%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416004841+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416004841+01'00') /Title (Death, Religion and the Family in England 1480-1750) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4510 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Death, Religion and the Family in England 1480-1750)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Worshippers at the main dominical services of the Church of England have, with greater or lesser frequency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to usage, custom, or personal inclination from 1549, and until the revision of the prayer book in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1980, publicly and collectively asserted their belief in 'The Resurrection of the body and the life everlasting'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the greater feasts of the church the Apostles' Creed was replaced by that of Athanasius. The second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coming of Christ, accompanied by a bodily resurrection at which 'all men' would give an account of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works were included in its more detailed statements of belief. Those that had 'done good' would go into 'life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everlasting' those that had done evil 'into everlasting fire'. The creeds were also made familiar through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instruction in the catechism both before and after the Reformation. Ideally individuals were examined on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them as part of confession, which was made at least annually at Easter tide, while from 1549 a knowledge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('the articles of the faith' was laid down as a prerequisite for confirmation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To whatever extent the apparent simplicity of these teachings were assimilated by those who repeated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learnt them, they were available to comfort not only to people facing the inescapable reality of their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deaths, but as consolation to those who mourned them. In early modern England death reached from beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the immediate circumstances of an individual's physical dissolution to permeate society, not just in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mental world of individuals, but through a changing, although pervasive culture of death, that found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression through the spoken and printed word, in rites and observances and the more enduring material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture through which at least some of the dead were commemorated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The sentences from the Anglican prayer book that were said as the corpse was prepared for burial reminded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mourners that 'In the midst of life we are in death'. When it came death was, for the most part, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced in people's own homes. Accidental death was proportionately less significant than in modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(182)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 April, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ralph Houlbrooke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(449pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarendon Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rod Ambler)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7398 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times. Concern with the proper observance of the last things meant that in the late middle ages the swiftness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a sudden death, whether accidental or not, was not necessarily welcomed, while the suffrages of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglican Litany included a supplication for deliverance from it. The experience of death was therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shared widely within communities, although as much as a phenomenon to be prepared for, and to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remembered, as a present event. It did come early to many, and the frequency with which death was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced in towns points up the vulnerability of their populations; but while their parish registers provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of the searing effect of outbreaks of infectious disease, such was the size of the communities in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which a majority of the people of England lived that the tolling bell which marked a death was far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being an everyday experience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The church's official teachings on death, what was actually believed, and the varying ways in which people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either individually or collectively, internally or publicly, came to terms with it, are all areas that, singly or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together, provide a rich field for students from a variety of disciplines. Professor Houlbrooke's considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement is to embrace a wide range of these insights and approaches in order to provide what he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes as an investigation of 'the effects of religious change on the social history of death'. Moving from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an analysis of the incidence and causes of death, he builds up a picture of perceptions of the afterlife in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian belief, although set in a wider context than the period that is his immediate concern, to study the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing ways in which death was prepared for, experienced, managed and commemorated. His Conclusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveys the long-term changes that occurred in 'the culture of death'. The use of the phrase is significant, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the events that surrounded the corporeal reality of death and its commemoration provide the material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for an empirical approach to its social history, its other worldly dimension meant that it was apprehended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through religious belief. In approaching his subject by way of the history of religious change Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Houlbrooke provides a coherently convincing basis for his richly textured study in which the changes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant Reformation were a pivotal point.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The uncertainties of life fed the constant injunctions of divines on the necessity of preparing for death. Even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the thoughts of someone as corporeally preoccupied as Samuel Pepys occasionally turned to it, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns that he recorded were more with the need to order his material affairs than with the state of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soul. The extent to which individuals were receptive to warnings to prepare for death depended on their age, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sex, personal character and experience, although this was not simply a function of old age. One important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of preparation was the making of a will and, despite the church's insistence on its importance as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian duty, it was a task that was faced with reluctance. Nonetheless, whether they were made early or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late, and whatever the circumstances in which this was done, wills are a potentially valuable source on which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to base an analysis not only of the material concerns, but of the attitudes and assumptions of a relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large number of people in the face of death.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Houlbrooke uses the extensive literature that has arisen from the study of wills in two excellent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters that lie at the heart of a sensitively nuanced examination of preparation for death. His analysis is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grounded in his own work on six hundred wills from the archdeaconries Berkshire and Norfolk for the 240 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years from 1500. It also draws widely on other printed collections of wills; but for all the considerable skill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he employs, and his awareness of the problems that are inherent in the use of documents that appear to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be so beguilingly informative, the fact remains that there must be considerable doubts remaining about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representativeness of even this wide range of material. There is an average of some 2.5 wills a year from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both areas, while Professor Houlbrooke knows his material too well not to be also aware of the relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited social groups who made the wills and of the extent to which they were, of their very nature, over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative of propertied interests. Although he sees his analysis as 'penetrating the lower strata of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testators', and presents us with some of the evidence for this, as well as for changes in the composition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social groups who made wills, we are left with what are primarily the attitudes and assumptions of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who had at least some property to dispose of, whether this was done for the good of their souls or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material benefit of those that they were leaving behind.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wills show the ways in which the testamentary strategies of individuals were structured by law, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by formal religious beliefs and observances. They also provide important evidence of the extent to which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parameters to will making changed over time. The material from church court proceedings that is used to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8006 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such good effect by Professor Houlbrooke also demonstrates how the contingencies of personal and local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances affected the process. The use of scribes sympathetic to the religious position of the testator is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an example of the extent to which individuals were able to exercise control over will making within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constraints of custom and practice, but there is also evidence of significant regional differences. Religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guilds or confraternities which have been shown to have had an important influence on the culture of death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the late middle ages retained their importance into the 1530s.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 339.644 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 339.644 723.795 m 353.636 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 353.636 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet Professor Houlbrooke shows that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their importance in the eyes of testators appears to have varied from one part of the country to another. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While a substantial majority of Norfolk wills included bequests to these institutions, they were remembered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in only a minority of wills from Berkshire and Buckinghamshire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The distribution of funeral doles was becoming more common among the middling ranks of society in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixteenth century. It was another aspect of the observances that surrounded death in which there were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant regional differences. At Whickham in county Durham - a community that was profoundly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affected by the growth of coal mining - regional custom and practice constrained the ways in which people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were able to dispose of their movable goods, but there were still considerable changes to funeral practices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the 1580s. These were influenced by the ways in which social structures and relations were modified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the industrial development of the parish. Not only did doles replace the occasional donation of small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sums to the parish poor man's box, but they became larger and more common. The custom persisted into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(third quarter of the seventeenth century until replaced by less frequent charitable bequests that were more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directed to specific purposes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 173.984 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 173.984 526.467 m 187.976 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Whickham the community of the workplace replaced the parish in providing for the funerals of its poorer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members, so that pit men were brought for burial by the overmen under whom they worked, while workers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the local manufactory were buried at the expense of a fund that also laid out money for refreshments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for their fellow workmen. It was essentially a transaction among equals, and was less a funeral dole than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food and drink that the parish authorities continued to provide in some parts of the country in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century. Their willingness to meet the costs of this was based on a shared understanding of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituted a proper provision of funeral rites. Evidence for the extent to which they continued to do this, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and for any regional variations in the practice, is less tangible and, because it deals with the poor, is separate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the material that can be extracted from wills and administration accounts. Yet the extent to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doles, or indeed any other usage, were abandoned by parish officers while being retained by people of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater wealth or higher status, and the ways in which this reflects the development of different attitudes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death, as well as the reasons for them, must remain elusive.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 318.968 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 318.968 343.395 m 332.960 343.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An observance that appears to have been much more closely related to wealth and status was the funeral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sermon which became increasingly popular in the seventeenth century. As Professor Houlbrooke shows in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter based on a total of over 1,300 published sermons preached by Anglican or Protestant Nonconformist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divines, they were not specifically associated with any particular type of churchmanship. Although the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church of England favoured funeral sermons for the instruction that they imparted, those who provided them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were motivated as much by the desire to commemorate the dead as to edify the living. Their provision was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependent on the ability as well as the willingness of people to pay for them, and they do not appear to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the items of expenditure that were allowed for pauper funerals in even the more generous parishes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The marked regional differences in their distribution cannot, however, be attributed simply to levels of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth: a growing preference for funeral sermons in Kent from the 1590s could be related to religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments within the county, although any such analysis would still need to take account of local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversity. Funeral doles continued to be relatively more important in Lincolnshire until well into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century, and the spread of funeral sermons appears to have been inhibited by a conservatism that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained strong enough to adapt even these new forms to more traditionalist ends. The Lincolnshire man )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who in 1600 ordered that as many as three funeral sermons should be preached for him was perhaps seeking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the accumulated merit that he would have gained through the provision of a number of masses three quarters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a century earlier.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 127.976 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 127.976 89.043 m 141.968 89.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Houlbrooke notes the importance of the spread of literacy, and the significant role that reading and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing played, not only in commemoration, but in communicating ideas about death. Yet legal documents )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 339.6437 724.1095 353.6357 735.9895 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 173.9837 526.7815 187.9757 538.6615 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 318.9677 343.7095 332.9597 355.5895 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 127.9757 89.3575 141.9677 101.2375 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7549 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as wills and administration accounts, printed funeral sermons and - another important source for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of death - the personal journal, remained unnecessary, even meaningless, for a substantial section of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the population in late medieval and early modern England. They continued to encounter many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teachings, ideas and associations that surrounded death through visual images. Professor Houlbrooke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides an evocative discussion of the value of funeral monuments as measures of changes in attitudes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death, but for all his skill he is unable to exploit fully their potential as a source for understanding changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes to death because of the lack of illustrations in his book. This presents serious problems in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaching the ways in which death was apprehended by the illiterate since the spread of printing had made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pictorial material more widely accessible and illustrations of death bed scenes and of visions of the after life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became available in printed editions from the late fifteenth century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 357.284 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 357.284 666.771 m 371.276 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These striking visual images - which were often accompanied by a brief text - are discussed by Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Houlbrooke . He suggests that this imagery may have influenced the death bed experience of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals - possibly religious conservatives - into the seventeenth century, although cheap woodcuts with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more distinctively Catholic images were early victims of the English Reformation. Nonetheless, death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to be included among the themes illustrated in this way, although shorn of the spiritual dimensions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the publications that illustrated the art of dying. These prints presented an image of death that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omnipresent but, in a conceit that first became common in the early sixteenth century, it was joined in a ring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dance with beggars as well as kings. Pinned, among other places, to the walls of alehouses, the prints were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of a broad popular culture less touched by the graver formalities of the church or the formal norms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the civil community. Here death could be diminished in ironic jest, or explained and given a measure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning through the medley of folk beliefs and customs that had become attached to it. There was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately no way by which it could be avoided, and its significance as a common experience, while posing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable methodological challenges, means that, handled as skilfully as is done in this book, its study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can still bring rich rewards for religious and social historians.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 328.640 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 328.640 455.187 m 342.632 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 421.683 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Duffy, )] TJ ET BT 112.004 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Stripping of the Altars: traditional religion in England )] TJ ET BT 398.372 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c.)] TJ ET BT 406.700 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1400-)] TJ ET BT 434.696 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c.)] TJ ET BT 443.024 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1580)] TJ ET BT 467.024 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London, 1992, p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(142.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.016 375.411 m 139.004 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Levine and K. Wrightson, )] TJ ET BT 206.660 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of an Industrial Society. Whickham 1560-1795)] TJ ET BT 491.300 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1991, pp. 241-2, 283-4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 177.008 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 177.008 346.899 m 230.996 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid., p. 343; C. Gittings, )] TJ ET BT 187.364 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Death, Burial and the Individual in Early Modern England)] TJ ET BT 471.020 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London 1984, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp.61-3, 161-3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 138.008 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 138.008 318.387 m 191.996 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 305.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gittings, )] TJ ET BT 108.692 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Death, Burial and the Individual)] TJ ET BT 265.688 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 138, 240-1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 344.684 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 344.684 304.131 m 398.672 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duffy, )] TJ ET BT 98.672 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stripping of the Altars)] TJ ET BT 205.688 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 316-17, Plates 117-119, 127-8.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 378.344 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 378.344 289.875 m 432.332 289.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 277.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. Watt, )] TJ ET BT 106.676 277.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cheap Print and Popular Piety, 1550-1640)] TJ ET BT 314.672 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Cambridge, 1991, pp. 131, 162-5, 330.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 506.996 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 506.996 275.619 m 560.984 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 250.757 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 231.775 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 213.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 213.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/182)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 212.601 m 322.316 212.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 187.624 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.224 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1162)] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.824 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 357.2837 667.0855 371.2757 678.9655 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 328.6397 455.5015 342.6317 467.3815 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.0157 375.7255 139.0037 387.6055 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 177.0077 347.2135 230.9957 359.0935 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 138.0077 318.7015 191.9957 330.5815 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 344.6837 304.4455 398.6717 316.3255 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 378.3437 290.1895 432.3317 302.0695 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 506.9957 275.9335 560.9837 287.8135 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 212.9155 322.3157 224.7955 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/182) >> endobj xref 0 52 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000554 00000 n 0000000636 00000 n 0000005198 00000 n 0000005307 00000 n 0000005417 00000 n 0000005526 00000 n 0000009087 00000 n 0000009215 00000 n 0000009299 00000 n 0000009364 00000 n 0000016815 00000 n 0000016920 00000 n 0000024979 00000 n 0000025009 00000 n 0000025137 00000 n 0000025173 00000 n 0000025203 00000 n 0000025331 00000 n 0000025367 00000 n 0000025397 00000 n 0000025525 00000 n 0000025561 00000 n 0000025591 00000 n 0000025718 00000 n 0000025754 00000 n 0000025894 00000 n 0000033496 00000 n 0000033526 00000 n 0000033654 00000 n 0000033690 00000 n 0000033720 00000 n 0000033848 00000 n 0000033884 00000 n 0000034011 00000 n 0000034066 00000 n 0000034194 00000 n 0000034249 00000 n 0000034377 00000 n 0000034432 00000 n 0000034560 00000 n 0000034615 00000 n 0000034743 00000 n 0000034798 00000 n 0000034926 00000 n 0000034981 00000 n 0000035109 00000 n trailer << /Size 52 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35204 %%EOF