%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 10 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140725005351+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140725005351+01'00') /Title (Earthly Necessities. Economic Lives in Early Modern Britain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4478 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Earthly Necessities. Economic Lives in Early Modern Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some historians only write big books and Keith Wrightson is among them, but he does so repeatedly, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two sorts: pathbreaking, detailed, empirical local studies on the one hand, and magisterial, interpretative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overviews on the other. The title of this latest book leaves no room for doubt as to the category to which it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belongs, although its scarcely speaks its own name, for its subject is nothing more and nothing less than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise of capitalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Earthly Necessities)] TJ ET BT 126.344 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is prefaced by an introductory historiographical chapter that discusses approaches to and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations of early modern Britain. Contemporaries such as Smith, Harrison, Wilson, Bacon and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harrington recognised their era as a period of change, and while much of such work was lightly sketched )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what was important, Wrightson argues, was their )] TJ ET BT 272.312 190.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(recognition )] TJ ET BT 330.644 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of major changes in the structure of economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life. This was taken up and elaborated by the writers of the Scottish Enlightenment in the third quarter of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th century, including Hume, Steuart, Millar and of course Smith, to be amplified once again - though with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a very different tone - by Karl Marx. The historical economists of the late 19th century, notably Ashley and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cunningham, produced the first thoroughly documented surveys of the period, firmly founded upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic history but with a greater appreciation of the complexity and uneven nature of change and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determination to study the evolution of social organisation and ideas alongside the growth of wealth, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition within which the great Ephraim Lipson also sits. All of this was to change after World War Two, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which period Wrightson identifies a veritable 'dissociation of sensibility' of a similar order to that identified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by T.S. Eliot in relation to English poetry after the demise of the metaphysicals, with J.H. Clapham at centre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(183)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 March, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Wrightson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(300083912X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(372pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nigel Goose)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 4988 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stage. Clapham's work possessed a dispassionate tone, removed human agency and economic ideas from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equation, prioritised the influence of 'blind' economic forces and hence produced a narrower sphere for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic historian, almost devoid of an interpretative framework. In the post-war era of 'growthmanship' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this trend was continued, and while the expansion of the profession ensured that there was enormous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress in terms of more detailed and quantitatively precise understanding of the development of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various economic sectors between the 16th and 18th centuries, there was a determined refusal to embrace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader analytical frameworks, a refusal no doubt fuelled by the political climate of the Cold War era. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic history of the early modern period had "abdicated its role as the champion of a larger vision of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past" \(p. 20\), and was losing both momentum and audience - a development which was reinforced by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("methodological fad" \(p. 22\) of cliometrics. Perhaps Wrightson is a little guilty here of giving insufficient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognition to those who did, to varying degrees, attempt to offer a broader analytical framework: amongst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the various names that immediately spring to mind are Dobb, Tawney, Stone, Hill, Macpherson, North and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas, and - on a broader canvas still - Brenner, Hobsbawm and Wallerstein. But, with this qualification, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is very familiar territory indeed to one who was a student of economic history in the early 1970s, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad theoretical overviews were very much out of favour. Fortunately, Wrightson argues, a humanistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conception of the discipline has not been entirely lost, and the rise of the 'new social history' in the 1970s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers considerable potential for restoring a sense of the relatedness of economic, social, political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This introductory survey has been described in some detail, not merely because of its inherent interest but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it underpins the considerable task that Wrightson has set himself. That task is to re-emphasise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of the early modern period as a turning point in British economic life, drawing freely upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legacy of economic history but reintegrating this with the insights and approaches that have developed from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'new social history', paying more particular attention to the changing economic culture than is commonly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found, and counting the gains and the costs associated with "the creation of a capitalist market economy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society" \(p. 26\). What is more, if this were not already a daunting enough agenda, the canvas is Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than England. The book is divided into three parts. Part One introduces the structures of life prevailing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the late-fifteenth and early-sixteenth centuries, Part Two examines the dynamics of change across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern period and Part Three explores the structures of economic life in the later seventeenth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early-eighteenth centuries, elaborating upon the outcomes of the changes described in Part Two. From the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very outset we are left in no doubt where we will arrive, despite the qualifications contained in such phrases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as "the )] TJ ET BT 69.572 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fuller emergence of)] TJ ET BT 162.884 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. a 'market society'" \(p. 22\) or ")] TJ ET BT 312.632 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(increasingly)] TJ ET BT 371.960 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a capitalist economy" \(p. 23\) \(my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphases\). But before we get there, we have a fascinating journey before us.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7530 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part One sets the scene, describing a society centred upon the nuclear family \(plus servants, of course\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially patriarchal without excluding women from a wide range of gainful employments, largely rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though with an agrarian social structure that was already highly differentiated, substantial if variable rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial employment and a small but "very significant" \(p. 37\) urban sector within which specialisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was limited and which \(textiles apart\) served only localised markets. Complete dependence upon wages, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggested, was still rare in most areas and the majority of the population still had access to land. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns were generally market dependent, in the countryside the economies of most households remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsistence-oriented, producing primarily if not wholly for their own household needs, with only perhaps 20 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(per cent of English farming operating on a truly commercial basis, though again with significant regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variation. Margins were small in both countryside and town, and harvest failure, trade slumps and plague )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could devastate family economies, causing temporary or permanent loss of livelihood and even life itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through starvation or disease-induced malnutrition. For the majority, therefore, this society offered only a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precarious viability, and expectation of life was low, "above all in the urban environment where congestion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and squalor fostered disease and facilitated its transmission" \(p. 55\). This in turn engendered a mentality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which valued security over growth or change, and induced a preference for diversification over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialisation. Such perspectives served to profoundly influence the provision of opportunity and dispersal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of wealth between family members, for example with regard to inheritance, without ever negating the natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(love between partners and between parents and their children, which in turn served to temper patriarchal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority in the interests of the family as a social and economic unit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wider networks were significant too, in the form of tenurial relationships, neighbourliness, citizenship and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kinship. Mutual obligation stood at centre stage in a hierarchy of belonging that could exclude as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include, but in the relatively stable conditions of the early sixteenth century economic activity remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firmly bound by moral ends, and subordinate to them. Much economic intercourse remained local, even if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some few towns - and notably the two capital cities of London and Edinburgh - exhibited wider networks, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and it was these established patterns of economic and social interaction that moulded the distinctive features )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of early modern 'countries' as much as the realities of local and regional geography. But even in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixteenth century change was afoot, the four key elements of which were the emergence of the yeomanry, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the enclosure of land and conversion to pasture farming, the spread of industry in the countryside and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restructuring of the urban system. In discussing each of these in turn, Wrightson offers the now accepted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualifications in terms of extent and implications. Hence the accumulation of land could reflect family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collectivism as much as economic individualism; almost half of the cultivable area of England was already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enclosed in 1500 and the extent and impact of 'depopulating' enclosure has been exaggerated; towns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally suffered, particularly due to rural competition, but the notion of an urban crisis is an exaggeration. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, employing some heroic calculations based upon the weekly demand for wheat in Coventry in 1520 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allied to the estimated marketable surplus produced by a farmer of 100 acres in a 'normal' year, he concludes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it remains unlikely that more than a third of the English population were 'market-oriented' producers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumers - far less in Wales and Scotland - a situation largely determined by inadequate demand, both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within Britain and from overseas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Far from merely setting the scene, in many ways Part One is the most important section of this book. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unless it can be securely established that Britain was indeed such a subsistence-oriented, commercially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited, 'traditional' economy and society with essentially local horizons and a mentality which militated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against growth and development in the interests of stability, subordinating economic considerations to moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ends, then the extent of the transition that is about to be unveiled loses at least some of its force. This is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to argue that Wrightson has got it wrong, or has overdrawn the picture merely to establish contrast, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply to emphasise the fact that the early sixteenth century is a period that is desperately under-researched )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and for which the sources are both thin and intractable. Estimates of the proportion of the population who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were 'market-oriented' are clearly highly speculative, and one must also question whether a 'national average' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has much meaning in the context of an economy and society as diverse as Britain at this date. How solid is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evidence for the ready access to land that Wrightson posits, and how can his view that relatively small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers were dependent on wages be squared with the evidence of the Exchequer Lay Subsidies of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7919 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1520s? Of course, the subsidies are themselves very difficult to interpret, but few historians have considered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them more closely than J.C.K. Cornwall, who argues that in Hambleton in Rutland - not renowned for being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the cutting edge of commercialisation - some 20-25 per cent were virtually landless by the third decade of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sixteenth century \(J.C.K. Cornwall, )] TJ ET BT 224.996 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wealth and society in early sixteenth century England)] TJ ET BT 484.628 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London 1988, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 210\). Furthermore, in parts of Suffolk there was clearly very heavy dependence on waged industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment even at this early date, reflecting a more general tendency towards concentration of industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production that had proceeded over the course of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. And is it appropriate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to characterise this as an essentially subsistence economy in a situation where probably four-fifths of tenants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might need recourse to the market in order to pay their rents? Has not the commercialisation of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society as early as the 13th century already been established, involving regular access to the market place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even for the peasantry? \(R.H. Britnell, )] TJ ET BT 220.976 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The commercialisation of English society)] TJ ET BT 419.636 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Cambridge 1993, pp. 102-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15\). The extent to which economic appetites were subordinated to moral ends is also unclear. Wolsey, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, was moved to intervene on the issue of enclosure in 1517 and dearth in 1527, but such paternalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also indicates that there were some men who, it was felt, needed protection from other men, whether they be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forestallers and engrossers, enclosing landlords or vagrants and beggars. While this was clearly a strategy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designed to promote stability, it leaves one to wonder how selectively the subordination of economic activity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to moral ends was internalised by the populace, or how theory squared with practice, and this is a topic that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserves further exploration at village level. Indeed, it raises once again the thorny issue of the origins of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English individualism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even on less central issues there is reason to at least suspend judgement in the current state of research. Is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there, for example, any clear evidence of starvation on any scale? How has this been established for the pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parish register era, and how does this sit with a low density population, real wages \(for those who received )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them\) at levels higher than they were to be again for some centuries, and such ready access to land? And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what about towns? Most were small in the early sixteenth century, and probably smaller than most historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believe, but they were neither squalid nor congested at this date: if they were particularly vulnerable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plague - the frequency of serious outbreaks of which should not be overstated - this was due to their central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place functions. Those functions involved them, in Britain, in a symbiotic relationship with their rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hinterlands, and often also with both urban and rural centres further afield. The evidence of a general 'flight' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the wealthy from towns is precarious, the argument for a general population decline extending into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixteenth century unsustainable, the evidence of market tolls is contradictory and the notion of a loss of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment in textiles to the countryside - to which this reviewer has contributed - is based upon a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small sample of case studies which remains to be generalised. Wrightson is clearly correct to reject the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion of an extended urban 'crisis', but perhaps the word readjustment might be preferred to restructuring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the context of an urban hierarchy - at the upper end at least - that was remarkably stable. With regard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both to detail and the 'big picture', therefore, only further research will bear out or contradict the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterisation that Wrightson offers so energetically in this section of his book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Part Two Wrightson moves on to consider "Transitions". Here, conventionally, he begins by charting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quickening pace of population growth and inflation in the second quarter of the sixteenth century, offering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an excellent discussion of the springs of demographic expansion that situates this growth in both the national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and European context. The discussion of the rise in prices nicely balances real and monetary factors, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatest emphasis upon the former. The novel element here is the weight placed, with regard to the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stages of inflation, upon the shifting balance between households that were self-provisioning and those that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were more wholly market dependent, an argument that would appear to depend upon a considerable and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread growth of rural industry largely divorced from agriculture. Demographic growth and inflation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("were the principal underlying causes of economic change in sixteenth-century Britain", but - avoiding crude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determinism - the outcome "was far from predictable", and depended upon the various responses of different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals and social groups \(p. 132\). The ensuing rise in rents and demand for land are judiciously charted, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as is the profitability of market-oriented tenant farming into the third quarter of the century, though one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have thought that this was well-known rather than a "relatively neglected" dimension of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agriculture \(p. 139\). What is refreshing, however, is the clear appreciation that through the operation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multiplier effects increasing wealth could be widely shared \(even in towns\), a feature of the period that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7701 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might possibly help to explain the recently established growth in the number of will-makers relative to total )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population, as well as the considerable increase in the number of surviving Prerogative Court of Canterbury )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wills from the 1530s \(N. Goose and N. Evans, 'Wills as an historical source', in T. Arkell, N. Evans and N. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goose eds, )] TJ ET BT 89.672 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(When death do us part: understanding and interpreting the probate records of early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 74.684 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Leopard's Head Press, 2000, pp. 39-42\). The disendowment of the church powerfully reinforced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevailing tendencies to accumulate land, causing a spectacular increase in both the numbers and wealth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the English gentry, while in Scotland the 'feuing' movement had similar effects, even if here the beneficiaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were more broadly based. Wage earners, despite all the qualifications expertly rehearsed here, fared far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worse, poverty escalated, and if 'crisis poverty' was exceptional and if most usually scraped by, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusion from the generally improving living standards "was a standing reproach" \(p. 149\). But it was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only the poor who were beginning to feel the effects of this quickening pace of economic change, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(customary rights were defended in numerous local challenges from the 1530s, while the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonswealthsmen, through a powerful literature of moral complaint, "sought to recall gentlemen to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian duties" \(p. 153\). If the ensuing legislation \(only patchily described here\) lacked a clear coherence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and if many of the new laws were inadequately enforced, this represented a significant development of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and social responsibilities of the state, seeking "to reconcile the competing claims of commodity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and commonwealth" \(p. 158\). This really is compelling stuff, a quite brilliant characterisation of the period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the only criticism of which could be its failure to explore the relative impact of long-term change and short-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term crises.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first three-quarters of the sixteenth century thus set the scene for the more profound changes that were to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come, confidently characterised in the heading to Chapter Seven in terms of "Economic Expansion, )] TJ ET BT 514.832 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 520.160 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 1580 - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 39.344 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 1650". Expanding production and productivity in agriculture resulted from extension of the cultivated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area, more intensive cultivation, specialisation, the spread of techniques such as manuring and convertible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husbandry and a renewed wave of enclosure. Towns expanded significantly too, demographically and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economically, and Wrightson gives one of the most optimistic interpretations of their fortunes to be found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside of the writings of the present reviewer, if one that would not be wholly accepted by all of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributors to the recently published )] TJ ET BT 216.332 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge Urban History of Britain Vol. II)] TJ ET BT 426.668 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The key was again the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multiplier, and now the fundamental reciprocal relationship between town and countryside is fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasised, with the larger towns benefiting most, providing centres for more tightly integrated regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets. This reciprocal relationship also extended to rural industrial districts, producing innovation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversification across a wide range, among which the New Draperies are only the most striking example. All )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this initiated a "recasting of the regional geography of economic activity in England and Wales within a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more integrated whole" \(p. 171\), and by 1670 produced a considerable shift in the balance of population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between towns, the rural non-agricultural population and those engaged wholly in agriculture. Internal trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanded faster than population and was a key element of the gradual transformation. And while overseas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade diversified and extended its geographical horizons, the fact that much of this was import led only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serves to re-emphasise the crucial importance of growing domestic demand for goods and services as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainspring of change. This was a "gradually commercialising society" \(p. 175\), in England and Wales if not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Scotland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The benefits were clear but, returning to territory more familiar from Wrightson's earlier work, they were far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from equally shared. In both town and countryside those in control of the means of production waxed richer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while those towards the bottom of the social scale, increasing in numbers as population grew, saw their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(living standards eroded and their vulnerability exaggerated, particularly during periodic trade slumps which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves highlighted continued weaknesses in the economy. Dependent wage earners, it is suggested, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formed possibly half of the population by 1650, and "struggled to feed and clothe themselves and shivered in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cottages" \(p. 200\). But if social polarisation is the key feature of the period, it also witnessed the emergence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 'the middle sort of people', increasingly recognised as a distinct grouping in society. Their growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence, Wrightson argues, "was a matter of the first importance", for their entrepreneurial initiative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("underlay the economic dynamism of the period", and "collectively they constituted the core of the enlarged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market for an elaborating range of goods" \(p. 201\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7612 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shifts in economic and social structures were accompanied by adjustments of attitudes and values, with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new emphasis upon improvement, national productivity and the sociability of commerce. Changing attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to both usury and enclosure epitomised the change of emphasis, which "cumulatively effected a significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral repositioning" \(p 212\). Of course, all of this produced tensions, resolved through negotiation, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercise of power or authoritative adjudication. The most positive outcome, for Wrightson, was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implementation of a national poor relief system - supplemented by the Books of Orders - albeit a system that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not widely enforced outside of the larger towns until the third quarter of the seventeenth century. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherently paradoxical, operating at one and the same time as an instrument of social responsibility and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclusion and as an instrument of coercion and exclusion. The wealth of the nation that it implies is brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home by the clear contrast with Scotland, where there were no compulsory rates, but the need for it also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals "the perennial fragility of the household economies of the labouring poor", of which "only a small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proportion were actually dependent on the parish at that moment, but most of the rest might reasonably have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been termed 'at risk'" \(p. 217\). This was reflected in demographic changes. While the Scottish experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes close to a classic Malthusian situation, in England and Wales rising infant and child mortality had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively small part to play in the cessation of population growth. This was effected largely through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declining fertility, particularly due to a rising age at marriage and an extraordinary decline in marriage rates. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rejecting the simple characterisation of this process as one of 'homeostatic readjustment', Wrightson again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows his determination to keep the human actors in this process in view, writing of "a brutal deterioration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the opportunity to marry" \(p. 223\), and suggesting that the great majority of those so affected must have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been drawn from the labouring class.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wrightson's discussion of the period 1580-1650 thus ends by epitomising the great strength of this section, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and indeed of the book as a whole: the determination to integrate economic, social, intellectual and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments. Much of the economic history to be found here is quite conventional and well-known, falling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within what might be described as the London-Cambridge tradition, but the interpretation is very different in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its emphasis. Thus, despite all of the numerous qualifications that \(appropriately\) litter the text, there is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear and thoroughgoing recognition of the progress that the English economy \(though not the Scottish\) had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made by the mid-seventeenth century, mirrored in a social structure that had been transformed and a set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas and values that showed increasing acceptance of new modes of economic behaviour. Progress may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been regionally uneven, insecure and punctuated by difficulties, but it was real nonetheless. The issue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of regional disparity, by no means ignored, is one that Wrightson might have amplified. By the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century famine, as revealed by research to date, appears to have largely disappeared from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(south, but crises of subsistence were still known in the north-west. Urban growth and development was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed rapid across most of the south, and it is refreshing to see such a clear appreciation of it here, but in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the four most northerly counties of England and in Wales there were few large towns in the sixteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, market towns were more thinly scattered and urban development before the mid-seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century was patchy, underlining the importance of symbiotic urban-rural development. Similar points might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be made about regional variations in agricultural development, and it is by no means clear that even the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively modest rises in cereal yields cited for five counties in southern and eastern England in the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries \(p. 163\) provide much of a basis for generalisation, particularly as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most authoritative recent statement suggests that labour productivity may well have fallen across these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years whilst total factor productivity is unlikely to have risen \(M. Overton, )] TJ ET BT 395.312 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Agricultural Revolution in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 74.684 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Cambridge 1996, p. 131\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another area that might have been more fully explored is the structure of demand. One conventional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation, focusing upon relative trends in prices and wages, argues that demand for products other than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the basic necessities of life was limited by the immiseration of a large proportion of the population, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labouring poor struggling to feed themselves and shivering in their cottages that Wrightson describes, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hence the changing terms of trade between agriculture and industry. If this argument is accepted, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primacy of the home market is asserted as strongly as it is here, we are left with a problem: from whence the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased demand? Is this why, within the compass of just two short paragraphs, Wrightson chooses to place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'middle sort of people' at centre stage \(pp. 200-1\)? Were they really of sufficient weight at so early a date )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7581 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as to constitute the "core" of the enlarged domestic market? It may well be the case that, as beneficiaries of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic growth along with their social superiors, they were more numerous and collectively more wealthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1650 than they had been seventy years before, but was this not effect as much as cause? Much might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depend upon how one defines 'middling', but an alternative solution to the problem of demand might be to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognise that the great bulk of the produce of the English economy, agricultural and industrial, was itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made up of 'the basic necessities of life', and despite the adverse trends in real wages even the most humble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labourer or textile worker needed a cottage within which to shiver, and a smock and bedding and a pot for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firing to prevent these shivers turning to hypothermia. What this also requires is a fuller appreciation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact that the labouring poor in England, for all their vulnerability and increasing dependency, were better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed than their counterparts in many other parts of Europe, while the fall in their real wages must be set in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the context of the very high levels prevailing at the start of the sixteenth century and in some areas at least it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is possible that family incomes may have held up better than individual wages. If this was not the case, then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is difficult to explain the recession of famine in advance of a full articulation of the poor relief system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside of the major towns - yet another topic that deserves fuller consideration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wrightson's interpretation of the period 1650-1750 is more thoroughly conventional. Population stabilised as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fertility continued to fall while mortality increased, the latter encouraged, he argues, by the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urbanisation exerted a stronger restraining influence, conjuring the usual unsatisfactory vision of towns as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal "devourers of mankind" \(p. 230\). Grain prices fell then stabilised, and the real incomes of wage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earners rose substantially - by almost a quarter between the 1650s and 1680s. This enhancement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purchasing power \(which surely could not have been significant had wage earners previously been in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wholly parlous state?\), allied to the enhanced spending power of the middle ranks, created the conditions for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reinforcement of the processes of economic development set in motion in the preceding century. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result was "enhanced regional specialisation and intensified commercial integration within an emergent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national economy which was increasingly influenced by participation in a nascent world economy" \(p. 231\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The details of this complex process are then described. The reorientation in agriculture, inspired by the need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reduce costs, led to continued improvement, greater regional specialisation and increased productivity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Urbanisation continued, but industrial centres and those towns most deeply involved in the growth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation of English overseas trade grew fastest. Industry benefited from expanding demand overseas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the home market remained more significant, the combined effect creating the preconditions for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of a larger industrial base centred upon production of bulk manufactured, standardised goods. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While more highly specialised regional economies with strong industrial cultures emerged, internal traffic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also grew, producing more inter-regional trade and an emergent national market, the appearance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permanent shops symbolising the commercial transition underway.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simultaneously government policy continued to change in emphasis, again along the lines that had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerging earlier in the seventeenth century, encouraging improvement in the interests of the 'public good' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than stability to protect the Commonwealth. Successive governments may have been pragmatic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsive in their policies rather than principled and coherent, but they were increasingly prepared to use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their powers in the perceived national interest and to respond positively to local initiatives, and those powers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanded enormously as the 'fiscal-military state' emerged in the generation after 1688, itself providing yet a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further boost to home demand. Even Scotland experienced patchy economic growth within the context of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy that remained essentially a subsistence one, and if the Union of 1707 was pursued in England for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political reasons it was accepted in Scotland for economic ones, producing real economic benefits for some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sectors by 1750, by when much of England and Wales - if not yet Scotland - could be described as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advanced organic economy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part Three is entitled "Living with the market, )] TJ ET BT 258.560 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 263.888 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 1660-1750", and now Wrightson returns to an examination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the structures of economic life in these fundamentally altered conditions, expanded upon the preceding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the economic changes of the period. The spread of leasehold tenure, enclosing and engrossing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that had operated over two centuries had transformed the agrarian structure to produce an essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercialised agriculture. The landed classes, rocked but not reconstituted by the Civil Wars, proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adaptable - or "culturally amphibious" as Wrightson puts it \(p. 275\) - protecting their estates through legal )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7835 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means and particularly by more careful and professional management, the consolidation of the estate system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centred upon substantial tenancies completing the early modern transition in agrarian social relations. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again this conforms well to established orthodoxy, Wrightson suggests that - because the processes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change were slow and geographically uneven - this period is not conventionally thought of as one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant change in rural Britain \(pp. 287-8\). What convention is being followed here is difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ascertain, for surely the great majority of historians who have written on this subject - often in response to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the excessive claims of historians such as Eric Kerridge for an earlier 'agricultural revolution' - have clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified this as a crucial period in agricultural development, for all of the reasons that Wrightson identifies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as for the technical advances made, most notably the spread of nitrogen fixing root crops and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extension of convertible husbandry. Indeed, it is only now that clear gains in terms of both labour and land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(productivity can be identified.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The following chapter returns to further examine the more conspicuous element of British economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development, the world of commerce and manufacturing. From Gregory King's tables Wrightson estimates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that perhaps 12 per cent of English households in 1688 were situated in the middle ranks, a figure that must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely put into perspective their potential contribution to home demand in the later sixteenth and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth centuries. By 1759-60, Joseph Massie's comparable calculation puts the figure at 22 per cent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and now Wrightson is surely on firmer ground in highlighting the significance of the 'middling sort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people', for all their heterogeneity. What follows is a delightful characterisation of the prospects, economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance, culture, values and aspirations of this diverse group - a telling analysis of "the process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bourgeois self-definition" \(p. 302\). As for the labouring classes, they too constituted a diverse group, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geography, life-cycle stage and gender all exerted an influence upon their prospects, women being largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restricted to what were conventionally regarded as female roles. Employment for all but a minority, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued, was highly irregular, with widespread recourse to 'economies of makeshifts', while most people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacked a stable occupational identity. Much of this material, in the present state of knowledge, is a little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contentious. Geography did exert an influence, but wage rates in some northern towns exceeded those found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the south outside of London \(D. Woodward, )] TJ ET BT 261.992 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Men at Work)] TJ ET BT 324.644 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Cambridge 1995, pp. 176-80\). Women, as far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as we can tell, remained active in a wide range of employments in this period, playing a key part in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading industries of agriculture and textile production, but also operating in what were later to become more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wholly male-dominated trades, albeit often \(though not invariably\) within the context of a sexual division of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour \(for example, R.B. Shoemaker, )] TJ ET BT 220.316 371.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender in English Society 1650-1850)] TJ ET BT 400.964 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London 1998, pp. 150-65\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irregularity of employment for the majority is difficult to square with stabilisation of population, cries of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('want of hands', contemporary complaints against 'leisure preference', the increasing resort to labour saving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production techniques, the gradual imposition of time-discipline, the general expansion of industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production, rising levels of remuneration, and the increasing ability of labouring people to "stand on their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms with their masters" \(pp. 325ff\) - many of which topics are discussed here. Less contentious is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument that the wage-dependent population had expanded and diversified and that 'proletarianisation' was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well underway, the product of economic forces operating across more than two centuries and by no means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confined to the period under immediate discussion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this chapter Wrightson is not sanguine about the contribution of the labouring classes to home demand, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employing wage data and estimated living expenses for Whickham in County Durham in the mid-eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century to suggest that margins remained small even for skilled workers, and despite the possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions of women and children "such realities did not release significant purchasing power for goods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other than the basic necessities of food, clothing, fuel and shelter" \(p. 318\). This may be too pessimistic, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears to contradict his earlier remark that "For those who could find regular work, a new level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purchasing power was released for goods over and above those required for basic subsistence" \(p. 231\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wage rates rose significantly in this period and family earnings may have risen faster; agricultural prices fell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gently; industrial products also became cheaper, while the price of semi-luxury imported foods fell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantially; English industry was reorienting towards bulk, mass production of a wider range of goods; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries worried about the poor getting above their station in terms of their consumption patterns; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and even poor relief payments were substantially enhanced. One might also consider the implications of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reversal of trends in marriage and fertility: falling proportions never marrying, a decline in the age at )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7438 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage from the end of the second quarter of the eighteenth century and a slow rise in marital fertility. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much depends, of course, upon how destitute were the labouring poor in the mid-seventeenth century, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as upon the extent of irregularity of employment in this period. But at the very least, in the present state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of knowledge, the jury must surely remain out on this issue.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his brief conclusion Wrightson reiterates the main themes of the book: the process of commercialisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and economic integration that, while retaining some traditional elements, produced a capitalist market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy; and its explanation in terms of a complex interaction of economic processes, human initiatives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and shifting social relations and cultural values. Of course ambiguities remained, to which Wrightson does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full justice, and of course there were inconsistencies, not least of which was the disparity between much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and part of Wales, and the rest of Wales and much of Scotland. And the crucial period of change? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Wrightson's own words, "It was in the later decades of the sixteenth and opening decades of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth centuries that the conception of a society of estates defended by the commonswealthsman truly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decomposed in England, crumbling in a tide of economic expansion and commercial intensification. the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries brought a further acceleration of the process of change - this time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a context which meant that it rested on a broader base socially and geographically." \(p. 333\). Tawney's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Century, it would appear, is to be reinstated to its full significance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In many ways this is a remarkable book, particularly in the manner in which it weaves together aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic, social, political and intellectual and cultural history, even if religion gets relatively short shrift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the processes of economic interchange between Britain and continental Europe - England's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apprenticeship by foreign trade or other means - get far less attention than they deserve. It is elegantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written, measured and immensely stimulating. The complete absence of footnotes, however, allied to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure to provide references for many of the quotations provided within the text, is unfortunate in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extreme, a feature that is not ameliorated by the select bibliography. There are many points of detail, some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them highlighted in this review, that might be regarded as contentious or - at the very least - still open to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate, but it is often impossible to trace the sources that have been relied upon in such cases. Such a range )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of topics are tackled here, some necessarily only briefly, that this absence of the usual academic apparatus is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly problematic. In consequence, this will be a dangerous book to recommend to undergraduates, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even if the intellectual challenge that it offers, its scope, ambition and its essential humanity will ensure that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of us do just that.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If there are points of detail that remain open to discussion, what about the 'big picture'? In this respect too the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book has both strengths and weaknesses. Its strength lies in the clear recognition that Britain \(or at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England\) was very different by the later seventeenth century \(still more by the mid-eighteenth century\) to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what it had been at the start of the sixteenth century. It has escaped entirely from the 'debunking tradition' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that has plagued English economic history for too long - a tradition that, in its determination to explode myth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and overstatement, to cut purported 'revolutions' down to size and to counter simplistic Marxist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations, has consistently obscured the fact that England stood almost on the periphery of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European economy at the end of the Middle Ages but was the world's dominant industrial and commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power by the mid-eighteenth century. The detailed chronology of this change, however, remains open to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate, and for this reviewer - despite the welcome appreciation of the contribution of the urban sector )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the middle of the seventeenth century, of rural-urban symbiosis and the importance of multiplier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effects - the degree of progress that had been made by 1650 is a little overstated, in terms both of economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development and social change. That said, it is difficult to dispute that enough had been achieved by this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time to effect significant attitudinal changes - themselves given fuller reign in the climate of the Civil Wars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Interregnum - to allow the more concerted economic and social developments that emerged in the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic context of the later seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Without this foundation, these later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments would be very hard indeed to understand.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps more problematic than the point of arrival is that of departure, for it is by no means clear that 1500 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(or 1520\) marked a clear turning point except in demographic terms. A case might more easily be made for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late fourteenth century for - following the Indian Summer of demesne farming that resulted from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(healthier balance between population and resources produced by the cull of the Black Death - it was now )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 2550 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that repeated visitations of plague effectively upset that balance once again to produce the fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alteration of social relations that demesne leasing and the commutation of labour dues and associated legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restrictions implied. In this respect it is significant that, in his discussion of early sixteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments, Wrightson is repeatedly pulled back to this earlier period, when the groundwork for so many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the later changes was laid. If we are looking for fundamental discontinuities therefore, in both economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development and social relationships, one is tempted to posit an early modern period that stretches from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps 1400 to 1750, a more radical reinterpretation of conventional historiography. It may have taken the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulus provided by renewed population growth fully to release the forces of change, and the demographic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and political developments of the mid-seventeenth century to more securely underpin the process, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely it was here that the origins of capitalism lay?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(EH.net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://eh.net/book_reviews/earthly-necessities-economic-lives-early-modern-britain)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 612.003 m 435.608 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 438.608 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 608.671 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 590.891 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 590.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/183)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 589.497 m 322.316 589.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 564.520 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 550.120 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1166)] TJ ET BT 34.016 535.720 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://eh.net/book_reviews/earthly-necessities-economic-lives-early-modern-britain)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 612.3175 435.6077 624.1975 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://eh.net/book_reviews/earthly-necessities-economic-lives-early-modern-britain) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 589.8115 322.3157 601.6915 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/183) >> endobj xref 0 36 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000385 00000 n 0000000422 00000 n 0000000605 00000 n 0000000687 00000 n 0000005217 00000 n 0000005326 00000 n 0000005436 00000 n 0000005545 00000 n 0000009106 00000 n 0000009234 00000 n 0000009318 00000 n 0000009383 00000 n 0000014424 00000 n 0000014489 00000 n 0000022072 00000 n 0000022137 00000 n 0000030109 00000 n 0000030174 00000 n 0000037928 00000 n 0000037993 00000 n 0000045658 00000 n 0000045723 00000 n 0000053357 00000 n 0000053422 00000 n 0000061310 00000 n 0000061375 00000 n 0000068866 00000 n 0000068957 00000 n 0000071560 00000 n 0000071687 00000 n 0000071821 00000 n 0000071949 00000 n trailer << /Size 36 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 72044 %%EOF