%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140826054516+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140826054516+01'00') /Title (England's Troubles: Seventeenth-century English political instability in European context) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4607 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(England's Troubles: Seventeenth-century English political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(instability in European context)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Scott's major reinterpretation of the seventeenth century, the most turbulent period in English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political history, is timely. It coincides with the ongoing debate over Britain's place in Europe, the current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiment in devolution and the recent discussion of the monarchy's relevance. The book's theme is there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the cover depicted in a contemporary Dutch painting entitled 'English ship driven before a gale'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Previous histories are treated as parochial. England's crisis is viewed in European perspective. Sir Geoffrey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elton had argued that England had modernised at the time of Henry VIII's break with Rome; the effect was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to make the seventeenth-century civil war a belated war of religion after Queen Elizabeth had managed for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forty years to maintain her virginity and the nation's singular church settlement intact. Elton's )] TJ ET BT 484.628 239.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tudor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolution)] TJ ET BT 86.012 225.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was the product of the mind of a central European Jew escaping the Holocaust. An empirical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian par excellence, he mined masses of administrative documentation and showed how change could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be achieved without upheaval. The solution had been parliamentary and Elton had found in English history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the constitutional stability he lacked in his childhood.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another answer came from New Zealand from the great historian of political thought, J.G.A. Pocock. When )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United Kingdom joined the European Common Market and abandoned imperial preference, he launched )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an appeal for British history. It was a response to a perceived threat to the British identity of white New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zealanders and the constitutional basis of their body politic. Pocock's appeal found adherents - Irish, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English, Welsh and Scottish historians re-evaluating connections in the British Isles, there were Unionist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians wanting those links maintained and American historians who saw their colonial heritage as more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than just an offshoot of England. The Pocockian approach enabled a wider reappraisal of developments after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the union of the Scottish and English crowns under James VI & I and in particular the causes of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(187)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 31 March, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Scott)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hiram Morgan)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7389 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil war in 1642. This was an obvious approach to the Civil War since the crisis was ratcheted-up by a two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed invasions of Scotland by Charles II and then by the 1641 Rebellion in Ireland. Furthermore Oliver )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell himself secured the English Republic only after invading and defeating both the Irish and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scots. However at the end of the day, these explanations did not do the job. 'The New British history' - as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been called - proved a )] TJ ET BT 161.972 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cul de sac)] TJ ET BT 209.960 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It is only a partial explanation, in the same way as devolution is only a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partial solution to contemporary dilemmas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It has taken another historian from New Zealand - this time Jonathan Scott - to tell English historians, what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish and Scottish historians had always insisted, that the real issues and problems were in fact European. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a sense Scott is in a similar mould to Pocock. He is this generation's leading scholar of early modern English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political thought. In distant New Zealand one is perforce a theoretician since there are no record offices full )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ancient documents to make you into an empiricist. )] TJ ET BT 291.992 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England's Troubles)] TJ ET BT 385.568 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an arrogant and insightful book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scott kicks other interpretations into touch from the start. Yet in elaborating his alternative European thesis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he gives far too much of his final conclusion away and in the middle of book he gets bogged down in detail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in an unnecessary attempt to provide a new interpretation of civil war radicalism. A firm editor should have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stopped Scott ego-tripping across the century but what a brilliant ego-trip it turns out to be.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Scott thesis is about England and the military revolution. In early modern Europe the state was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organised to fight war at an ever-increasing pitch of intensity; indeed it might be said that the need to fight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bigger and bigger wars created the state as we know it. England was a very late starter. Even though James I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeded to three kingdoms he had to watch from the sidelines as his son-in-law Frederick was evicted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Bohemia and then the Rhineland Palatinate and when Charles I finally intervened in the Thirty Years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War the English army proved a laughing stock. Taxation from a compliant, complicit population was what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the modern state required. England did not have that. Henry VIII in need of divorce had put himself and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successors in hock to parliament. Scotland's political estates were even more uppity. They had turfed out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Queen of Scots and it was one reason James thought he might have more leeway in England but he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soon got a rum awakening when his plans for a united Britain were cold-shouldered. Only in recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conquered Ireland did the state under Wentworth begin to collect taxes on a systematic basis and to build a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern army. The Stuarts began to look longingly at how their Catholic fellow monarchs on the continent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ran their states and began to toy with Counterreformation ideas of sovereignty that made for more obedient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taxpayers. The Catholic threat from Europe had in other words become an internal manifestation at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highest possible level. Meanwhile the political nation, steeped for a hundred years past in anti-popery, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being influenced by the republican ideas of ancient Rome rolling off the printing press and by the successful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary example of the United Provinces.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell cut the Gordian knot in every respect. For a short space England had a modern military machine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and gained respect across the continent. The problems of paying for the army were temporarily resolved by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roman-style solution in Ireland. But his regime lacked legitimacy and was becoming a military dictatorship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in England itself. The Catholicising Stuarts were asked back but the Restoration, as Scott shows, solved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing. The final solution came from the continent in the form of William of Orange. He needed English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arms to withstand the aggrandisement of Louis VIII's France. He became the constitutional-style Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarch England wanted. The English political nation could at last tax itself without fear of being coerced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the army of its own king. The bank of England was set up, modelled on the Bank of Amsterdam, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpin the fiscal arrangements. England had at last stabilised and modernised sufficiently to its place in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe. The circumstances in which this compromise political settlement was reached left no place for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republicanism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scott promises that his next book will be a history of English republicanism. If )] TJ ET BT 415.004 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England's Troubles)] TJ ET BT 508.580 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is Scott's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own working out of his frustrations with English \(and New Zealand\) provincialism, so his next one will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubtless reflect his other frustrations about deference, amateurism and the class system. As with English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republicanism, so with Scott - England's loss is likely to be America's gain. Because, like John Pocock )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before him, Scott is seeking his fortune in the States away from the impoverished litism of British academia.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 1129 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is pleased to accept the review and will not be responding further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 728.307 m 240.992 728.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 724.975 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 707.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 707.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/187)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 705.801 m 322.316 705.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 680.824 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 666.424 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1174)] TJ ET BT 34.016 652.024 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=5018)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 728.6215 240.9917 740.5015 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=5018) >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 706.1155 322.3157 717.9955 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/187) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000585 00000 n 0000000667 00000 n 0000005326 00000 n 0000005435 00000 n 0000005545 00000 n 0000005654 00000 n 0000009215 00000 n 0000009343 00000 n 0000009427 00000 n 0000009492 00000 n 0000016934 00000 n 0000017025 00000 n 0000018207 00000 n 0000018334 00000 n 0000018434 00000 n 0000018562 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 18657 %%EOF