%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R 32 0 R 38 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723053634+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723053634+01'00') /Title (The Writings and Speeches of Edmund Burke Vol. VII, India: The Hastings Trial, 1788-1795) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4440 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Writings and Speeches of Edmund Burke Vol. VII, India: The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Hastings Trial, 1788-1795)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([References which begin with a Roman numeral are to the volume number and then page in the Writings and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Speeches of Edmund Burke. Other numerals are to end notes])] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the course of his distinguished career thus far, Professor P.J. Marshall has produced a rich vein of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship on Britain's relationship with India during the second half of the eighteenth century. In a series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of monographs and articles, Marshall has examined Britain's trade and government in Bengal, British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptions of Asian society, the relationship between South Asia's peoples and the East India Company and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the debate about trade and Empire in Britain itself. Throughout Marshall's corpus of work the two inveterate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemies, Edmund Burke and Warren Hastings recur in numerous guises. The verbal and legal battle between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the two men in the impeachment and trial of Hastings provided the major focus for Prof. Marshall's first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work, The Impeachment of Warren Hastings, published in 1965. Marshall has returned to the same subject in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this publication, the third and final volume of Indian material in the Oxford University Press series of The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Writings and Speeches of Edmund Burke.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Hastings proceedings formally began in February 1786, when Edmund Burke moved a motion in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(House of Commons for papers on Warren Hastings. In June of the previous year, Burke had notified the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(House that he would initiate a series of inquiries into the conduct of Warren Hastings whilst he had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Governor and Governor-general of Bengal \(1772-1785\). During the winter of 1785, Burke decided that an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impeachment would be the most effective form to bring his charges against Hastings before Parliament and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the broader public. At that point, Burke suggested that it would be 'vain and idle' to speculate on the success )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or failure of the trial. Yet in spite of the unspoken opposition of George III and the more verbal criticism of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Lord Chancellor, Edward Thurlow Burke's worst fears were not initially realised. Burke and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(184)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 April, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Marshall)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jon Wilson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7522 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporters - who included Richard Sheridan, Charles James Fox and Philip Francis - gathered support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through 1786 and 1787. By the time the trial opened in the House of Lords in February 1788, Burke was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flush with the possibility of success.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, by April 1789, the date at which this volume begins, enthusiasm and support for the trial of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hastings had begun to wane. In the ensuing months, other issues, most importantly developments in France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the threat of Jacobinism in Britain took up far much more column inches and occupied much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public time. The French Revolution was an issue which increasingly divided Burke from his Whig )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporters. Whereas the early years had seen Fox and Sheridan playing a prominent role in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impeachment, by the 1790s 'Burke had to rely on those ... who shared his outlook on the perils of revolution' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(VII, 3\). Burke retained the tacit support of Pitt and Dundas - in part no doubt bought by his reluctance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attack the regime's policy on France as vocally as he might otherwise have done. Throughout the trial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proceedings Burke's tenacity remained, but he became increasingly tired, dispirited and disillusioned of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success. Eventually, the trial talked itself out. The trial proceedings themselves closed in June 1794. On 23rd )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(April 1795, the 29 peers who had declared they were willing to participate in the verdict acquitted Hastings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on every count, with no more than six voting for a guilty verdict on any one issue. Burke himself did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survive for more than a year. As Marshall puts it '[t]he price of his tenacity was ... very high indeed. Both he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Hastings were its victims'. \(VII, 23\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As one expects from Prof. Marshall, this volume is very well produced. Marshall's general introduction and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed introductory remarks at the beginning of each section are scholarly and eloquent. The explanatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footnotes offer a rich context for Burke's writings and speeches. Edmund Burke's allusions ranged from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cicero and Caesar to Cervantes; Marshall explicates each one with skill. Marshall is as much a historian of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South Asia as he is a scholar of the Britons who governed and traded with it; he explains Indian terminology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accurately and succinctly. One might quibble on a minor editorial point, which Prof. Marshall would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably dismiss as an instance of political correctness on my part. More than any other Indian state, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northeast province of 'Oudh' figures prominently throughout the volume. The more modern South Asian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transliteration of 'Oudh' is 'Awadh' - it would have been helpful if both spellings could have been given in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the index. Burke also frequently refers to the city of Benares. Again, it would have been useful to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uninitiated had its modern transliteration, Varanasi, had been indicated at some point.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The trial of Warren Hastings occurred at a moment in which Britain's relationship with the Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subcontinent was changing rapidly. What strikes the reader of the papers and speeches collected in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume is the fact that neither Burke nor Hastings' were able to implant their conceptions of Empire onto the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public or official mind. Neither man got what he wanted from the trial. Burke lost the eventual vote. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anticipating opposition from the Law Lords, from the beginning his strategy had been to counter what he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saw as the inbuilt bias in favour of Hastings within the House with support for a guilty verdict from outside. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As he wrote to Dundas in 1787, '...if we proceed under the publick eye, I have no more doubt than I entertain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of my own existence, that all the ability, influence and power that can accompany a decided partiality in that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tribunal can[not] save our criminal from a condemnation followed by some ostensible measure of justice...'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 231.603 m 48.008 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet he failed to sustain the interest or support of propertied public opinion 'out of doors'. Whereas the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(press had initially been fairly sympathetic, by the mid-1790s they rounded upon his increasingly abusive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vocabulary towards Hastings \(VII, 228\). But defeat for Burke did not mean victory for Hastings: the former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Governor-general was never properly rehabilitated, not at least until long after his death in 1818. Hastings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saw the trial itself as punishment enough. Writing even in 1788, he could not conceive any worse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punishment, 'had he pleaded guilty to the whole Charge, which could equal that which he had already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffered' \(VII, 20\). Hastings received an annuity from the East India Company and honours from Oxford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University. But, he spent a secluded and largely uncelebrated retirement on his estate in Gloucestershire. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not even awarded a baronetcy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edmund Burke's critique of Hastings was based on his belief that the British government of Bengal should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be 'a government of law'. Burke argued that Hastings had violated the law of Britain in claiming for himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('that high, supreme, Legislative sovereignty, which the Law attributes with the consent of both Houses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament, to the King and the King only' \(VII, 288\). But he also condemned the former Governor-general )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 231.9175 48.0077 243.7975 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7760 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for abrogating the 'refined, enlightened, curious, elaborate [and] technical jurisprudence' of Indian law \(VII, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(285\). Burke perceived Indian and British law as instances of 'the Law of our Creator' suited in each case to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the circumstances and manners of different people \(VII, 280\). In - as Burke saw it - attempting to establish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own arbitrary power, Hastings had acted illegally, and threatened to 'put an end to Law'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prof. Marshall suggests that Burke played a role in framing the reforms in the judicial government of Bengal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implemented by Hastings' eventual successor as Governor-general, the Earl \(later Marquess\) Cornwallis in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1793. Cornwallis' code 'made the executive government in Bengal accountable to separate courts'. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognised the holdings of Bengal's zamindars \(landholders\) as private property rights, and by fixing the rate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at which they were taxed, secured them from the arbitrary depredations of the East India Company. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measures were part of an attempt to establish 'regularity' and 'security' in an environment which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived as relatively lawless. Proposals for reform had played a part in the discussion of Bengal policy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1780s, well before the launching of the impeachment. Edmund Burke and his Whig colleagues were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial in creating a rhetoric in defence of Bengali 'property', central both to Cornwallis' administration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burke's later tirade against Hastings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Marshall concludes by suggesting that '[i]t is inappropriate to judge Burke on India by any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution which he may or may not have made to the future development of the Raj' \(VII, 20-1\). Burke's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('principles' were 'disregarded with increasing frequency' during the 1790s and early nineteenth century, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Company officials increasingly believed they had the capacity to remodel and transform South Asian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society. One wonders how Marshall would respond to those who identify a greater continuity between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burke's rhetoric on India and later imperial ideas. Professor Andrew Porter, for example, argues that Burke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was instrumental in forming a notion of 'Imperial trusteeship' which 'remained central in what came to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognised as the humanitarian approach to Empire and overseas influence' throughout the nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Porter does concede that Burke formulated a 'conservative and defensive' notion of Imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility appropriate only 'to an eighteenth-century society' in which government possessed a limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of functions.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 124.328 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 124.328 428.931 m 138.320 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 138.320 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But others have suggested that a connection existed between Burke's 'conservative' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to Indian law, and later 'Orientalist' endeavours by British officials to support the study of Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(languages and literature against the encroachment of English, and to preserve and codify subcontinental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jurisprudence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I suspect that Marshall is right to emphasise the differences and discontinuities between Burke's conceptions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of British rule in India, and later Imperial discourses. Later 'Orientalist' officials - the judicial officer W.H. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacNaghten, and the judge and later Boden Professor of Sanskrit at Oxford University H.H. Wilson are two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such - were concerned to simplify, textualise and \(and sometimes reconfigure\) the complexity of South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asian jurisprudence in order for it to be easily comprehended by British officials. The 'orientalists' of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1820s and 1830s defended pre-colonial Indian law against its detractors, but they believed Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jurisprudence could be appropriated and administered by a British imperial bureaucracy that possessed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolute sovereign rights and powers. In contrast, Burke saw Indian law as an organic, self-contained system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of rules and procedures. It could not be detached from the society that had produced it and be administered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by foreigners. The law of the subcontinent was 'refined, enlightened, curious elaborate [and] technical'. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formed 'a basis and substratum to the manners and customs and opinions of that people' \(VII, 285\). Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprisingly, East India Company servants in the nineteenth century found Burke's rhetoric here difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporate within their own imperial ideologies. Burke was rarely quoted in mid-nineteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversies about Indian languages and law during the.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hastings' rehabilitation occurred more quickly. His administration was eulogised by the hard-headed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocates of Britain's absolute imperial power in India, such as the Law Member of the Viceroy's Council, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sir James FitzJames Stephen. For Stephen, Hastings was exactly what Asia needed - a despot in a despotic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land. Similarly, in his 1868 Annals of Rural Bengal \(seen by many as the source for Bankimchandra )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chattopadhaya's Anandamath\) W.W. Hunter described Hastings as 'a true Asiatic Prince of the best type', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who acted with 'that prompt, unerring audacity, so well calculated to overawe a race whose long oppression )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had stripped of any self-respect'. As a result, Hunter insisted, Hastings had created 'a security of person and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property' hitherto unknown in Bengal.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 217.160 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 217.160 48.531 m 231.152 48.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 231.152 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These late nineteenth-century descriptions of Hastings as a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 124.3277 429.2455 138.3197 441.1255 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 217.1597 48.8455 231.1517 60.7255 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7626 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paternal, benevolent autocrat required his reinvention for a very different imperial moment, as the stern but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlightened despot ruling a people who were seen as incorrigibly different and inferior from their own. Most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importantly, Hastings was perceived as a sovereign able to make new law, to frame novel forms of rule )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which were able to preserve British interests and 'improve' Bengal at the same time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet these conceptions of Hastings' period in office were far removed from the practice of his government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself. Prof. Marshall suggests that Hastings 'did not believe that he was bound by some ancient Indian or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mughal constitution' \(VII, 22\). This may have been Hastings' argument during the trial, forced upon him by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the exigencies of the debate with his opponents. In the years following the War with the American colonies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fought to defend Parliamentary sovereignty, Hastings might have found it more convenient to appeal to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(House of Lords with a novel language of absolute imperial authority rather than appeal to the constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jurisprudence of India's own states. But there is plenty of evidence to suggest that he did draw from an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of Indian ideas about India's government in the making of his own regime. It was, after all, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Warren Hastings who established the Amini Commission, appointed to ascertain the nature of revenue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection and land rights in Bengal before British rule. In attempting to revive officers such as the Faujdar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Qanungu \(literally, 'speaker of law'\), Hastings was concerned to support the 'officers of the ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution', who were seen as an effective check on the potentially corrupt conduct of landholders and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British officers. And as Marshall notes elsewhere, it was Hastings who began the publication of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language translations of Indian works on jurisprudence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the best way to understand Burke and Hastings is to place them both in a context that Marshall has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself provided us in earlier work. In his inaugural lecture as Rhodes Professor of Imperial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth History at King's College London, Professor Marshall discusses the pervasive anxiety mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century Britons felt about political power in Asia.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.648 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.648 471.699 m 340.640 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 340.640 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Using a civic republican political language, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries contrasted the supposedly 'free' government of Britain with the 'Oriental despotism' of Asia. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain's liberties were rooted in its mixed constitution, the vigour of its public life, and the sanctity of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private agrarian property, none of which were perceived to exist in India. Many feared that Britons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governing the subcontinent would bring Asiatic luxury and despotic principles back home to corrupt the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberties of Englishmen. The East India Company was often regarded as the vehicle by which this corrupting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence occurred. The lesson to be learnt was that a self-consciously 'free' people could not govern a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despotic state without themselves becoming enslaved.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, Marshall notes how a very different conception of Britain's Asiatic empire emerged during the 1790s. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harsher, more militaristic and more absolute conception of imperial power allowed Britons to perceive that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were able to govern an Asian population whilst maintaining their liberties back home. The production )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of British knowledge about India's laws, commerce and 'customs and manners' allowed Asia to be reduced to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governable proportions - Marshall here approvingly cites the work of Edward Said. Possessed of a new sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of confidence in their ability to exercise authority in Asia, elite Britons began to perceive themselves as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('free though conquering people'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both Hastings and Burke stand on the cusp of this conceptual transformation. Burke's critique of Hastings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was based on a persistent anxiety about the corrupting effect which Oriental luxury might have on Britain's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution and character. However, he saw British rule in India as a political necessity. 'There we are', he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(said, 'there we are placed by the Sovereign Disposer; and we must do the best we can in our situation' \(V, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(404\). For Burke, India could come under British suzerainty because it possessed its own indigenous juridical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition which 'yields neither to the Jurisprudence of Roman Law nor the Jurisprudence of this Kingdom', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and which could offer a check on the potentially arbitrary conduct of its rulers. Yet in making this point, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burke relied heavily on an argument Hastings himself had made twenty years earlier. In debating Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affairs in the early 1770s, many British parliamentarians had argued that a free people could only govern a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despotic country if they gave it their own laws. Briefly, British politicians countenanced the possibility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introducing English law wholesale to Bengal. Hastings rebutted this challenge to his own and the Company's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority by emphasising the distinctiveness and relative civilisation of India's own laws. Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marshall's volume allows one to see that Burke and Hastings' arguments had far more in common with each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other than either was able to perceive. Occasionally this was made explicit. At one point in his nine day )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 326.6477 472.0135 340.6397 483.8935 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 7155 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speech in reply to the evidence presented in Hastings' defence in 1794, Burke confessed that he 'felt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([him]self obliged to him' for printing The Code of Gentoo Laws, the text Hastings had had published in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London in order to assert the distinctiveness of Indian jurisprudence. \(VII, 285\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the proceedings, Burke insisted that the trial of Hastings was a battle between those who wished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to uphold both Indian and British 'law', and those who had attempted to assume arbitrary power against law. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But in fact, neither Burke nor Hastings believed India before colonial rule was a land without law, as some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later British officials did and present-day Indian lawyers still do. The argument between Hastings and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critics was about the interpretation of customs and constitutions. Burke and Hastings both saw 'law' as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something that was entangled and intertwined with both the manners and customs and the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution of the country. Perhaps the most important disagreement was about the character of property in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subcontinent. Burke emphasised the existence of a hereditary class of nobles whose rights were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proscribed by an ancient, customary constitution. Hastings argued that zamindars, jagirdars and others were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing of the sort, and largely held their estates subject to the Indian Crown. In debating points such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these, Burke and Hastings belonged to an early modern intellectual world in which political controversy was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conducted as a debate about rights and privileges, about the character of particular sovereign bodies, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of covenants and tenures, and the meaning of particular pieces of constitutional vocabulary. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this respect, the trial took place within a classic idiom of eighteenth-century British political debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, the constitutional arguments of Burke and Hastings were eclipsed by a very different language, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asserted Britain's status as 'a free though conquering people'. Burke had been concerned to discover how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure of British rule in Bengal should be defined by existing modes of juridical right. But within the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial discourse, it was comprehensible for Britain to build 'a new constitution' - as Cornwallis claimed he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had done - to govern the people of Bengal. Cornwallis' constitution was intended to preserve existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property rights. But it was based on the belief that those rights did not originate from their place within an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancient constitution, but could be disentangled from pre-colonial governmental structures and secured by an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely new machinery of rule.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fundamentally, the trial of Hastings marked the end of a characteristically eighteenth-century attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speak of Empire using a language of constitutional right. As British sovereignty in India was increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken for granted, a constitutional, juridical language was replaced by a discourse about the proper exercise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of authority in India, which assumed that the East India Company could dispose of the law which governed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its subjects as it liked. The new language spoken by officials in Calcutta and the mofussil was marked by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms such as 'expediency' and 'utility' far more than 'right'. The trial of Hastings talked itself out because an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century juridical discourse was no longer capable of sustaining the kinds of political practices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British rule depended on in Bengal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The publication of an edition of the Writings and Speeches of a politician as energetic and verbose, and with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so many wide-ranging interests as Edmund Burke must be an arduous task. In offering the final volume in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his trilogy of Burke's Indian writings and speeches, Prof. Marshall has performed an invaluable service to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the scholarly community for which one must pay tribute. More than anything else, the publication of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume will allow students and historians to develop a sense of the complexity of Burke's thought and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand how, behind his high-flown rhetoric a consistent but manipulable political theory had emerged. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As well as allowing students access to an important primary source, its publication will offer possibility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important reinterpretations of the role of Burke, and of Empire, within the development of British political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 129.075 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 98.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burke to Henry Dundas, 1st November 1787. Quoted in P.J. Marshall, )] TJ ET BT 404.648 98.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Impeachment of Warren )] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hastings)] TJ ET BT 106.688 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1965\), p.71.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 212.336 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 212.336 82.803 m 266.324 82.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 69.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Porter, ed., )] TJ ET BT 161.324 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Oxford History of the British Empire, vol. III, The Nineteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1999\), 199.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 163.664 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 163.664 54.291 m 217.652 54.291 l S endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 212.3357 83.1175 266.3237 94.9975 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 163.6637 54.6055 217.6517 66.4855 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 1801 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James FitzJames Stephen, )] TJ ET BT 192.008 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Story of Nuncomar, and the impeachment of Sir Elijah Impey )] TJ ET BT 509.984 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2 vols, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, 1885\); WW Hunter, The Annals of Rural Bengal \(1st edition 1868, Calcutta, 1996\), p.213.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 766.563 m 118.004 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P.J. Marshall, 'A Free Though Conquering People. Britain and Asia in the Eighteenth Century', )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inaugural lecture in the Rhodes Chair of Imperial History, 5th March 1981.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.624 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.624 738.051 m 479.612 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 694.207 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 676.427 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 676.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/184)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 675.033 m 322.316 675.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 650.056 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.656 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1168)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 766.8775 118.0037 778.7575 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 425.6237 738.3655 479.6117 750.2455 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 675.3475 322.3157 687.2275 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/184) >> endobj xref 0 46 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000605 00000 n 0000000687 00000 n 0000005179 00000 n 0000005288 00000 n 0000005398 00000 n 0000005507 00000 n 0000009068 00000 n 0000009196 00000 n 0000009280 00000 n 0000009364 00000 n 0000016939 00000 n 0000016969 00000 n 0000017095 00000 n 0000017131 00000 n 0000017222 00000 n 0000025035 00000 n 0000025065 00000 n 0000025193 00000 n 0000025229 00000 n 0000025259 00000 n 0000025385 00000 n 0000025421 00000 n 0000025505 00000 n 0000033184 00000 n 0000033214 00000 n 0000033342 00000 n 0000033378 00000 n 0000033469 00000 n 0000040677 00000 n 0000040803 00000 n 0000040858 00000 n 0000040984 00000 n 0000041039 00000 n 0000041137 00000 n 0000042991 00000 n 0000043118 00000 n 0000043173 00000 n 0000043301 00000 n 0000043356 00000 n 0000043484 00000 n trailer << /Size 46 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 43579 %%EOF