%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416044632+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416044632+01'00') /Title (Culture and Spirituality in Medieval Europe) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4132 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Culture and Spirituality in Medieval Europe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is, by my count, the third collection of articles by Giles Constable published by Variorum; and it is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very welcome addition to the first two. Reprinted here are twelve essays, produced between 1982 and 1994. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Several are easily available from other sources, but some would be harder to track down. One, a lecture on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("self-inflicted suffering", delivered to a general audience, appears in print for the first time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Culture and Spirituality)] TJ ET BT 148.700 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a wide title for a volume on medieval history. Every essay here is concerned with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some aspect of those two nebulous topics, but the main area of discussion can perhaps be defined a little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more closely. Constable is concerned primarily with elite religious culture, though not on the whole with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Papacy. His constituents are the great preachers, commentators and reformers of the High Middle Ages, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as St Bernard of Clairvaux, Peter the Venerable, and James of Vitry. The spirituality Constable deals with is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by and large the spirituality of monasticism and the learned elite. When the laity make an appearance, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually as an audience or context: for example, Constable reports Geoffrey of Auxerre's description of St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard preaching "to rustic audiences as if he had been brought up in the country, and likewise to each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other type of man as if he devoted his entire attention to studying their works". This is not a volume which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyses the reception of, or response to, that preaching on the part of those rustic audiences. In the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 January, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Giles Constable)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780860786092)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(328pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ashgate.com/default.aspx?page=637&calcTitle=1&title_id=2887&edition_id=3351)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Farnham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Arnold)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7054 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashion, although elements of the essays touch upon a chronology that ranges from the early church to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth century, the main focus of attention is the twelfth century. Much of what Constable has to say is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with that slippery turning point in the history of Christendom when new religious movements, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new practices in writing \(both religious and secular, devotional and communicative\) and new ways of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering the Christian self, combined to form what has been famously described as the renaissance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twelfth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having noted these boundaries, it is refreshing and challenging that a book so steeped in traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship and areas of study is able to approach the discussion with so many new and penetrating insights. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his preface to a previous collection, Constable suggested that he had been keen to investigate how people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpreted and implemented religious culture; in many ways this project is continued here. Each article is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in the contingent and the particular, rather than accepting the hegemony and historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inertia of that diffuse institution "the Church". In an essay on "the ceremonies and symbolism of entering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious life and taking the monastic habit", Constable quotes Mary Douglas to stress how rituals could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change their meanings according to circumstances and cultural need. As an example, the reader is shown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the veiling of an entrant to the monastery could symbolise chastity for women, but confirmation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admission to the community for men; and was later given "various symbolic meanings, and was equated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a period of sleep, death or burial" [VII, 798]. Similarly, Constable traces the fascinating struggle in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twelfth century over the colour and cloth used for monastic clothing. Otto of Freising noted that:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some [monks] in order to express contempt for the world wear only the same black clothing, but )] TJ ET BT 64.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others who want no disputes over the colour or thickness are accustomed to wear white or grey or )] TJ ET BT 64.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other [colors] but lowly and rough. [VII, 822])] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter the Venerable, on the other hand, criticized the Cistercians for their white clothing:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(you set yourselves alone among all according to the interpretations of the name, whence you also )] TJ ET BT 64.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrogate a habit of an unaccustomed color, and in distinction from all monks of almost the entire )] TJ ET BT 64.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world, you present yourself in white among those who are black.[VII, 825])] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constable reminds us that there was not one sole voice or culture for spirituality in the period, even amongst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the religious elite; and that the performance of piety could be bitterly contested.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps even more interesting are the articles that are not primarily concerned with struggle, but with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptance and toleration of diversity. We are becoming used to seeing almost any area of history as a site of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle and contest, and particularly familiar with analyses that emphasize the repressive nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval church. It must be admitted that my own interests and arguments lie within this new "orthodoxy" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the study of religion and power; it is therefore all the more challenging to be presented with an analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that underlines the non-combative elements of historical change. In "The diversity of religious life and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptance of social pluralism in the twelfth century", Constable looks backwards from the Fourth Lateran )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Council \(which prohibited the formation of new religious orders\) to note the great upsurge in diverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious expression which had already occurred in the preceding two centuries. By the early eleventh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century the lines between clerical and monastic orders "were becoming blurred" and similarly, by the twelfth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, between monastic and lay orders. The new military orders \(the Templars, the Hospitallers\) would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been unthinkable hybrids in the early middle ages, but in the Christendom of the twelfth century were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential components within the Church. These changes and divisions were not totally without struggle - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter the Venerable wrote to St Bernard decrying "the hidden and excreable variety of minds" [VIII, 36] - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the main principle was that enunciated by Anselm of Laon in 1117:)] TJ ET BT 375.980 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( diversi sed non adversi)] TJ ET BT 489.968 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The Fourth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lateran Council was legislating against further variety rather than preventing division. As Constable puts it:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the course of the twelfth century there was thus a dramatic change in social and religious values. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The monastic life came to be regarded as only one, and not necessarily the best, way to salvation. The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptance of the legitimacy of various callings opened the way for the emergence of new ideals of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious life [VIII 46])] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essential point is that the change that came about was partly rooted in struggle but also in acceptance of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6972 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others and adaption to changing patterns of behaviour. Constable is not interested in winners and losers, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in negotiations of change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One pleasure to be gained from a collection of essays by one author \(apart from ease of use\) is the possibility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of discerning linking themes between apparently disparate discussions. Although the mechanics of change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form the external theme for analysis, there is another, more diffuse, internal theme: the medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preoccupation with the relationship between external sign and internal essence. In articles that range from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letter-writing to monastic symbolism, asceticism to liturgical prayer, Constable returns again and again to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the problem of the relationship between signifier and signified, sign and thing. It is here that the book has its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatest interest and promise, and works as a book rather than a disparate collection.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The theme of sign and thing presents itself in the first three essays concerning letter writing in the middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ages, and more particularly the problems of forgery. Constable is not concerned with later antiquarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forgeries of documents, but with the contemporary medieval practice of forging and plagiarizing letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, as he points out, challenge some of our conceptions of what 'forgery' actually means:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many forgeries were made for altruistic, even noble, purposes, or for obscure personal motives [...] )] TJ ET BT 64.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like miracles, visions and other works of social imagination, forgeries served to justify profound )] TJ ET BT 64.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and personal needs and reflected the hopes and fears, the praise and criticism of people in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages [I, 2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the one hand letters were seen as )] TJ ET BT 211.964 506.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sermo absentium)] TJ ET BT 293.624 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, joining the sender and recipient in quasi-presence, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if in conversation. On the other, the idea of authorship was more fluid than today, and Constable suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that we might see letters as "part of the larger problem of apocryphal and pseudepigraphical writings" [II, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20]. As Abelard noted, "many apocryphal works are entitled with the names of Saints in order that they may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have authority". How this played out in the epistolary genre was somewhat complex. St Bernard, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, accused Nicholas of Montiramey of sending "many false letters under our false seal" and that "no-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one more richly deserves perpetual punishment". However, what irked Bernard was not that Nicholas had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forged the seals but that he had misused them: "His falseness probably lay in authenticating letters which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misrepresented the meaning and intention of Bernard, for whom the seal was a symbol of integrity"[II, 28]. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a very different notion of truth and authority, and indeed of 'literary presence', than we would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associate with our contemporary image of "the Author". Constable remarks in an earlier essay that "the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval idea of truth [...] was subjective and personal rather than, as today, objective and impersonal" [I, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23]. The 'truth' that could be presented in 'forged' letters begs further questions about subjectivity and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the 'presence' signified by writing. From the medieval viewpoint, there was a complex relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be negotiated between the sign \(in this case the letter\) and the thing it signified \(the 'author'\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This relationship appears again in two essays which touch upon the meanings of medieval clothing. In an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article on "A living past: the historical environment of the Middle Ages", Constable notes that pilgrims and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monks dressed in the 'anachronistic' clothing modelled on Christ; their exteriors were intended to signify a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly authoritative referent, and by implication to advertise something about their interior states. In his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essay on the ceremonies for entering monasticism, Constable indicates that this symbolism was part of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power struggle. I have already mentioned the quarrels over the colouring of monastic clothing; in fact there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was also a change between the early Middle Ages, when "appearance not only represented but was identified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with reality" [VII, 832], to the later period which saw the interpretation of external signs as a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic and fraught project. This comes to the fore in an article on "Moderation and restraint in ascetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices". Here we are shown how external signs of piety could be cause for suspicion rather than praise. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John of Salisbury castigated those who displayed excessive piety:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They display the pallor of their faces, are accustomed to produce deep sighs, are suddenly flooded )] TJ ET BT 64.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with artificial and obsequious tears, with the head inclined to one side, closed eyes, short hair, an )] TJ ET BT 64.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost shaven head, a lowered voice, lips moving in prayer, a slow walk as with steps formed by a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fixed proportion, ragged, covered-over and in dirty clothing [X, 324].)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7370 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All of these elements were signs of piety, but they could be read as indicating a false and hypocritical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interior.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As students of medieval heresy will know, the relationship between outer appearance and inner essence was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thrown into greatest crisis by the wandering preachers of the twelfth century \(and later the Cathars\), whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ascetic appearance and manner )] TJ ET BT 185.948 715.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(had)] TJ ET BT 203.948 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to be read by the Church as concealing a hypocritical and diabolical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interior. In his fascinating final essay on "The concern for sincerity and understanding in liturgical prayer", )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constable reflects upon the flip-side of this crisis, where the fear of hypocrisy in worship led to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corresponding desire for sincerity and accuracy. Here too Constable discusses a move in medieval thought. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Augustine called upon listeners to let the tongue agree with the heart \()] TJ ET BT 370.628 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(concorda lingua cum corde tuo )] TJ ET BT 524.276 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where the emphasis was on the latter organ to be in agreement with speech. As Constable puts it:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the early Christians meditation was, like digestion or rumination, an activity which involved all )] TJ ET BT 64.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects, internal and external, of the body since a text had to be spoken or heard before it could be )] TJ ET BT 64.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorized, understood, and put into practice. This is what was intended in the rule of Benedict when )] TJ ET BT 64.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it said that in psalmody the mind should be in agreement with the voice, which provided the material )] TJ ET BT 64.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the formation of the monk's inner persona, his heart, mind, soul and spirit [XII, 20].)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This relationship between external and internal in the formation of the monastic self was reversed in the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages. Robert of Arbrissel advised Ermengaud of Brittany that "prayer of the heart and not of the lips )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is agreeable to God"; and Adam of Dryburgh, in his )] TJ ET BT 285.872 506.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On the four part exercise of the will)] TJ ET BT 457.532 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, insisted that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(external signs of piety should be subordinate to the internal activity, thus reversing \(though Constable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests unwittingly\) the Benedictine formulation. This collection presents a variety of tremendously useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case- studies in medieval thought and spirituality and, as I have been suggesting, on the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signifier and signified, or sign and thing, or exterior and interior. It is here, however, that one feels finally a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of lack. Constable deals with both struggle and acceptance, but does not much engage with two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important areas: the struggle over literacy, and the wider work that has been done on signs and the creation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the self in the Middle Ages. The former omission raises its head in an otherwise excellent essay on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language of preaching. Although we are shown that the acquisition of Latin had a particular kind of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(currency, Constable chooses not to investigate in detail the struggles between the cultural identities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(litterati)] TJ ET BT 70.028 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 93.356 363.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(illitterati )] TJ ET BT 139.040 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that were first brought to our attention by Herbert Grundmann, and have subsequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspired the work of Brian Stock, Robert Moore, Martin Irvine and others. The analysis of signs which I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been outlining above might also have benefitted from more theoretically informed work such as Jesse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gellrich's study of presence and absence in language, Talal Asad's work on the monastic self, Miri Rubin's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of the Eucharist in medieval culture, and Alastair Minnis's study of medieval authorship. This is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to say that Constable gets things "wrong", but that his analyses sometimes draw to a halt just at the point that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things become interesting to those concerned with theory. For example, it would have been enlightening and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exciting to have had the changing relationship between speech and "sincerity" interrogated in greater detail; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what is it that allows or demands Adam of Dryburgh's momentous inversion of the Benedictine hierarchy? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Can it be related to other areas of speech, writing and self-making? What does the earlier subjugation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interior state to exterior expression tell us about other cultural struggles over piety, such as the codes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monastic dress Constable discusses elsewhere?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But these points do not essentially undermine an excellent and informative collection. Those interested in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more theorized approach to medieval culture will gain a great deal from this collection, in its rich detail and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughtful analysis. One may be left with a slight sense that Constable's conclusions miss a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities for drawing on wider scholarship and implications; but more overwhelmingly one is left with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sense of inquiry, open-minded interest, and wide-ranging scholarship that consistently inform his work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 78.223 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 60.443 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 60.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/18)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 59.049 m 316.316 59.049 l S endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 59.3635 316.3157 71.2435 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/18) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 305 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/153)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000553 00000 n 0000000635 00000 n 0000004819 00000 n 0000004928 00000 n 0000005038 00000 n 0000005147 00000 n 0000008708 00000 n 0000008836 00000 n 0000008920 00000 n 0000008985 00000 n 0000016092 00000 n 0000016157 00000 n 0000023182 00000 n 0000023266 00000 n 0000030689 00000 n 0000030815 00000 n 0000030909 00000 n 0000030974 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31331 %%EOF