%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150417064030+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150417064030+01'00') /Title (Urban Governance: Britain and Beyond since 1750) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4249 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Urban Governance: Britain and Beyond since 1750)] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Governance has replaced government as the object of fascination for political scientists. As the structures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state are steadily dismantled so it has become necessary to look elsewhere for the seats of power and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means by which it is exercised. But political scientists can be a somewhat present-minded bunch, and though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this volume won't stop them reinventing the wheel, it may help to enrich the study of current trends in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary governance and remind historians that the road to 1945 and beyond was certainly not straight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or narrow - or even, necessarily, the only route available.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The volume under review contains most of the papers presented to the 1998 Urban History Group )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conference in Leeds on the theme of 'Urban Governance'. Often collections of conference papers can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both variable in quality and only tangentially related to each other. This is not the case on either count with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the collection here, where very intelligent editing and ordering and the inclusion of a number of thematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers has helped to provide considerable coherence. Three introductory chapters by the key players in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British urban governance - Bob Morris, Rick Trainor and John Garrard - along with the leading political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientist in the field, Mike Goldsmith, set the scene, whilst that by Robert Millward forms a bridge between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the general survey and the specific empirical studies which dominate the rest of the volume. There are in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(total twelve 'case studies', touching on governors - both elected and unelected and the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the two - the importance of policing streets, health, and pollution; the place of employers and professionals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their associations in the government of towns; the business, politics and ritual of burial; and the overall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(179)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 March, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Morris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rick Trainor)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780754600157)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(282pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barry Doyle)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7166 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management of space at a variety of levels and in a variety of places.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Bob Morris's highly effective introductory chapter many of the key themes of both the debate in general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and this collection in particular, are identified and explored. In reviewing and addressing the social science, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban theory and governance literature - as well as the contributions from urban history - in a sophisticated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and intelligible way for the historian, he emphasises the porous boundaries of governance over time but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the significant differences between the nineteenth century \(the main focus of the chapter\) and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary world. Garrard and Goldsmith's collaborative piece compliments and consolidates Morris by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focusing specifically on the contemporary theory and literature of governance and its recent history. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises the differences brought to urban governance in Britain by Margaret Thatcher and contrasts them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the nineteenth and early twentieth century and with the situation in America. This is a stimulating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(piece, engagingly written which guides one well through the predominantly political science literature. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much the same can be said of Rick Trainor's excellent reassessment of the urban elite in the period since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1850. Trainor, in a well sustained argument, takes issue with the pessimistic analysis of urban elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governance which has dominates the literature. Drawing on the growing body of research on local urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elites in the period after 1880, he makes a good case for the persistent dominance of local elites in urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governance - at least until 1945 - and on the validity of the public person in post-war local politics. Their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ability to shape urban society and deliver services, often despite the attempts of central government and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international capitalism, he sees as a considerable success, and certainly no longer worthy of the epithet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Millward draws on evidence from a range of 36 differing urban environments from small southern towns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like Shaftesbury through a core of expanding middles sized places such as Luton, and Norwich to the classic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial towns and cities of the midlands and north - Preston, Stoke, Leeds - to show why and how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban infrastructure - especially the sanitary infrastructure - was provided and make assessments about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financing and effectiveness of these services. As with most papers in the collection, the variety of options )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(open to local governors is emphasised, with state and private options, or a mixture of the two, appearing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across the spectrum of towns. In highlighting the late development of the sanitary infrastructure - around the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1890s - he suggests that its impact on mortality was of less significance than the overall improvements in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standards of living, and especially housing, which delivered greatly improved life-chances to all except the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under ones.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whilst Millward utilises new sources to revisit an old debate, Irene Maver's piece on Glasgow's municipal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managers is one of the most original contributions in the collection. Despite the importance of municipal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials in late-nineteenth and early twentieth century Britain, little has been written on them and whilst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glasgow may have been unique in the scale of its municipal workforce, the findings here are important and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applicable across the range of British towns and cities. Maver shows how the officials were linked into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city's existing political elite, with the Town Clerk and the Gas and Tramways managers controlling vast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(budgets and thousands of workers largely independent of any direct political control. However, changes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the political and economic structure of the city in the mid-twenties drove a wedge between the municipal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political classes, leaving them open to accusations of extravagance and mis-management, although the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures they had created continued to dominate the municipal life of the city even after Labour took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control. By exposing the networks of power and knowledge by which the city was and is governed, Maver )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a major contribution to an understanding of governance in both the early and late twentieth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first of three articles which address non-British subjects, Michle Dagenais looks at the maturing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban governance in Montreal and Toronto from the mid-nineteenth into the twentieth century. The piece )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlights the slow development of municipal services in these cities, especially in comparison to British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples, but does suggest a growing concern for the welfare of citizens over those of property by the start )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the new century, a trend which by the 1930s saw both cities devoting considerable resources to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education, welfare and leisure of their populations. The tardy development of these structures is attributed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the power of capital and the absence of a tradition of civic responsibility which had to be slowly learned in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the new cities of Canada.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7570 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next three chapters have much in common, providing closely researched case studies of the conflicting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries of local governance in England. Ann Day's chapter on improvement commissioners in Portsea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Chris Williams' contribution on policing and the reform of government in early nineteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sheffield explore the changing structures of local governance in a period of considerable flux when demands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for new forms of government clashed with existing systems \(and governors\) and brought locality and central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state into dialogue. In both cases the creation of new legislative structures - police forces and boards of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health - challenged the complacency of existing bodies and led to demands for and ultimately facilitated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(setting up of, new systems of governance. In the course of these debates issues such as the most appropriate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures and people to deliver services, local chauvinism, the ultimate power of the central state and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, the feelings of the ratepayer all emerged as significant. In both cases, it is apparent that improvement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commissions, set up for very different purposes, could not meet the challenges of the mid-nineteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban environment, and despite the desire for small government and low rates, the threat of both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disordered environment and the power of outside bodies, prompted many in the local elite to choose borough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government as the best way forward.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tim Willis, also using Sheffield as his focus, addresses one aspect of this growth of borough power - health )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(services in the first 'socialist city'. Once again, the emphasis is on the choices available in the delivery of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(services and the conflicts and compromises which the effective governance of the city required. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructing his thesis, Willis lays stress on the relatively weak associational nature of middle class life and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the strong cultural bonds and organisations developed by the city's working class. These became relevant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 1918 when the financing of the local voluntary hospitals was all but taken over by the 'Penny in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pound' workers' contribution scheme operating through the Joint Hospitals Council, an early example of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city-wide hospital scheme which united voluntary and municipal hospitals. However, despite this entre to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the management of the hospitals, the labour movement remained committed to 'a complete public medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service administered by local authorities', and for nearly thirty years hospital services in the city operated on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('a mix of pragmatism and ideology on both sides of the hospital divide'. [p.134] In other areas of health, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, from 1926 Sheffield's Labour majority attempted to develop a municipal socialist policy which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined health and housing and brought the municipal government into conflict with medical officials and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the central state. Thus, Willis argues, a view of 'governance' as a consensual, partnership, solution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems - as seen arguably in the Joint Hospital Council - deflects attention from the more deep-seated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological differences which arose in relation to other aspects of the council's health agenda.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next two chapters, by Genevive Massard-Guilbaud and Jean Adams, provide studies of the contrasting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts in England and France to control industrial pollution in the course of the nineteenth century. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French case, legislation to control pollution was introduced by the central government at an early date \(1810\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and remained largely the responsibility of prefects, working in alliance with local mayors and medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers. In terms of governance, the case revealed the fragmented nature of French local governance, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central authority weak on the ground, whilst local political power, in the shape of the mayor, was initially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unable to exert significant influence to ensure improvements - giving the industrialists a free hand to flout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the law. In the case of Stockport, though the effect was the same, the cause was the opposite - here pollution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control was in the hands of the local notables who happened also to be drawn significantly from the ranks of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the industrialists, and it was their reluctance to promote pollution control which ultimately encouraged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central government intervention. Drawing on political science models of decision-making and 'un-politics', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adams concludes - in ways which might also have been appropriate in the French case - that the scope for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action of the local political elite was increasingly subscribed by both local pressure and central control.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next two chapters take the concept of urban governance a long way from the mix of municipal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluntary and private service provision which concerns many of the contributors, to focus on associational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control over groups within the urban sphere - workers and the medical profession. Though an excellent piece )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in itself, Donna Loftus's assessment of industrial conciliation in mid-nineteenth century Nottingham is only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very tangentially related to the subject of urban governance. Her justification, that the system of public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boards of conciliation was a useful paradigm for problem solving, is effective, but overall this is about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial relations. Its novelty lies in its appropriation of some of the language and methods of cultural )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7491 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history which give a new relevance to a somewhat traditional subject, whilst the conclusions highlight, once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again, the contingent nature of local political power. Similarly, Campbell Lloyd's analysis of the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical government in Glasgow and Edinburgh fits uneasily in the book. Concerned with internal battles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the medical profession, between the professions in Scotland and England, between universities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the profession and both of these institutions and the local authority, the chapter tries to achieve too much. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, one does get the impression that the medical profession and the universities were both very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominent players in these two Scottish cities, with strong links to the local elites, forming important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partnerships with the local authorities, and that, as ever, it required parliamentary legislation to clarify the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries and the responsibilities of all the players.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julie Rugg's contribution on ownership of place of burial reveals how this issue was an exemplar of the open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of early nineteenth century urban governance in which a range, and even a combination of public, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private and voluntary options could be tried. Challenging the view that public burial grounds were largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the product of the Burial Acts of 1850 or even inspired by Edwin Chadwick, she highlights the development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the joint stock cemetery companies in the 1820s, showing how the successful companies were those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rooted in their own communities. Focusing on both the slow state response to the 'burial crisis' of the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quarter of the nineteenth century and on the history of the private companies she shows how local, secular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control of burial became the solution to the problem with the burial acts reflecting a compromise worked out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over twenty-five years of debate and experiment which suggested the 'communitarian' response was the one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most likely to deliver burial for all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Death and burial also features prominently in the penultimate, and probably best, essay in the collection, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Gunn's exploration of 'Ritual and civic culture in the English industrial city, c. 1835-1914' which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that 'urban governance has important symbolic dimensions'. [p.237] In particular, he unpacks the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning in the civic ritual of the new middle class corporations of provincial England, emphasising the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infusion of radicalism into civic pride, even when dressing up in robes or meeting the monarch. 'Urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community' was evoked through the creation of a new civic space of municipal buildings, squares and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statues and the development of a 'processional culture' which brought together the various voluntary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friendly and trade societies, as well as civic dignitaries, religious leaders, businessmen and even county )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elites, helping to order, publicly, the hierarchy of the city, not least by their exclusion of women and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclusion of working men. However, Gunn suggests, as these rituals became more inclusive and as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative forms of commercial and mass display emerged, so civic pageantry gave way to the 'centipedic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(funeral' of urban notables as )] TJ ET BT 172.472 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the)] TJ ET BT 187.136 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ritual of civic and bourgeois authority, creating a broad unity within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle class which over-rode sectarian and political divisions. Overall, Gunn emphasises the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the visual spectacle in revealing and supporting the power of the new civic order and giving a broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimacy and permanence to the coalition of men who made up the urban leadership of mid to late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century England. But this was a flawed project as, by promoting public display as the route to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognition, the 'excluded', when they did appear on the streets in the Edwardian period, dealt a significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blow to the order established by the processional cultures.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the final essay, Narayani Gupta investigates the changing management of space in the Indian city of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shahjahanabad/Delhi, exploring the impact of differing forms of governance on the city's streets and open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spaces. In particular, she illustrates how the pre-colonial city had been economical of space, open, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communtarian, secure and tolerant of a variety of uses, how the colonial city was monumental and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impersonal and how the planned Greater Delhi of the independent India has been both wasteful of space and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly intolerant of the pedestrian's desire to colonise the street and pavement for social intercourse. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet the very brief nature of this essay, it long time scale and its contemporary focus make it an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsatisfactory read. The ideas are too condensed to do justice to some of the important points which do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerge - not least the shift in governance from concern for the community to concern for the individual.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall the collection has an air of coherence rendered by the introductory chapters and the discipline of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors who, in most cases, are addressing broad themes of governance. It displays a variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodological approaches, with contributors drawing on political science, social theory, economic history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional urban history and the new cultural history. In the latter case, the essays by Loftus and Gunn show )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6660 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how this approach can add real value to our understanding of the governance of urban space, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when supported by deep research, solid empirical examples and a clear understanding of the dynamics of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places being studied. Key themes do emerge from most of the chapters, especially how a state response - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether local or national - was never inevitable and often not even the most likely outcome; the tension )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between local and national governance; and the fluid relationship between differing modes of service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delivery. Most chapters show that governance was much broader than simply the power of the local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority, but spread across elected \(and unelected\) bodies, private companies, voluntary organisations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional and educational institutions and business and religious leaders. Membership of these seats of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power was not discreet, but often highly promiscuous, with the same figures appearing across the spectrum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of governance providers in the Victorian town. It is this emphasis on a broad, interconnected civic elite with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their fingers in many pies that ultimately gives the book its structure and separates governance in nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Britain from its reborn form at the end of the twentieth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the book does also have some notable weaknesses, many of which reflect the problems associated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('putting hard covers on a conference'. Most obviously this is not really a book about governance beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain as only three chapters deal with non-British subjects. Whilst it would have been a little unfair to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leave these chapters out, they do not add a great deal to the overall themes or coherence of the book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing an occasional opportunity to remind us that Britain was not the only country in the world, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither representative or numerous enough to really challenge the Anglocentric focus. Similarly the time-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale is not as broad ranging as it suggests. Few of the contributors venture back before the 1830s and most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stop around the First World War, with only Maver and Willis dealing in any detail with the inter-war period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The emphasis is very much on the establishment of municipal authority in the period between roughly 1830 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1890. In terms of the broad theme of governance this has some validity - this was the period of multiple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service providers and experimentation - but it leaves the impression of a golden age of urban governance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which gradually gave way first to the omnipotent borough and then the steadily encroaching central state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the contemporary return to a form of 'bastard' urban governance. The third main problem is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentration on the provincial at the expense of the metropolitan. Even if this is a book about Britain, is it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really representative of the experience of urban governance when there is only one reference to the London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(County Council and a couple of asides about the absence of an effective administration before 1888? Rather, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when London does appear it is as a synonym for central government, or as a place to which local urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power migrates, politically, institutionally or personally. Surely the peculiar problems associated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governing capital cities in Britain, or elsewhere in the world, was an issue which had to be addressed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some way.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These weaknesses derive both from the constraints of a conference - even a coherent conference - which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limits the editors to the papers available \(or commissioning new pieces which may disturb the balance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(squeeze out original contributors\). But it also clearly illustrates the state of British urban history at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moment, with its focus on the heroism of the provincial middle class of the mid to late nineteenth century at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the expense of more critical study of other countries, the situation after 1914 or the history of the rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unheroic metropolitan middle classes who appear to have bee surrendered to the cultural historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a good book, a worthy contribution to a worthy new series from Ashgate \(Historical Urban Studies\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which may at last plug the gap left by the loss of Leicester University Press in the early 1990s. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expensive at 50 pence short of fifty pounds, but would undoubtedly command a prominent place on any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading list addressing the Victorian City or the nature of urban power in the nineteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 130.735 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 112.955 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 112.955 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/179)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 111.561 m 322.316 111.561 l S endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 111.8755 322.3157 123.7555 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/179) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 306 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1156)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000564 00000 n 0000000646 00000 n 0000004947 00000 n 0000005056 00000 n 0000005166 00000 n 0000005275 00000 n 0000008836 00000 n 0000008964 00000 n 0000009048 00000 n 0000009113 00000 n 0000016332 00000 n 0000016397 00000 n 0000024020 00000 n 0000024085 00000 n 0000031629 00000 n 0000031713 00000 n 0000038426 00000 n 0000038554 00000 n 0000038649 00000 n 0000038714 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39072 %%EOF