%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930151006+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930151006+01'00') /Title (Martin Del Rio: Investigations into Magic) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5189 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Martin Del Rio: Investigations into Magic)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hardly a month seems to go by without another book being published about early modern witchcraft. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Academic enthusiasm for this particular topic certainly shows no signs of abating, and it is becoming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly difficult to keep up with the burgeoning literature on the subject. It was not so long ago that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16th and 17th century witchcraft prosecutions were generally perceived in academic circles as a rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unusual, idiosyncratic theme - the main preserve of eccentric scholars obsessed with the strange and bizarre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of history. However, European witchcraft studies have now become academically respectable and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fully integrated into the mainstream of early modern history. There can be few History Departments at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universities that do not offer their students courses on 16th and 17th century witch-hunting. Undergraduates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who had formerly regarded the early modern era as 'boring' or 'irrelevant' have often had their myopic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual prejudices dispelled after studying the fascinating history of the 'European Witch-Craze'. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing academic interest in this area of study has not only resulted in a plethora of detailed monographs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with examining witch-accusations and trials in specific European regions, but also in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication of early modern writings about witchcraft. A number of translated demonological writings were, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in fact, produced in the 1920s and 30s, some by the rather sinister, mysterious Catholic scholar, Montague )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Summers, but it was only in the 1990s that important contemporary writings were translated again into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English. In 1991, a superb translation was published of the Dutch physician, Johann Weyer's study, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Praestigiis Daemonum )] TJ ET BT 164.336 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1563\); this contemporary work was one of the first that was highly critical of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witch-beliefs and persecutions. Shortly after this in 1995, an English translation appeared of the infamous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonological study written by Weyer's main opponent, Jean Bodin: the )] TJ ET BT 386.480 145.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dmonomanie des Sorciers )] TJ ET BT 521.456 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1580\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now five years later, another significant influential demonological text has been produced for English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers: Martin Del Rio's authoritative study on magic and witchcraft, the )] TJ ET BT 390.788 116.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disquisitiones Magicae)] TJ ET BT 504.452 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1608\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Del Rio, in common with other eminent demonologists such as Perkins, Binsfeld and Remy, was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely erudite man. By the time he was nineteen, he had written a three-volume commentary on Seneca, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and he eventually became fluent in nine languages. In 1580, he entered the Jesuit Order and spent his life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(177)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 February, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Walinski-Kiehl)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6610 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studying theology at some of the most prominent Catholic colleges and universities in Europe: Clermont, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Douai, Louvain, Graz, and Salamanca. Until recently historians have had difficulty in reconciling Del Rio's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(erudition with his interest in witchcraft and they tended to portray him as a fanatical, intolerant bigot. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, thanks mainly to the research of the historian Stuart Clark, demonologists are now beginning to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewed from a more intellectually sophisticated and a less moralistic perspective. Clark has emphasised that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonologists did not examine witch-beliefs in isolation; they viewed them instead from wider intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives that touched on contemporary issues such as the workings of nature, political authority and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious orthodoxy. For many early modern educated lites it made 'sense' to believe in the possibility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witchcraft, because the arguments used to sustain this belief could be related consistently to broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual preoccupations. Del Rio certainly did not deal narrowly with witchcraft and magic, but he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated them with a variety of contemporary 'disciplines' that included mathematics, astrology and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alchemy. He divided his encyclopaedic study into six books. The first four dealt exhaustively with a vast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of magical practices, and the chapters aimed primarily to explore which specific activities dutiful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholics should avoid because they were demonically inspired. In the discussions about demonic magic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Del Rio was constantly at pains not to over-inflate Satan's powers at the expense of God's, and so become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guilty of Manicheism. Throughout his study, he carefully delineated the devil's powers so that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conformed to contemporary notions about what could be accomplished in the natural world. He emphasised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that evil spirits could, indeed, undertake 'preternatural' acts that went beyond the capabilities of humans, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the devil could not ultimately transcend nature's laws; Satan could work marvels but only God could perform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the true miracles which were beyond nature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After thoroughly examining the potential dangers of a whole range of occult practices, Del Rio's final two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books dealt comprehensively with the more practical problems that judges and confessors faced when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealing with practitioners of harmful magic. This particular demonological treatise provided such an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive, wide-ranging synthesis of theological and judicial views on witchcraft and magic that it swiftly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became one of the standard 17th century witch-hunting manuals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Del Rio's study is especially interesting for witchcraft scholars because it appeared in the first years of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17th century - just at that moment when intensive persecutions were becoming more frequent in parts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Europe. Confessional conflicts between Catholics and Protestants were then at their height and Del )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rio's work offers us illuminating insights into the mind of one pious Jesuit scholar responding to these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious tensions. The threat and dangers of religious unorthodoxy were constantly stressed by Del Rio and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first of all, in his Prologue, he felt it necessary to warn his readers that heresy, magic and witchcraft were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intrinsically linked:)] TJ ET BT 94.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.\(ii\) all heresy is prone to violence at the start, but because it cannot maintain this )] TJ ET BT 94.016 265.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and cannot return to the truth whence it came, it degenerates into magic or atheism;)] TJ ET BT 94.016 251.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(iii\) magic follows heresy, as plague follows famine .We have seen heresy )] TJ ET BT 94.016 237.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flourishing in Belgium and we see swarms of witches laying waste the whole of the )] TJ ET BT 94.016 223.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North, like locusts.The heretics are strongly opposed by the Jesuits. This book is a )] TJ ET BT 94.016 208.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weapon in that war. \(pp.28-29\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although these observations were not original and had been borrowed from the lectures given by the Jesuit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theologian, Juan de Maldonado, this was one of the first occasions in which the association between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant 'heresy' and witchcraft had been so forcefully and lucidly expressed in a demonolgical treatise. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shortly after Del Rio's work was published, some of 17th century Europe's most intensive witch-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persecutions occurred in those German Catholic states that had witnessed significant Protestant penetration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the bishoprics of Bamberg and Wrzburg. It would, of course, be misplaced to make this specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonological study mainly responsible for unleashing these savage witch-hunts. However, Del Rio's work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly helped to provide the ideological justification for the persecutions, and it is likely to have )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6580 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confirmed the suspicions of the zealous witch-hunting prince-bishops that the Protestant presence in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lands had made the territories especially susceptible to the vice of witchcraft.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Intensive witch-hunts in Catholic Germany and elsewhere could not have erupted if the ruling lites had not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become obsessed about the 'reality' of the witches' secret meeting \(the sabbat\), for this was the supposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main location for organised witchcraft. It should be noted here that Del Rio's work contributed significantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the elaboration of this important demonological notion. The development of the sabbat idea had, in fact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been a complex, protracted affair and, by the early 16th century, formulations of the witches' secret meeting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were still mostly vague and undelineated; even the notorious demonological manual, the )] TJ ET BT 461.636 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malleus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Maleficarum)] TJ ET BT 96.008 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1487\), failed to offer its readers an adequate account of this phenomenon. It was only in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings of demonologists from the 1580s onwards, such as Bodin's treatise, that a detailed picture began to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerge gradually about the witches' nefarious assemblies. By the start of the 17th century, the composite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion of the blasphemous sabbat had been fully articulated, and Del Rio's work was one of the first to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide its readership with a vivid, comprehensive account. He graphically described the demonic exploits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the witches at the sabbat:)] TJ ET BT 94.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There, on most occasions, once a foul, disgusting fire has been lit, an evil spirit sits )] TJ ET BT 94.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a throne as president of the assembly. His appearance is terrifying, almost )] TJ ET BT 94.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always that of a male goat or a dog. The witches come forward to worship him in )] TJ ET BT 94.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different ways. Sometimes they supplicate him on bended knee; sometimes they )] TJ ET BT 94.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stand with their back turned to him.They offer candles made of pitch or a child's )] TJ ET BT 94.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(umbilical cord, and kiss him on the anal orifice as a sign of homage. Sometimes )] TJ ET BT 94.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they imitate the sacrifice of the Mass \(the greatest of all their crimes\), as well as )] TJ ET BT 94.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purifying with water and similar Catholic ceremonies.After the feast, each evil )] TJ ET BT 94.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spirit takes by the hand the disciple of whom he has charge, and so that they may do )] TJ ET BT 94.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everything with the most absurd kind of ritual, each person bends over backwards, )] TJ ET BT 94.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(joins hands in a circle, and tosses his head as frenzied fanatics do. Then they begin )] TJ ET BT 94.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to dance .They sing very obscene songs in his [Satan's] honour .They behave )] TJ ET BT 94.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ridiculously in every way, and in every way contrary to accepted custom. Then their )] TJ ET BT 94.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demon-lovers copulate with them in the most repulsive fashion. \(pp.92-93\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout this depiction of the sabbat, Del Rio stressed that the witches' activities represented an inversion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and antithesis of the everyday world. However, the employment of inversionary imagery was not simply a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decorative, entertaining literary device. Within educated culture, images of inversion were often used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promote orthodoxy. By emphasising what appeared to be the unruly, heretical or immoral features of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposing belief or cultural practice, the positive values of the established order were affirmed. Del Rio's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sabbat concept provided a particularly dramatic example of negative images being employed to accentuate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positive, pious characteristics. At the sabbat, Christian rituals were systematically parodied and inverted. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Satan was worshipped instead of God, and the Host was desecrated and not venerated. The whole moral and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural order was also turned upside down during the witches' assembly: communal sex was practised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead of maintaining faithful, monogamous relationships; indecent back-to-back dancing was practised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompanied by obscene melodies; those persons who committed the most detestable crimes received the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatest praise from the devil. To the educated lite, this must have represented a nightmarish vision of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(normless anti-society where Christianity had been totally abandoned. The blasphemous, disorderly world of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sabbat constituted a complete antithesis to the kind of virtuous Catholic society that a Jesuit such as Del )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rio wanted to establish.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Besides elaborating at length on the intricacies of the sacrilegious sabbat, Del Rio aimed to convince his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers that witches could, with the devil's assistance, undertake a range of extraordinary feats such as flying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the nocturnal meetings. To those critics of demonology who argued that much of the witches' testimony )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7665 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were simply illusions produced by dreams, Del Rio retorted that their confessions were too uniform and they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not, therefore, all be dreaming the same thing. In order to maintain his argument that the flight was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuine, he relied rather dogmatically on the authority and infallibility of his Church, and tersely observed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that 'the Catholic Church does not punish crimes unless they are certain and manifest' \(p.97\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In common with previous demonological treatises, Del Rio's work was specifically concerned to aid and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide guidance to judicial authorities faced with the difficult task of prosecuting criminals who had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed secret, supernatural offences. Del Rio, together with Remy, Boguet and many other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonologists, believed that, in a similar manner to treason, witchcraft was 'an extraordinary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptional crime' \(p.189\). Consequently, it was not subject to the normal rules of evidence. Testimony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inadmissible in normal judicial proceedings, such as evidence provided by persons of bad reputation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criminals or accomplices, was acceptable 'because this is an exempted crime' \(p.210\). Acceptance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accomplice testimony, in particular, was very significant for the conduct of witchcraft prosecutions, because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this allowed the accused to denounce others whom they claimed to have supposedly seen at the sabbats; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of these denounced suspects were subsequently arrested and the trials multiplied. During the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17th century, accomplice testimony became the principal dynamic of the mass witch-persecutions that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially prevalent in southern German Catholic regions, and treatises such as Del Rio's must bear some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility for encouraging these dangerous judicial practices. However, it should be noted that Del Rio's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recommendations on the investigation of witchcraft offences were not completely reckless, for he did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest that defendants should never be tortured more than on three separate occasions. On this specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal issue, Del Rio was adhering to the more orderly recommendations concerning the application of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judicial torture that had been prescribed in the legal code of the Holy Roman Empire, the )] TJ ET BT 464.276 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Constitutio )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Criminalis Carolina)] TJ ET BT 131.708 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1532\). Those territories that held to the )] TJ ET BT 329.348 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Carolina )] TJ ET BT 375.692 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Code and refrained from repeated use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of torture were able to avoid large-scale persecutions. On the other hand, Del Rio's restrictions concerning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the use of torture were all but obviated when he discussed the reasons why many witches remained silent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during interrogations. He suggested that a suspect's silence and refusal to confess was not usually an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indication of innocence but was brought about by Satan aiding his adherents and making defendants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insensitive to pain. Needless to say, magistrates who accepted this view would be inclined to torture suspects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excessively in order to break the devil's hold on his stubborn disciples. These judges would have had little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compunction about disregarding Del Rio's qualifications on the repetition of torture, because the author of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this demonological work was, after all, a theologian and not a magistrate. On certain procedural matters Del )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rio's work carried perhaps less weight than that of secular jurists, such as Remy or Boguet; they could, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, base their judicial recommendations on more direct involvement in the prosecuting process. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Del Rio lacked a criminal lawyer's practical experience, he was still able to provide Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magistrates with very useful, detailed guidelines on how to prosecute suspect witches, and also offer them a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thorough theological justification for the extermination of the pernicious witch-sect.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout his study, he certainly displayed great erudition, and cited an impressive range of authorities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from classical, biblical and medieval writings to support his arguments. However, for modern readers this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not an easy text to assimilate, and there is much that they will find specious and tiresome in Del Rio's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observations. Along with other demonologists, he used his sources indiscriminately and frequently quoted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of context: fables from poets and curious episodes recounted by medieval chroniclers were accorded the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same authority as the opinions of learned jurists and theologians. Some of the strange incidents that Del Rio )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cites to prove the existence of witches verge on the comic and are difficult to take seriously. A case in point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurred in 1587 while Del Rio was residing in Calais during a time of military conflict. Del Rio informs us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that two soldiers 'saw a dark cloud flying towards them in a clear sky and thought they could hear the voices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of many people jumbled together inside it .'. One soldier shot at the cloud and 'a woman fell down from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cloud at their feet. She was drunk, naked, very fat, middle-aged, and her thigh had been shot through twice. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They arrested her .' \(p.197\). The conviction and sincerity expressed by Del Rio when recounting this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(astonishing tale cannot help but remind us of the great gulf that separated his mental universe from that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more modern world-views.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(PG Maxwell-Stuart, the translator of Del Rio's treatise, has provided an edited, rather than a complete )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2979 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation, and this may disappoint some early modern witchcraft scholars. Particular sections that Maxwell-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stuart decided to summarise may be those that some historians would want to read in their entirety, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially if detailed comparisons need to be made with themes discussed by other demonologists. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Del Rio's whole text is very lengthy and publication costs would, I suppose, have been prohibitive. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians unable to read the original treatise because they are not proficient in Latin \(unfortunately general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes in secondary education over the years have resulted in more scholars lacking such skills \), this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edited version of a leading early modern demonologist's work will be greatly welcomed. It cannot have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an easy undertaking to translate this complex, discursive text, and Maxwell-Stuart must be congratulated for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing us with an extremely lucid and elegant translation. The only quibble that can be made relates to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book's format. Occasionally, it is difficult to distinguish between Maxwell-Stuart's commentaries and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Del Rio's own words because both are printed in the same type-face, and they are not always separated from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each other clearly enough in the punctuation. Surely the publishers, Manchester University Press, should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have had the foresight to have reproduced Del Rio's text in different print from that of his commentator? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After all, no self-respecting modern scholars would want their views to be too closely associated with those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an early modern advocate of social persecution, however extensive his erudition may have been.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 551.647 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 533.867 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 533.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/177)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 532.473 m 322.316 532.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 507.496 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 493.096 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1144)] TJ ET BT 34.016 478.696 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 532.7875 322.3157 544.6675 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/177) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000551 00000 n 0000000633 00000 n 0000005874 00000 n 0000005983 00000 n 0000006093 00000 n 0000006202 00000 n 0000009763 00000 n 0000009891 00000 n 0000009975 00000 n 0000010040 00000 n 0000016703 00000 n 0000016768 00000 n 0000023401 00000 n 0000023466 00000 n 0000031184 00000 n 0000031268 00000 n 0000034300 00000 n 0000034428 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34523 %%EOF