%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728063632+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728063632+01'00') /Title (Anglo-American Attitudes: From Revolution to Partnership) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4512 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Anglo-American Attitudes: From Revolution to Partnership)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapters in this collection were originally given as papers at a conference at the Minda de Gunzburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Center for European Studies at the Harvard University in 1997, sponsored jointly by the North American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conference on British Studies and the Royal Historical Society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introduction informs the reader that the collection was prompted by the 'serious lack of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation of Anglo-American attitudes in the widest sense of the phrase' [p. 1]. While there has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plenty of work on 'government to government' and 'diplomatic' relations, there has been little on 'social, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic, intellectual, or cultural connections'[p. 1]. We are told that concentration on the colonial period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Second World War needs to be balanced by investigations over the whole period of Anglo-American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations. 'The connection is, furthermore, multifaceted and symbiotic. Without discounting the centrality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economics or diplomacy, we would argue for a variety of mutual influences that were enhanced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence from and rivalry with the former mother country.'[Pp. 2-3] 'While Britain and the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States have separate histories, they have a common one as well that transcends the geographical separation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-American history has a reality distinct from the history of its component elements, and this is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular focus of the contributors in this volume.'[p. 3] Part of this review will examine whether the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a whole delivers on its promises and, in particular, whether it identifies a common history that transcends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the geographic divide between Britain and the USA. First of all, though, some comments will be offered on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each of the contributions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essays by P.J. Marshall \()] TJ ET BT 174.332 63.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Case for Coercing the Americans Before the Revolution)] TJ ET BT 463.640 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and E.H. Gould \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The American Revolution in Britain's Imperial Identity)] TJ ET BT 297.236 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) raise interesting issues to do with political identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(180)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 April, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fred Leventhal)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roland Quinault)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780754600300)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Dobson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7496 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sovereignty. Marshall places the eighteenth century crisis with the American colonists in the context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous and ongoing challenges by the Scottish Highlanders in the 1745 Rebellion, and from Ireland and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India, to the British conception of Hobbesian unitary sovereignty. Such challenges became more focused in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the American colonies. Should the writ of Parliament run to questions of colonial taxation and internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial law and order? Gould explains the emergence of similar difficulties to do with sovereignty that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arose specifically from the dilemma of Britons fighting fellow Britons. The British notion of empire, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consisting of Britons abroad ruled by Parliament and with the King as head of state, provided no room to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categorise the American-Britons as opponents in war. However, with the defeat at Saratoga in 1777, General )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burgoyne was forced to treat with the Americans not as rebels, but as if they were representatives of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereign power. This, suggests Gould, marks a shift away from seeing the Americans as part of empire to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conception of a federal relationship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gould reiterates the findings of other historians concerning the consequences of the defeat at Saratoga: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British recognised the emergence of a new class of people in America; this recognition paved the way for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more stable identity within the metropolitan confines of England, Scotland and Wales; and it ushered in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritarian period of governance to deter would-be imitators of the American colonials. He goes on to add )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and emphasise one further point, namely that the American Revolution: 'convinced the British as never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before of the need for firm, clear boundaries not just between themselves and their European neighbours, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between their political centre, where a common sovereignty based on ties of nationality and law could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assured, and their imperial periphery, where it could not.'[p. 32])] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both these essays offer interesting perspectives, but there is nothing particularly new here. Nor is there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything particularly Anglo-American, though there could have been. As the essays stand they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional historical approaches that deal respectively with the colonial challenge to a British notion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereignty, which logically implied that Britain had the right to tax and coerce recalcitrant colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects, and with the impact of the American War of Independence upon the British conception of empire. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is nothing that is Anglo-American about these issues that transcends the geographic divide. What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have done so would have been an examination of how the developments in question affected the idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of sovereignty on both sides of the Atlantic, changed it in similar ways, and how it linked with the growth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a form of Anglo-American democracy. Curiously, although federalism is specifically mentioned regarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, and the idea of divided sovereignty is implied at certain points in both essays, there is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of that concept. Both essays in their own way are about challenges to the Hobbesian notion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unitary sovereignty, but it is never specifically explained or discussed. One could argue that the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important contribution that the Americans made to eighteenth century political thought was to suggest the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divisibility of sovereignty, and yet the opportunity to explore that, both in the context of the crafting of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new American government and regarding British conceptions of imperial governance, are not exploited. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether such ideas also had impact on government within Britain might also have been worth exploring. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The claim of British national unity by Gould, given the existence of a strong Scottish identity, is at least a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little questionable, and an examination of the powers of local and municipal government might reveal some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence from the idea of divided sovereignty. The unitary state that became so all pervasive in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth century was not so much in evidence in the nineteenth century, or the twentieth, until the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War. In short, both authors raise the issue of sovereignty, but fail to trace the development of that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept in Anglo-American thinking.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One could argue that Roland Quinault's essay \()] TJ ET BT 259.808 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-American Attitudes to Democracy from Lincoln to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Churchill)] TJ ET BT 80.024 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) picks up the Anglo-American political theme where Marshall and Gould left off. It explores how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ideology of democracy developed in tandem in the two countries. Here we do have a better claim to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctive Anglo-American history that transcends the geographic divide. Quinault compares and contrasts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ideas and rhetoric of Lincoln and Gladstone, Lloyd George and Woodrow Wilson, and Roosevelt and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill. Brief biographical sketches, often revealing fascinating background similarities, are effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interspersed with detail of thoughts and speeches of the great men. One gets the overall impression of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two nations struggling with the challenges of modernity and adapting institutions and practices in ways that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can aptly be described as generically democratic. However, an adequate definition of democracy is never )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8428 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered. The author refers repeatedly to the franchise and its extension, but this is not sufficient. Citizens in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union had that, but one would be hard pressed to describe their systems of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government as democratic. And even if one were to qualify things and say that elections must be free, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would not do either. In principle, one could still conceive of a free people voting in free elections and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wishing to oppress or exterminate a minority class of citizens. And, if one is not happy with arguments of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principle, then one only has to look at the American constitution or Magna Carta to realise that, in practice, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the will of the majority is not everything so far as defining constitutional democracy is concerned in both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(USA and Britain. When Quinault quotes Churchill and notes the importance of 'free and secret elections, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedom of speech and an independent judiciary' [p. 135] he touches on the heart of the issue of democracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Britain and the USA. Into that heart feed two forms of nourishment that do not always mix easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together: the will of the majority, and the rights of individuals and minorities. It is the tension between these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two that has been at the centre of the drama that has been, and still is, the unfolding of democracy in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern world. Unfortunately, Quinault does not specifically address this. In not doing so, he misses an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity to explore the similarities and differences within a common stream of Anglo-American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic development. Instead, we are offered an interesting set of portraits of three pairs of statesmen in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which ideas and political rhetoric are mixed up in a way that does not lend itself to the kind of analysis that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have done justice to both the concept of Anglo-American democracy, and its development.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are three other essays in the collection with clear political aspects to them: Alan O'Day \()] TJ ET BT 488.744 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nationalism and Anglo-American Relations in the Later Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries)] TJ ET BT 509.024 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\); )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christine Bolt )] TJ ET BT 104.696 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(Was There an Anglo-American Feminist Movement in the Earlier )] TJ ET BT 426.320 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([sic])] TJ ET BT 447.644 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Twentieth Century)] TJ ET BT 539.648 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?\); )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Reba N. Soffer \()] TJ ET BT 133.652 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Commitment and Catastrophe: Twentieth Century Conservative Historiography in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain and America)] TJ ET BT 132.680 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). O'Day's is an interesting piece, and his conclusion is persuasive. 'The paradigm of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish-America's inability to log substantial political success despite a supposedly high level of ethnic identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and commitment to the homeland arises from a misunderstanding of how ethnicity functions in an adopted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land where the hurdles to incorporation are comparatively low and the group sought resolution of grievances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through non-ethnic parties and institutions.'[p. 189] However, one is puzzled by the absence both of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differentiation between Catholic and Protestant emigrants and of an examination of the impact that that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divide might have had on the concept of Irish-American. Bolt, in her essay, sees a sharing of tactics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology among the early feminist movements in Britain and the USA, but the experience of the First World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War, and achievement of the franchise were followed by divergence because of 'race, class, and international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences' [p. 208]. The essay by Soffer probably reads strangely to a British audience not fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accustomed to analyses of historical schools of thought. Soffer argues that that there was a kind of common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American and British conservative school of historians concerned with similar issues, which approached )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them from a shared ideology. However, some of the candidates for the class of conservative historians are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather unusual. Viereck, for example, was more of a political theorist than historian, and the idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarity between British and American conservatives is not entirely convincing. Viereck subscribed to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of Burkean organic conservatism, but that was often seen by other American conservatives as alien to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the American experience. In the end, the author does not give a clear enough picture of a conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology shared by the historians she discusses, and thus it is never entirely clear what unites them as a class. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The call for workers of the world to unite is one thing, but the idea that conservatives from different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries and traditions might unite is rather odd. The underlying assumption of this collection of essays is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there is something Anglo-American that is nationally transcendent, but can that at-oneness stretch to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embrace the possibility of Anglo-American conservatism, when to be conservative is to be culturally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific? This is not categorically to deny the possibility of Anglo-American conservatism, but it is to assert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there must be a presumption against it, and, therefore, that the evidence and argument need to be all that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more persuasive. In Soffer's essay such evidence and argument are not sufficiently manifest to persuade, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least this reader. The article is interesting in what it says about various British and American historians, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by exploring their beliefs the essay casts light on their positions, but the category of conservatism that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crafted is not robust enough to carry the analysis through with conviction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Hancock \()] TJ ET BT 115.988 73.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Transatlantic Trade in the Era of the American Revolution)] TJ ET BT 397.988 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), Anthony Howe \()] TJ ET BT 488.636 73.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Free Trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and the International Order: the Anglo-American Tradition, 1846-1946)] TJ ET BT 378.668 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), and Kathleen Burk \()] TJ ET BT 486.308 59.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 45.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-American Financial Relations in the Twentieth Century)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8128 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) provide the main economic diet in the )] TJ ET BT 225.992 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection. All three are highly competent pieces of a kind one would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expect from such good scholars, but only Hancock's offers anything that is original, and only Howe offers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything that really reaches beyond conventional bilateral relations to produce something truly Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hancock's is a well researched and tightly argued piece that sets out to answer the question: Did the War of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independence change the well-established trade pattern between Britain and America, or was Britain's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial dominance quickly re-established along with traditional trading patterns after the war? Using )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade in Madeira wine as a case study, Hancock convincingly argues that this question needs to be answered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within a broader context. Some trade relationships were re-established, others were not, but most important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of all, two long-term trends that had begun well before the war had major impact. These trends were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(globalisation of trade and the expansion of the American presence in the sea borne carrying trade. 'The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcome was nothing short of a critical re-channelling of entrepreneurial aggressiveness into world-wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carrying activity.' [p. 165] Howe's essay detects the presence of a strong undercurrent of free trade doctrine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beneath America's nineteenth and early twentieth century dominant doctrine of protectionism. This is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important, and all-too-often-neglected facet of American economic thinking and it deserves further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elucidation. Unfortunately, Howe moves on all-too-quickly to the post 1934 period, i.e. after the passage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cordell Hull's Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act, and stumbles into a trap similar to the one he has sprung )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about pre-1934 protectionism. After showing the importance of free trade doctrines prior to 1934, he then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underestimates the legacy and vestigial power of protectionism after 1934. Although he observes that one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the two main obstacles to the success of multilateral trade in 1946 was 'residual American protectionism' [p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(157] he also notes that American commitment to free trade was 'far greater than in the past'. [p. 157] This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gives a rather overstated impression of US commitment to free trade. The author does not tell us that the ITO )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to be withdrawn from Congress several months later because it had no chance of passing, that the USA )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had discriminatory preferential arrangements with several countries and specific and highly protective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrangements for the wheat trade and the maritime and defence industries, and that multilateralism for either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the abortive ITO or the GATT was a bastardised form of multilateralism - tariff reductions were negotiated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bilaterally \(giving the USA immense leverage\) and only then 'universalised' among GATT members via the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most Favoured Nation Principle. Also, while one recognises the confines imposed by space \(and how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irritating it is for reviewers to criticise authors for not writing what they would have written\), nevertheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one feels that the IMF/Bretton Woods system should also have been, at least briefly, considered, and, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, the form of responsibly managed capitalism that it embodied. Given the inextricable link between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade and international monetary exchange, the IMF/Bretton Woods system was clearly a modification of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctrine of free trade. Burk's is the last of the three pieces on economic matters, and it deals with Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American financial relations, largely during wartime. It tracks Britain's convenience lending in the Boer War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the convenient but necessary help received in the Falklands War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Langford \()] TJ ET BT 110.000 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Manners and Character in Anglo-American Perceptions)] TJ ET BT 380.972 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), Walter L. Arnstein \()] TJ ET BT 488.276 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Queen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victoria and the United States)] TJ ET BT 179.348 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), James Epstein )] TJ ET BT 260.672 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\('America' in the Victorian Cultural Imagination)] TJ ET BT 494.144 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), Fred M. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leventhal \()] TJ ET BT 89.000 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Public Face and Public Space: The Projection of Britain in America before the Second World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War)] TJ ET BT 54.680 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), and D.L. )] TJ ET BT 110.000 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(LeMahieu \(America and the Representation of British History in Film and Television)] TJ ET BT 518.984 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deal in their separate ways with the giving and receiving of images of behaviour, people, countries, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories. What strikes one about all five pieces is that, except for two secondary source references in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leventhal [see notes 4 & 9], there is no systematic effort to assess impact on the relevant public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituencies. Neither public opinion/mass observation data \(from the period in which such material is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available\), nor substitutes \(available throughout the various periods at issue\) such as systematic samplings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspaper editorials, or other possible newspaper indicators, are used. Instead the authors rely on anecdotal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence and qualitative types of analysis to make their cases. Langford concludes that the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonials were little different to provincial English society, though the stereotypical images fostered during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the War of Independence had resonance long after the conflict ended. Arnstein sees Queen Victoria as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having a positive and beneficial impact on Anglo-American relations, which helped promote the growing-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together that became evident in many aspects of the relationship at the end of the nineteenth century. Epstein )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores how 'various tropes about America were worked and reworked, to suggest how 'America' was put )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7716 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into discourse' [p. 107] in Britain. Looking primarily at the views of Dickens and Matthew Arnold, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that 'America' was subject to constant revision as a concept because of changing social, political, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and cultural changes in Britain, though the idea of 'America' as a symbol of modernity abided in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various forms. Leventhal focuses on the British Pavilion at the New York World's Fair, the 1939 visit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in 1939, and the exhibition of British war art at the Museum of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Modern Art in 1941, in order to show how the British, while abjuring propaganda, managed to project a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positive image of itself to the USA. LeMahieu catalogues a variety of British films and TV serials, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were popular in the USA, and tells the reader what they were about and that they projected a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressive image of Britain. However, this remains largely )] TJ ET BT 324.632 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(his )] TJ ET BT 341.636 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion. There is no evidence offered as to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how they were received and understood, or what actual impact they had in the USA. One is left wondering: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Did Americans see them in the same way as LeMahieu? Did they draw the same conclusions as the author? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And to what extent did they create an Anglo-American 'history' distinct from British and American History?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final essay in the collection is about diplomatic relations. Peter Hahn \()] TJ ET BT 392.972 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Discord or Accommodation? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain and the United States in World Affairs, 1945-92)] TJ ET BT 301.028 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) offers an overview of Anglo-American history from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1945 to 1992 in thirteen pages. The title is reminiscent of David Reynolds' idea of Anglo-American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competitive co-operation, and indeed the author relies extensively on Dimbleby and Reynolds, )] TJ ET BT 491.288 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Ocean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Apart)] TJ ET BT 61.352 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(David Dimbleby and David Reynolds, )] TJ ET BT 255.668 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Ocean Apart: The Relationship Between America and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain in the Twentieth Century)] TJ ET BT 190.028 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1988\). The overview is of necessity rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crude, but it should have taken some factors into account, which it does not. The re-forging of the special )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship after the Second World War was, as Hahn argues, largely because of the Cold War, but it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also because of the need for co-operation in the economic sphere. The claim that there was a breach in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(special relationship from 1963 through the 1970s is over-exaggerated. It needs to be qualified by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following observations: there was extensive co-operation to prop up sterling in the mid 1960s; the Polaris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme went ahead and there was agreement to replace it with Trident between Prime Minister )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Callaghan and President Carter; and there were close relationships between Callaghan and both presidents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ford and Carter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall this collection of essays does not achieve the aim the editors claim for it in the introduction. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not have a strong sense of an Anglo-American history that transcends the geographic divide between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the two countries. Most of the essays are about specific impacts that Britain had on the USA or vice versa. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps this is what the editors meant by a distinct Anglo-American history, but I do not think so. If it were, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then they should have defined the enterprise of the volume more carefully. Some of the essays do genuinely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem to have an Anglo-American history in their sights, but then, as with the essays by Marshall, Gould and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quinault, they fail to develop the potential, or, as with Howe and Hancock, they concentrate upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments relative to one of the two countries. Drawing conference papers together into a coherent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection to persuade publishers to put them into print is never easy. These essays are worthy pieces of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship in the main and will be read with pleasure and gain by those interested in Anglo-American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations, but they do not create an Anglo-American history that transcends the geographical divide. They do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not generally offer original scholarship, though they do offer insights and summaries of original scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published elsewhere by these distinguished scholars. And they do not significantly break the mould in terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of subject matter - five essays are about rather conventional political topics, three are about conventional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic issues, and the final essay is, ironically, about diplomatic relations. There is a certain ambiguity in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the introduction about the status of Anglo-American economic studies. At one point it is claimed that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been inadequate scholarship in this field \(something with which I would beg to disagree, at least to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modest extent\), at another point economics is grouped with diplomatic studies as central to Anglo-American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies as if it were well catered for. All the articles are competently or well written. The book is well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced with few errors. The title is not well chosen: many of the essays are not about attitudes. There is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 71.455 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 53.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 53.675 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/180)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 52.281 m 322.316 52.281 l S endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 52.5955 322.3157 64.4755 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/180) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 306 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1159)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000573 00000 n 0000000655 00000 n 0000005219 00000 n 0000005328 00000 n 0000005438 00000 n 0000005547 00000 n 0000009108 00000 n 0000009236 00000 n 0000009320 00000 n 0000009385 00000 n 0000016934 00000 n 0000016999 00000 n 0000025480 00000 n 0000025545 00000 n 0000033726 00000 n 0000033810 00000 n 0000041579 00000 n 0000041705 00000 n 0000041800 00000 n 0000041865 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42223 %%EOF