407.132 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin & London, 1918\) pp2-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3, 304-5, 397-406.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 153.008 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 153.008 163.827 m 206.996 163.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 150.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Hume )] TJ ET BT 128.672 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(To Right Some Things That We Thought Wrong... The Spirit of 1798 and Presbyterian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radicalism in Ulster)] TJ ET BT 163.352 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Ulster Society, Lurgan, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 316.328 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 316.328 135.315 m 370.316 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 122.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clifford has always seen Northern Ireland as an unviable political entity; having failed to secure its )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full integration into the UK he advocated integration into a modernised Irish Republic. 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