%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140902094602+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140902094602+01'00') /Title (Seapower Ashore: 200 Years of Royal Navy Operations on Land) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4505 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Seapower Ashore: 200 Years of Royal Navy Operations on Land)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When the Cold War ended it brought to a close the latest in a series of major challenges to western maritime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supremacy. This, no doubt temporary, respite has forced the navies of the western world to focus on their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in a new environment in which high intensity war at sea is improbable in the immediate future. For the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royal Navy, the Strategic Defence Review of 1997, and the development of Maritime Contribution to Joint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Operations \(MCJO\), has focussed attention on the navy's role of supporting ground operations. While it is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truism that as no one lives on the sea, seapower must be exercised to influence events on land, it is equally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(true that the historical tradition of the Royal Navy has focussed on the dramatic struggle for control of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sea, rather than the more prosaic operations that exploited that control - blockade, amphibious operations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convoy protection. Although this is understandable, reflecting, as it does, the key strategic imperative, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitably relegates the operations that exploited seapower to a relative backwater. It is now quite natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that with the new emphasis on MCJO a great deal more attention is now being paid to the historical role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Royal Navy in supporting ground operations. This collection of essays is a good example of this new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus is being reflected in naval histories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Hore has brought together an impressive list of contributors to explore aspects of naval support for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operations ashore since the eighteenth century. While each essay is quite brief, each contributes to the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme - that the Royal Navy has a long and successful history in providing support for land operations. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution made by the navy to these operations was varied. Over time some of the roles disappeared and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others have remained fairly constant.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A seaborne expeditionary army can seldom take all that it required for a campaign. In the eighteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this usually meant a serious lack of horses. Cavalry for shock, reconnaissance and pursuit were often absent. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(188)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 April, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Hore)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1861761554)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chatham Publishing)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Harding)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7464 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Possibly more important, it also meant that draught horses for hauling artillery and supplies any distance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the landing point were unavailable. Although soldiers could be landed on the European littoral with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some expectation of being able to forage for food, it would have been a remarkably negligent peasant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community that did no spirit its flocks, herds and horses away at the appearance of a mass of sails on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horizon. Foraging in the Americas, where farms and plantations were generally more spread out, was even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more difficult. Without horses, the army's mobility was seriously compromised. The soldiers could not make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up this lack of motive power. Eighteenth century British armies did not employ valuable troops for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive supply tail. On continental campaigns the commissary-general and wagon-master-general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contracted local horses and managed the movement of stores and provisions from magazines. The Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Artillery and wagon-master-general handled the cannons and ordnance stores. It was difficult enough to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protect these trains and depots from enemy cavalry and militia. Without horses and wagons, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expeditionary army was at a distinct disadvantage. The only reliable source of manpower came from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fleet. Not only was it generally reliable, it was but it was skilled. Soldiers could quite adequately dig and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perform general labouring services but they had little knowledge of mechanics. It was here that the fleet and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the seamen played a major role. The seamen were used to handling large and heavy loads and had a good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of ropes and mechanics. They were employed hauling stores, provisions, guns and ammunition. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They sought water and conveyed it to the military camps. They provided wadding and 'junk' from old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cordage - an essential part of artillery ammunition. They made also fascines and gabions, which were vital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for siege operations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manpower and mechanics are the central points of Michael Duffy's essay in this collection. His work covers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the broad contribution of the navy to the campaigns in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although it not the first essay in the book, it is, in effect, a starting point to show just how varied these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions were. The labouring power of the seamen was vital, but they also provided assault parties and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gunners for batteries. They garrisoned positions to allow the army to conduct more formal attack or siege )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operations. The navy provided cannons. From the early eighteenth century, it was recognised that the navy's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavy guns, the 24lb and 32lb, provided excellent firepower against fortified positions. The seamen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manhandled these guns ashore and into almost any position required; sometimes to the amazement of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army and the defenders. The sea officers' knowledge of these large guns and the power of explosives were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often greater than that of the infantry officers, and this could greatly assist an operation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At sea the fleet provided coastal intelligence. It also provided fire support from the sea. Most important, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fleet was there to re-embark the army when operations were over. This latter function has been too often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglected. Dr Duffy calls it 'the ultimate confidence-giving boost' \(p.51\). It was, in many cases, more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this. In European operations it was an essential operational pre-requisite. The worst nightmare for an army )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commander was to be stranded ashore facing a build-up of enemy forces. Failure to be reasonably sure re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embarkation, usually also meant failure to ensure reinforcement or continued use of the seamen's labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power ashore. Fortunately, in most cases the naval commander was able to give this reassurance. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caribbean, the Americas and islands of the Mediterranean, this reassurance was less important. There the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army was not usually faced with an opposition that had the potential for rapid, large-scale reinforcement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regular troops.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From this wide range of activities that supported land operations during the French Wars, the essays explore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific examples of naval support ashore and demonstrate how its emphasis changed over time. Tom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pocock explains how Captain Sir Sydney Smith of the )] TJ ET BT 297.680 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tigre)] TJ ET BT 323.684 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(80 guns\) effectively halted Napoleon's attempt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to return to Europe from Egypt, via Constantinople, at Acre. He captured Napoleon's siege train at sea. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used his marines and seamen to support the garrison of Acre and used the )] TJ ET BT 389.948 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tigre)] TJ ET BT 415.952 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to fire into the flank of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French assaults.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colin White explores Nelson's operations ashore. As a young post captain, Nelson accompanied an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expedition up the San Juan river in Nicaragua in 1780. The seamen provided the boats for mobility up-river, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assisted the assault and built a battery to batter a fort. The same kind of roles - support for assaults and work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on batteries - were repeated in 1794 on Corsica, 1796 on Elba and 1797 at Santa Cruz de Tenerife. At Calvi, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Elba, Nelson lost his eye and at Santa Cruz he lost his arm. White makes an important point that the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7512 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure at Tenerife was at least partly due to the fact that the sailors and marines were not working with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body of regular troops. A small garrison of determined regulars \(supported by local militia\) were more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a match for the seamen was alone. During the eighteenth century, seamen provoked admiration for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skill, diligence and )] TJ ET BT 128.012 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lan)] TJ ET BT 148.676 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. They provided a wide range of vital services for expeditionary forces, but on land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service against regular troops they were not usually capable of holding their own.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The nineteenth century saw a gradual change in the way in which the Royal Navy supported operations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ashore. The dominance of the Royal Navy was unchallenged at sea. This placed a large number of men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful artillery for supporting operations ashore in most parts of the globe, unhindered by rival naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces. These guns could either be used from the sea or taken ashore for use inland. Professor Lambert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows how a small squadron under Sir Robert Stopford, co-operating with the Turks, successfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bombarded Acre in November 1840 and so ended Mehemet Ali's threat to Constantinople. Turkish troops )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were available to assault the town, but after half a day of bombardment the town's main magazine exploded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Egyptians' evacuated that night.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Lambert also shows how the Royal Navy's interest in destroying coastal fortifications, which had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been stimulated by the threat of a potential French steam force at Cherbourg in the 1840s, was successfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used against the Russians at Sweaborg, the fort and naval arsenal which protected Helsingfors, in 1855. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to make a pre-emptive strike against the French steam fleet led to consideration of how to bombard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively fortifications which protected the enemy. Long-range mortar flotillas, supported by the line of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battle, became the favoured approach. It was not tested until the war with Russia broke out in 1854. In 1855, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the allied fleet was able to anchor off Sweaborg and within two days the arsenal was ruined and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(buildings largely destroyed. The Russians were unable to strike back at such a range and it was understood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Crontstadt, the fortification that protected the channel to St Petersburg, would be attacked in 1856. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seaborne threat to the Russian capital was clear. Peace intervened, but even without landing forces, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royal Navy had proved it could have a major diplomatic impact on events.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the power of bombardment from the sea had increased and would continue to do so throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, its success depended on a number of variables other than local command of the sea. The weather, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the attitude of the defenders and the strength of the defensive position were important factors. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usefully demonstrated by Colin White in an essay on the Anglo-Japanese War of 1863-4. The bombardment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Kagoshima and the destruction of the town, signally failed to produce the required result. The Daimyo of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Satsuma was prepared to see buildings destroyed, which in an earthquake zone could easily be rebuilt, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the shore batteries were able to keep up their fire on the ships. While British gunnery was good, its impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the shore batteries was disappointing. The operation was ill-prepared and the weather precluded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prolonged operations. In August 1864, the operation to open the Straits of Shimonoseki might have suffered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a similar fate. However, the British, supported by French and Dutch warships, did not have to attack the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entire fortified position. The Daimyo of Buzan, who controlled the southern defences of the Straits, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained neutral, allowing the Europeans to pass out of range of the guns on the northern coast. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northern batteries were powerful but not well sited. Preparations were carefully laid and the bombardment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a success, but it still required a landing force of marines and seamen to drive the Japanese from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guns. Over two days the batteries were carried and the guns spiked.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bombardment from the water continued to play a vital role in supporting operations ashore. Richard Brooks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows how the gunboat operations on the Nile in 1896-1898 provided powerful tactical support and a degree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of operational flexibility in the campaigns against the Mahdi. While naval fire support is not examined with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regard to the First World War, it is explored in relation to two Second World War operations - as part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Hore's essay on Norway in April-June 1940 and Ivor Howcroft's work on Walcheren in November )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1944. Captain Hore's essay is largely concerned with the broader lessons from the Norwegian campaign for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conduct of joint operations - clear but flexible plans and orders, effective air cover, good tactical loading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and concentration of effort. Mr Howcroft deals with a more concentrated operation. He explains the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties of long-range fire support and the tremendous dangers of the in-shore Support Squadron, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacrificial effort may have been crucial to the overall success of the operation. The continuing importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fire support from the sea to prepare the 'battle space' \(p.275\) ashore is picked up in Lee Willetts's essay on )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7999 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the acquisition and deployment of the Tomahawk cruise missile by the Royal Navy. HMS )] TJ ET BT 468.980 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Splendid)] TJ ET BT 510.980 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( fired the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first Tomahawk from a British submarine towards a Serb target in Kosovo on 24th March 1999, taking naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bombardment from the sea deep into land-locked territory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the importance of the fleet's firepower from the sea is the constant theme of naval support for ground )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operations, other activities, which became important in the nineteenth century no longer carry the weight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they did. The use of naval guns ashore was inherited from the eighteenth century and became more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important in the following century. This is the theme developed in the essays by Richard Brook on the Naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brigades in the Indian Mutiny, an essay on Beatty's exploits on the Nile and at Tientsin and in Arthur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bleby's essay on the Naval Brigades during the Second Boer War. The rapid availability of disciplined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manpower and heavy guns from ships on station during a crisis was exploited in India, China and South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa. HMS )] TJ ET BT 99.668 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shannon)] TJ ET BT 141.668 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provided half of the siege train for the relief of Lucknow in November 1857. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(navy's ability to bring their 68lb guns inland to support the army was an important element in Sir Colin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Campbell's campaign. HMS )] TJ ET BT 172.172 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pearl )] TJ ET BT 201.836 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also provided guns for the campaign north of the Gogra river. In July )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1900, 12lb and 4 inch guns from )] TJ ET BT 193.340 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Terrible )] TJ ET BT 235.676 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 256.004 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Algerine, )] TJ ET BT 303.332 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided artillery support for the attack on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walled City of Tientsin. In South Africa a Naval Brigade with artillery assisted the defence of Ladysmith. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other naval artillery units supported Buller's campaign and Methuen's advance to Magersfontein during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1899-1900. They accompanied Lord Roberts' campaign of 1900. On all these operations, the naval 4.7 inch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guns and 12lb played an important part. This provision of firepower ashore, by disciplined gunners, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly a major contribution to the effectiveness of British colonial campaigns in the nineteenth century. Yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the First World War, the importance of naval guns ashore had diminished. Although it is quite easy to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest possible reasons for this, it could have done with some explanation in this volume. It is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting note that HMS )] TJ ET BT 161.348 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hood)] TJ ET BT 188.012 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('s howitzer provided defensive fire support for a force of marines and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seamen outside Dombass, Norway, in April 1940.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the importance of naval guns ashore is clearly presented in these essays, the other role of the seamen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ashore is far less clear - that of supplementary infantry. The Naval Brigades in India, China and South Africa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were certainly capable of working with small arms and they did on occasions take the field as infantry. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, it is never made quite clear how successful they were, if their role developed during the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half of the nineteenth century and if so why. They were important extra rifles, but being capable of firing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rifle does not make an infantryman. With this in mind, the role of the Royal Marines particularly lacks the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention it deserves. As part of ships' companies and as battalion formations they were an integral part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naval contribution. This poses problems for analysing their contribution, and indeed, budget conscious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians have questioned the role of the Royal Marines on many occasions, but it is disappointing that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(none of these essays brings out any distinctive contribution, purpose or value. The Royal Naval Division )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(RND\), formed in 1914, which is the subject of the essay by Captain Christopher Page, was not, as he makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear, an obvious extension of the Naval Brigades, but a plan by Churchill to make effective use of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(RNVR. Although it never lost its distinctive naval origins, it gradually evolved during the course of the war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after service at Antwerp and Gallipoli, into a unit largely indistinguishable from an army division. The 63rd )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Division, as it became in June 1916, served on the Western Front for the rest of the war, with its 190th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brigade consisting entirely of army battalions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The RND served with some distinction during the war, despite a rather jaundiced view of its capability by its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army divisional commander, and indeed Haig himself in 1916. It is a reminder that the interface between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royal Navy and the other services has always had its frictions, and it is here that this collection has its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatest weakness. Joint operations necessarily involve contributions and perspectives from the two, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since 1918, three services. It is difficult to get a clear view of operations without understanding the different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions and capabilities. These essays are overwhelmingly from the naval perspective - its own view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what it achieved. The admiration of contemporaries for the Royal Navy's contribution, quoted in a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays, was no doubt genuine, but not necessarily a balanced or informed assessment of the operation. Thus, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while each essay provides a commendable narrative, the overall effect is to leave the reader with a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partial picture. This partiality is not unique - indeed it is the norm rather than the exception. So while the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection is a useful series of short essays that will raise consciousness of the Royal Navy's historical )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 923 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition in supporting actions ashore, we are in need of far more 'joint' history to understand fully these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 736.975 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 719.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 719.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/188)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 717.801 m 322.316 717.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 692.824 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.424 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1175)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.024 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 718.1155 322.3157 729.9955 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/188) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000569 00000 n 0000000651 00000 n 0000005208 00000 n 0000005317 00000 n 0000005427 00000 n 0000005536 00000 n 0000009097 00000 n 0000009225 00000 n 0000009309 00000 n 0000009374 00000 n 0000016891 00000 n 0000016956 00000 n 0000024521 00000 n 0000024586 00000 n 0000032638 00000 n 0000032722 00000 n 0000033697 00000 n 0000033825 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33920 %%EOF