%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722214628+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722214628+01'00') /Title (Madness, Cannabis and Colonialism) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4791 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Madness, Cannabis and Colonialism)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 373.115 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Madness, Cannabis and Colonialism)] TJ ET BT 224.360 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, James H. Mills examines the lunatic asylums of colonial India, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the war of 1857 and the end of the nineteenth century. Throughout this period, the total number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mental patients in the country did not exceed five thousand at any given time. By any standard, then, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incarceration of the mentally ill in British India would appear to have been a small, low-priority effort. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crude but justifiable question therefore arises, is the study of colonial madness worth the time that it takes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(write a two-hundred-page monograph? Mills does well to answer the question - in the affirmative, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course - early in his book. He is, I think, quite right. The study of mental asylums in India in this period is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not simply about a few thousand unfortunates who were locked away in a new type of colonial institution. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a critically important part of the much broader study of disciplinary techniques, discourses and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions, in a social and political context in which these imperatives were pursued with vigour, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagination, and moderate success.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By taking on insanity, Mills adds a dimension that has not been adequately explored in recent studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial institutions of medicine and punishment in the second half of the nineteenth century: clinics, lock )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hospitals, prisons, penal colonies, schools and reformatories. These studies - by David Arnold, Philippa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Levine and others - all argue, although not identically, that discipline, incarceration and medical intervention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in nineteenth-century India were fundamentally implicated in the British effort to create a more governable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial society. It is quite clear from these studies that the disciplining impulse was not especially limited in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its scale or its ambition. If we add Mills' lunatics to the women who were targeted under the Contagious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diseases Act, the peripatetic societies that were shepherded into labour camps under the Criminal Tribes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Acts, the murderers and dacoits who were transported to the Andaman Islands, and men and women who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were forcibly vaccinated or subjected to anti-epidemic measures, we end up with a respectable segment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the colonised population. Placed in this larger context, a few thousand lunatics and their keepers become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(181)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 April, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Mills)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(St Martin's Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Satadru Sen)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7482 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eminently worthwhile subjects of analysis, and a rich - if sometimes vexing - source of insight into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial experience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reliable sources of information are inevitably at a premium in studies of incarcerated populations in colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India. The overwhelming majority of those who entered nineteenth-century mental asylums in India were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-literate. As such, if their voices are to be isolated, the subaltern must "speak" through the medium of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial state. Yet, as Mills notes, colonial records of mental illness tend to be highly unreliable, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if the researcher blunders into attempting to answer the question: were the inmates really "mad"? For one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thing, there was little unanimity among mental health professionals in India regarding the basic vocabulary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of madness: the same diagnosis, made in two different asylums, could describe two different sets of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symptoms. For another thing, and perhaps obviously, the language of diagnosis - today, as in the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century - is not "objective" and "innocent," but deeply implicated in strategies of political power. Mills )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rightly eschews any effort to diagnose asylum inmates retroactively by applying late-twentieth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychiatric concepts, or by arguing that the colonial insane were simply misunderstood. He chooses, instead, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to "diagnose" the doctors and administrators who ran the asylums and the political priorities that shaped the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records and the case studies that make up the asylum archive. He proceeds, then, from the assumption that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the asylum archive is valuable to the historian precisely because it is unreliable as "medical evidence," and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it reveals a great deal about colonial imaginations of India. Mills' argument regarding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction of madness in colonial India is that it was rooted in the "native" body, in behaviour that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically transgressive, and in the refusal to work. The first assertion is especially interesting, since Mills )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ties it firmly to the colonial sciences of race, especially phrenology and the autopsy, that sought to explore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measure, and classify the colonised body and that constructed it as fundamentally different from the body of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the coloniser. Mills demonstrates, convincingly, that the symptoms of "madness" that were recorded in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial asylum were overwhelmingly physical, rather than mental: the asylum doctors chose to focus on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(details such as the patient's weight, bowel functions, and the colour and consistency of the brain upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inmate's death. Mills then proceeds to historicise this apparent anomaly, by pointing out that the doctors who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ran Indian asylums were, for the most part, physicians extemporising as specialists in mental health, engaged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the project of claiming the field of mental health for the medical profession.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interesting as this section of the book is, it is disappointing in that Mills does not explore the politics of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autopsy in colonial India. Arnold has touched upon that issue in the context of Indian teaching hospitals, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subject is far from exhausted. Mills - who is very aware of the role of asylums and prisons as sources of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge, and who points out that such institutions became bastions of medical power long before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medicine became a hegemonic discourse in the wider colonial society - would have done well to discuss the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political implications of conducting autopsies on the bodies of the incarcerated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The politics of labour, on the other hand, feature centrally in Mills' analysis. It is apparent from his analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that like criminality, insanity in colonial India had a great deal to do with the individual's refusal to perform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those forms of labour that were approved by the state. There is little evidence that labour structured asylum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regimes to the extent that it did prison regimes in British India. Nevertheless, Mills argues that irregular, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peripatetic, and "unproductive" occupations led to the asylum, as they did to the prison. He further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicates the relationship between work and incarceration by pointing out that colonial prison regimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were closely tied to production and profit, in which those unable or unwilling to work were viewed as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially disruptive and worthless. These unwanted prisoners were frequently classified as mad and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transferred to asylums, where their perceived aversion to labour would be further observed, recorded, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utilised to reinforce the diagnosis of insanity. Conversely, the "resumption" of labour by asylum inmates was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equated with the recovery of their minds and bodies. In one particularly interesting example that Mills )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides, a prostitute who was detained at a mental asylum for five years was discharged promptly when she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicated to the superintendent that she was ready to resume her profession! Mills observes, quite correctly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this connection between work, madness, and recovery was an integral part of the colonial project of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reforming the Indian, by correcting his innate laziness \(and the unproductive condition of his society\) even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as it corrected his defective body and mind.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The diagnostic value of labour remains in focus when Mills discusses the peculiar place of cannabis in the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6168 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial discourse of madness. This is, in some ways, the most intriguing section of the book, because Mills )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does an excellent job of demonstrating the development of the cultural and medical mythology of a drug, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and of tracing the emerging intersections of knowledge, institutions, and policy. He shows, for instance, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannabis hardly registered in the metropolitan British consciousness for most of the nineteenth century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When it did, beginning in the 1870s, the asylums of India played the leading role in generating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge that was then transmitted to England, for debates in the press and in the government. Among its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other merits, the discussion of cannabis in the context of Indian madness adds to the growing body of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship that seeks to demolish the remarkably resilient separation between "British" and "empire.")] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mills shows that in the first half of the nineteenth century, British observers were vaguely aware of hemp as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a substance that Indians used recreationally as well as medicinally. In the 1830s, British scientists in Calcutta )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carried out experiments with cannabis \(which included exposing a dog to the drug, and recording that its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(face "assumed a look of utter helpless drunkenness"\), but attached no great moral or medical opprobrium to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its effects. The discourse of ganja as a "dangerous" drug began to emerge in 1871, when the colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government decided to survey its officers on the effects of hemp. The information that now emerged came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from administrators with political anxieties about Indians who used the drug, and from asylums, where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drug was increasingly viewed as both a cause and a symptom of insanity. By 1873, Mills shows, cannabis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was being linked in India to sexual immorality, infanticide, suicide, chronic indolence, violent and disorderly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour, explicitly political offences such as attacks on Christians and, retroactively, the rebellion of 1857. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By 1880, this discourse had spread to British medical journals like The Lancet. It became the subject of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary hearings in 1890, and various legal restrictions on the use and sale of cannabis were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simultaneously introduced in India.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mills' analysis of the production of knowledge about cannabis in the colonial asylum is quite outstanding. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He shows, for instance, how cannabis use came to be grounded in the body of the incarcerated inmate: in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical stigmata such as emaciation, "a peculiar leery look which, when once seen, is unmistakable," )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discoloration of the lips, "loss of vital energy," and the "ganja-corn" \(an apparently distinctive callus on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marijuana-smoker's finger\). He shows, also, how extremely brittle was the actual evidence for the use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hemp by individual mental patients, and how unpredictable local factors would determine just when, where, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and how the "meta-narrative preoccupations" of madness and discipline would be deployed. Policemen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would identify cannabis users on the basis of pure hearsay, or simply surmise that individuals "looked," )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("acted," or "lived" like users of the drug. This would suffice to commit people to the asylum. Following this, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a circular process, the inmate's status as mad and the medical gaze would reinforce the "fact" that he used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hemp, underline the connection between madness and cannabis, and generate official policy regarding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drug.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For all its insights, there is an incompleteness about Mills' discussion of cannabis. The subject is tackled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early in the volume, and then dropped almost entirely: a strategy that does not do justice to the title of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, or to the reader's expectations. It is not as if there is nothing more to say about cannabis in this context. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mills would have done well to place the nineteenth-century discourse of cannabis alongside the temperance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusades in Britain and its colonies; the themes of physical/mental/moral degeneration and crime would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem to apply in both cases, as would issues of gender and class. There is little discussion of class in Mills' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of cannabis: he does not tell us, for instance, whether the use of the drug was connected to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular social strata, or whether the British disdain for cannabis users had parallels in the attitudes of lite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6856 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To be fair, it must be conceded that gender, class, and the native voice are very much present in Mills' larger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of madness. He indicates, for instance, that what cannabis use was to male lunatics, reproduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was to women who entered the colonial asylum. Madness in women - in colonial India as in contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe - was most often rooted in the womb. Mills notes, perceptively, that this association generated a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain sympathy on the part of colonial administrators for women who killed their babies. Infanticide was, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by far, the commonest crime for which women were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment or penal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transportation in British India; nevertheless, jailers and asylum directors alike wrote of the women as victims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their bodies \(and of Indian society\), rather than as murderers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Native voices appear in multiple capacities in Mills' study. These establish the indigenous discourse of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insanity, which saw madness in terms of an externally imposed affliction. Mills places this discourse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside the late-nineteenth-century British view of madness as an internal disorder of the lunatic's body; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he does not, however, explore British responses to the indigenous model, or discuss the European discourse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of spirit-possession. In other words, there is no evidence in the book of an attempt to develop a dialogue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the two "systems" of madness and its treatment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, the native voices in Mills' analysis establish the reasons why Indians sometimes committed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves to the asylum, or had their own relatives committed, without accepting the legitimacy of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial vision of mental illness. Most importantly, the Indian voices in this volume establish the prevalence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of resistance in the lunatic asylum: inmates refused to work, refused food, masturbated, engaged in sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intercourse, violated segregation rules, insulted the doctors, physically assaulted the staff, ran away, and not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infrequently, committed suicide.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mills offers three especially illuminating insights on resistance in the colonial asylum. One is that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asylum, like the colonial prison, was the site of a protracted political struggle between the coloniser and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonised, in which the line between "treatment" and "punishment" frequently disappeared. In one gruesome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but apparently unexceptional example, an asylum superintendent describes how he blistered and then sewed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patients' genitalia to dissuade them from masturbating. Oddly, Mills has nothing to say about electroshock )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therapy, which developed somewhat later than the period he studies, but which was used as punishment as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as treatment for prisoners suspected of faking madness in British-Indian prisons in the 1920s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, Mills diverges sharply from the approach of Sridhar Sharma and Waltraud Ernst, both of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom have argued that mental asylums were little more than holding pens, where aggressive treatment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the insane was conspicuous only by its absence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A second insight is that to some extent, madness and the asylum functioned as shelters from which Indians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could resist colonial power. Unlike an Indian who was perceived to be sane, a madman had the privilege of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(openly abusing a colonial administrator, and then laughing at the latter's discomfort. At the same time, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginal status of the insane allowed the British to depoliticise their resistance, by depicting it as irrational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and meaningless.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third, and most significant, point that Mills makes is that it is counterproductive to see Indian responses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the colonial asylum in terms of resistance alone. Some observers of state medicine and incarceration in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial India - notably Arnold and Harrison - have tended to characterise the Indian response to these new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial regimes as either resistance or indifference. Mills shows that inmates, and the Indians who actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(staffed colonial asylums, also saw psychiatric institutions as resources that they could utilise for their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ends: as career opportunities, as shelters where they could build vital social ties or seek refuge in times of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal crisis \(Mills cites the example of one woman who committed herself after her husband died, leaving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her destitute\), as places where they might escape the harsher discipline of prison regimes, and as receptacles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where they could dispose of troublesome family members. To access these advantages, inmates in colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mental asylums co-operated with British doctors and administrators; their co-operation, however, was driven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by agendas that were substantially autonomous of the colonial state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All things considered, Mills' work is based on excellent research and innovative analysis, and is a valuable )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 3659 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to the existing body of scholarship on so-called "total institutions" in colonial India. The point has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been made, most forcefully by Arnold, that there was nothing "total" about the hospitals, prisons, and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cousins in British India: that the disciplining project was essentially a failure. Mills accepts the idea that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial carceral institutions were far from Foucauldian/Benthamite models of perfect control. Nevertheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he points out, these were places where the disciplining project was energetically attempted, and where, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sporadically and for all the "wrong" reasons, incarcerated Indians did co-operate in their incarceration. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration - and the recognition - of this coexistent co-operation and resistance is essential to understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relationship between state and society in colonial India, where power existed not only to coerce, but to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(co-opted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Madness, Cannabis and Colonialism)] TJ ET BT 211.364 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is valuable, also, because it draws attention to the extraordinary efforts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that were made in India in the decades after the Mutiny to develop intrusive and coercive systems of control. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This, after all, was the period when the Contagious Diseases Act, the Cantonments Act, the Female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Infanticide Act, and the first Criminal Tribes Act were all passed, the Andaman Islands penal colony was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established, and vigorous measures were undertaken for the management and recovery of populations that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were seen as being out of control. Mills demonstrates that the rebellion of 1857 did not panic the colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state into setting aside the agenda of social reform. Rather, the state withdrew from the project of reforming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Indian lites, and turned its attention to the vagrants, the thieves, the prostitutes, and the diseased. After )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1857, the agenda of "knowing" and exposing the hidden recesses of India - not only the native family, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wandering tribe, the zenana, and the brothel, but also the native body and the native mind - became, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything, a more urgent political concern.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 468.367 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 450.587 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 450.587 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/181)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 449.193 m 322.316 449.193 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 424.216 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 409.816 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1161)] TJ ET BT 34.016 395.416 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 449.5075 322.3157 461.3875 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/181) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000543 00000 n 0000000625 00000 n 0000005468 00000 n 0000005577 00000 n 0000005687 00000 n 0000005796 00000 n 0000009357 00000 n 0000009485 00000 n 0000009569 00000 n 0000009634 00000 n 0000017169 00000 n 0000017234 00000 n 0000023455 00000 n 0000023520 00000 n 0000030429 00000 n 0000030513 00000 n 0000034225 00000 n 0000034353 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34448 %%EOF