%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141001091732+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141001091732+01'00') /Title (Labour's First Century) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3321 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Labour's First Century)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour's First Century is a good barometer of the state of intellectual Thinking within and about Labour as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looks forward to its second century. Its tone differs from that of the fiftieth anniversary histories. Then, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour Party had much to celebrate - the creation of a mixed economy, a free health service, planning for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full employment and, for many, the hope of a socialist society which could emancipate human needs. Now, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians merely praise the fact that Labour is in touch with public opinion to the extent that it wins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elections.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The genuine novelty of 'New Labour', and the need to understand that novelty in the light of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship, is recognized by a particularly interesting set of essays by historians such as Nick Tiratsoo, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steven Fielding and Jon Lawrence. Their work is a reflection of Blair's political and intellectual triumph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the old Left. The other essays - by solid historians such as Jose Harris and Miles Taylor - are interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and informative, but lack the thrust of any coherent intellectual project such as that which informs Nick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tiratsoo and his friends.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(189)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 June, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patricia Thane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nick Tiratsoo)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duncan Tanner)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(428pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Foote)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6039 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most disappointing, the lack of any coherent or exciting intellectual framework with which to confront that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project indicates the extent to which the post-Socialist Left is in intellectual crisis. The illiberal attitude to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought and debate which is so characteristic of New Labour is reflected in the approach of writers such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duncan Tanner, who hails the denial of participation to the Left while moaning about the fact that it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denied to people whose views are more accommodating to our society \(p.249\). This is not any way forward, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectually or politically.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The new ideas presented in this book are a reflection of a mindset which is as iconic as that of my youth. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Then, the younger historians used a neo-Leninist language to present the idol of a left-wing vanguard leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a passive and deluded mass of industrial workers, or of the workers creating their own class-consciousness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through direct action. Now they use a deconstructionist language to hold up an icon of 'normal' people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humbly trying to better themselves and their families through hard work while happily enjoying a light )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entertainment suited to their modest expectations of life, betrayed by left-wing intellectual elitists and finally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given a voice by a Labour Party re-dedicated to their service.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jon Lawrence presents this latter view at its most powerful in the fascinating essay, 'Labour - the myths it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has lived by', in which he seeks to explore the myths which have informed the popular histories of the party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internalised by activists. He stresses the need to avoid mere debunking, and denies that mythic is a synonym )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for 'untrue'. Instead, he see myths as a crucial means of understanding how a party constructs its collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity - they are shared stories about the past, shaping Labour's political identity, regardless of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(veracity. Concentrating on life-stories as rich in myth and as constituting a large part of the political mind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the party activists, he seeks to dissect a selection of myths which have held a sacrosanct place for Old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour activists - those of foundation, betrayal, party divisions and party triumph.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a genuinely fresh approach. The over-worked analysis of MacDonald's 'betrayal' of 1931 is presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through its effect on the legend created for and by party activists, while the author points to the neglected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myths of the 1920s, where individuals such as MacDonald or John Wheatley were portrayed as courageous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pioneers standing alone against anti-socialist mobs to purge the party of jingoism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem lies in the use of the word 'myth'. Instead of employing less loaded terms such as 'symbol' or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('discourse' in an attempt to attain some sort of value-neutrality, the author uses 'myth', a term which carries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the inevitable connotation of a fictitious narrative of some sort. The difference can be clearly seen by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasting the idea of Churchill as a symbol of wartime unity with that of Churchill as embodying the myth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of that unity. Despite his expressed intention, the author elides the meanings of 'symbol' and fictitious 'myth' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This elision, almost inevitable once he uses the term 'myth', leads to a continual movement between a mere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description of stories narrated by party activists and a \(not always implicit\) critique of the fictions created by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them. The author's continual use of quotation marks around the term 'betrayal', or his plea to New Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to concede the past to its enemies, are only the most obvious expressions of this. Where it gets in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way of analysis is in the implicitly critical approach to the Old Labour symbols of the pioneers - for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, John Wheatley's stand against the mob \(pp.345-46\) is discussed as a story in which the mob is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('portrayed as unruly and deeply ignorant..the pawns of unscrupulous leaders', while Wheatley emerges as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual whose simple courage enlightens them. The author's stance throughout is that of an outsider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coolly dissecting this prejudice-laden myth, and by implication it becomes a critique of a left-wing fantasy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questioning whether the mob does have the false consciousness attributed to it.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6989 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, there is such a thing as the courage of an individual who stands against the crowd - Hannah )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arendt, in Men in Dark Times, shows a fascination with such characters. A mob is not a myth, though it may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be described in terms of an archetype - mobs of any political complexion can be frightening and can take on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a violent psychology of their own \(as Elias Canetti demonstrated in Crowds and Power\). An explanation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this crowd power is needed, and for that one may point back to the King and Church mobs of the 1790s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their continuity with the pro-war mobs of 1914-18 which were so vivid in radical memory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Myths, true or not, require explanation, and explanation involves some sort of criterion against which to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measure the nature of the stories. It may even involve veracity at some level, if only in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding values. The author cannot avoid this - look at his quotation marks around 'betrayal' or his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of why the SDP were not seen as traitors from the late 1980s or his argument that Labour's myths )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of division have really been intensely personal affairs \(p.359\). We need to understand why the myths were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(held, or why they change shape, with reference to a variety of factors, ranging from immediate political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances through changes in society to the nature of traditions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Through symbols and archetypes, the construction of an identity involves seizing on a series of events and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffusing them with an emotion and \(melo\)drama whose inspiration motivates action. New Labour is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developing its own 'myths', or inspiring stories - usually centred around irresponsible left-wing fanatics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(halted by a young leadership which takes the party from the wilderness of the political desert to an election )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victory even more satisfying than the 1945 landslide - and their endurance will be tested by time. It would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the explanation of these stories rather than a mere description of 'myths' that this fascinating essay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could fulfil its promise rather than end by taking us into the byways of a political project.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steve Fielding, in 'New Labour and the Past', takes up Jon Lawrence's warning to New Labour not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concede the past to its enemies by engaging in a study of how far New Labour was a continuation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Liberals at the turn of the last century. Unfortunately, it is not always clear whether he is talking about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an ideology or a Lib-Lab coalition, as New Liberalism is never really identified. When he describes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionists as really New Liberals, and lumps together genuine revisionists like Roy Jenkins with 'social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democrats' like David Owen, he runs the danger of confusing different political ideologies, undermining our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of revisionism as much as New Liberalism. As an ideology, New Labour certainly has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuities with past traditions, but its novelty is what is important \(see my discussion of Jose Harris's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article for more on this\). There is little discussion of specific ideological traditions here, and the ideology of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Labour continues to elude an accurate description.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nick Tiratsoo, in 'Labour and the Electorate', discusses Labour's initial hopes of electoral domination and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party's eventual decline in electoral support. He uses a mixture of electoral statistics, interviews and homely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comments drawn from oral histories to put forward an argument which any politician worth her salt knows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a gut instinct - that the British electorate is fundamentally conservative with a small 'c'. However, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason for this conservatism is what is important, and this is unexplored.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To argue that Labour lost its support because it ceased to express the aspirations of its electorate is to assume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what needs to be explained. The New Labour argument points to the betrayal of normal people by left-wing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elitists, but this ignores the fact that the first serious and permanent loss of Labour votes mainly occurred in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1966-68 period, a time when Labour was not presenting any kind of radical face to the world. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline in solidaristic voting, the rise of secular voting \(long ago pointed to by McKenzie and Silver in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Angels in Marble\) and the disappointments of the Wilson Government together provided the catalyst for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise of the Left as much as for Labour's fall in electoral support. The author's belief that New Labour has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed to overcome the problems of a nepotistic party organisation rooted in male prejudice \(but isn't that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prejudice a reflection of the views of 'ordinary' people?\) could serve as a reason for the party leadership not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to extend participation in decision-making just yet.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duncan Tanner would be as unhappy with this as Nick Tiratsoo. His essay, 'Labour and its Membership', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hails the party officials, election agents, intellectuals, backbenchers and unsung heroes who fought for a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6772 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('constructive socialism' \(p249\). The author argues that when party workers were 'less constructive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative', the desire of the leadership to deny them any say in affairs was understandable, but now that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the members more or less agree with the leadership, it is no longer justified.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Using statistics, minute books and local accounts, this essay presents an account of changing geographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns of membership and successfully argues that party members have been in agreement with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership more often than is credited, with exceptional periods such as the 1930s and the 1980s. He also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeks to explore grass-roots life in the party, and argues that the party leadership has consistently under-used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the idealism and intelligence of its members. The introduction of a broader franchise by Neil Kinnock has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensified this problem, as new members are in genuine agreement with the leadership on questions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public ownership and radical challenges to society, yet still find themselves excluded from decision-making.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, no amount of minutes or filtered memories are a substitute for the countless unrecorded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals and arguments at the ward and constituency level, where life has from the start been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised by cantankerous individualists and Communist/Trotskyist entryists as much as leadership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalists and left-wing idealists. Such a portrait of party life cannot be assessed, much less presented.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem is that memories and accounts tend to be coloured by what is regarded as 'constructive' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what is regarded as 'alien' by the writer's own political values. My own impressionistic memories of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barrow Labour Party in the late 1960s, where I was a member of the GMC, was one of working-class people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(angered by the government's attacks on welfare services and wages, and virulent arguments over trade union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform which were not necessarily reflected in the minutes. Were these working class people 'ordinary', or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alien because left wing?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perish the cynical thought that the membership of the party in the last decade or so may have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritarian supporters of whatever the leadership wanted, rather than conscientious moderates - but I also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remember from the Oxford University Labour Club in the late 1980s the response of one woman party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(member to Palestinians being alive by Israeli soldiers - 'well, they must be trouble-makers, mustn't they?' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More complimentary stories could be told, I am sure. That is the problem with the impressionistic accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being used - they capture a point brilliantly, but their overall reliability as an index of anything greater than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal interest is dubious.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other essays are always interesting, but there is an absence of any intellectual challenge to the dominant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments presented by the above authors. This is not a reflection on the New Labour viewpoint, but on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack of a genuine alternative in the wake of the collapse of any organised socialist opposition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I was particularly interested in the essay, 'Labour's political and social thought' by Jose Harris. She sees the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary dilemma facing Labour as encapsulated in a dual approach to political theory which has existed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since the party's foundation - is Labour merely a machine to win elections, in which theory plays a pragmatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role, or is it out to forge a new kind of society and polity? She refuses to discuss the ideological battles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which have marked out the 'drama' of Labour's history, on the grounds that they pose artificial frontiers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between ideas when in reality there is much more of an interaction of Left and Right thinking. Instead, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrates on a number of classic themes rooted in British intellectual traditions and looks at the manner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which Labour intellectuals handled such themes. A brief historical analysis of thinking on issues such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social evolution, property, liberty and planning follow, leading her to the conclusion that much New Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking is not new at all, but an echo of Edwardian progressive thought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem is that political theory and ideologies cannot be approached merely in an analytical manner - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when they are related to a dynamic political organism such as the Labour Party, then the ideas themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take on a dynamic which is much greater than their intellectual coherence. This dynamic is buried when a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thematic approach to certain concepts is taken, and as a result something very important is lost.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ideas are a living part of political history, and cannot be treated as reflections of politics - they have a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronology and consistency of their own. The dynamic of Labour thinking is controlled by the history of a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7157 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political party seeking power and \(usually\) willing to compromise ideas in order to obtain it. It is not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of giving Labour thought an artificial coherence; the coherence is provided by the dynamic - the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('drama' - of Labour's history as a party seeking power, and of various political and economic interest groups )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fighting within that party for internal power. Within that struggle, there is a great deal of interaction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different ideologies and theories, but it is an interaction which mainly depends on the play of power rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than on any philosophical coherence. Labour thought is thus given an external coherence by Labour's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, and that allows us to explore the intellectual frontiers of different ideologies to mark out their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences as much as their similarities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ideological conflict may be missing now, but it was not always so. Crosland's revisionism was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merely a contribution to general theoretical themes of planning and liberty, but belonged to a particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political struggle against Bevanism and the corporatist politics of the Attlee Government. It was part of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('drama' in its way, which gave the ideas their energy to contemporaries. It was also a critical yardstick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against which to measure the corporatist commitment to economic efficiency expressed by Harold Wilson, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its echoes now expressed in Roy Hattersley's politics are recognized as a critical yardstick against which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to measure New Labour' s lack of radicalism. To restrict Labour thinking to a series of analytical themes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political theory, as Jose Harris does, is to risk treating ideas historically - ideas without reference to conflicts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This has its consequences for the understanding of New Labour. Of course the thinking of today's Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Party contains echoes of much progressive thought, and not just Edwardian, but it is also qualitatively new. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ideas which were radical in one context have to be understood in a very different manner in a new context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-Thatcherism, and the ending of the Attlee consensus. To avoid anachronistic misunderstanding, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to be related to past traditions and then related to the new historical context. Therein lies the great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversy and disagreement, but that is what makes history so exciting anyway.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of the other essays, Alastair Reid's essay on 'Labour and the Trade Unions' points to the complexity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between the two bodies, and sees the root of this complexity at the party's foundations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1900.However, an account of union development in the 19th century, followed by brief descriptions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unions' impact on party policy and finances, leaves the reader with a feeling of an over-formal analysis. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There has been a changing composition of unions in terms of their political power as wielded in the TUC, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and thereby the Labour party - the growth of the general unions after 1920, superseding most of the craft )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unions, followed by the growth of white-collar and public-service unions with a predominantly female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership. The divisions between union activists, both official and unofficial, and a membership for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom the union stands at best as a guarantee of private securities are also unexplored.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One would search in vain for any analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the second shop stewards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement \(or the first, for that matter\), which probably explains the author's under-estimation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength of the Left in the unions throughout their history, and his strange assertion that Clause 4 was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unimportant \(p.228\). There is a serious account of the decline of union influence within New Labour, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is given merely to serve as a call for party and unions to work more closely together. Instead of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of the ambiguous and tense relations between New Labour and the unions, we are given the tactical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleas of a Labour activist.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jim Tomlinson's essay, 'Labour and the Economy' is a solid account of the winding path of Labour's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic policies. He rightly points to the rise and decline of national economic management, and argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that a project of economic modernisation has dominated thinking about policy in the party. The long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established thesis of economic decline caused by an aged infrastructure explains the obsession with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernisation, an obsession which the author admits is not restricted to Labour, but the reasons for the rise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and decline of ideas of central economic management are unexplored. Instead, the author's thinking is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governed by the politics of the day - he is not going to get into any trouble by his acceptance of market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces, or his rejection of public ownership, and the uncritical commitment to income redistribution is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asserted in the same way as one would express firm support for the NSPCC. The more disturbing issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connected with the quasi-privatisation of the Bank of England by Gordon Brown, or the consequences of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7046 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1979 abolition of exchange controls for any government, are set aside.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He does make the interesting argument that there have been impressive continuities in Labour's thinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the economy which have been the expression of ethical or moral notions of how society should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(function. There is certainly some truth in this, but generally the Ruskinian ideas of a moral economy which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have had such an influence on labour rhetoric in its history have not been reflected in its economic policy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour's more pressing concern was with economic efficiency and social power, as it must be with any party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with aspirations to govern . The market economy was denounced as inefficient and compared to the efficient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet economy until relatively recent times, while the debates over economic policy were often debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the location of power over the economy. It was the control of the commanding heights of the economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was seen as the key to Labour economic policy, and it is this dimension of concern with social power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is absent in New Labour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pat Thane's essay, 'Labour and Welfare', is a solid, critical work on Labour 's commitment to welfare, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pointing out the didactic approach taken to 'idleness ', and refusing to accept an idolisation of the NHS. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author expresses a real concern with the shift in attitude to welfare and poverty expressed by New Labour. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a sudden change when we reach New Labour, who see work as an obligation rather than a right. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The radical nature of this shift in labour's approach can be under-estimated by pointing to the puritan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(didacticism in Labour's past approach to the poor, as this shift involves an acceptance of a society which is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marked by under-employment and low wages in a capitalist economy. This is new, marking a basic change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from puritan attitudes to poverty which saw the evil effects of indigence as disappearing with the advent of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(co-operative commonwealth. The reason for this sharp discontinuity is the significant lacuna in an otherwise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective and powerful essay.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Howe's essay, 'Labour and International Affairs', traces the tension between Labour's ethical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to the world and realpolitik. This internationalist ethic involved utopian posturing; the peaceful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolution of disputes; anti-colonialism or anti-imperialism \(now out of fashion\); and a universalist approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to exploitation and human rights. This dualism is hardly original, and the reason for the realpolitik's being so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impervious to Labour's ethic is not elaborated. Nevertheless, his sympathetic charting of Labour's shifting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitude to colonial independence sits uneasily with the disturbing tendency which has gained such ground in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent years to accept Labour's endorsement of the horrors of the Vietnam War. The glowing assertion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral internationalism and radical change are now enshrined in government fits nicely with the other essays, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the author does not try to explain why Labour failed to develop an internationalist ethic different from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the traditional Liberal approach to foreign policy, or the possibility that that ethic had become an empty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric as a result of the abandonment of the free trade doctrine on which Liberal foreign policy rested.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin Francis, in his essay 'Labour and Gender' is also non-controversial. The author bases himself on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(safe ground that Labour's commitment to a just society encouraged women to make progress through its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities, while its paradoxical commitment to the interests of male manual workers led to great frustrations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for women. Nobody would dispute the limited advances in women's representation made in Parliament and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conference, which is carefully documented; the representations of masculinity and femininity in Labour are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always interesting, and some images are constructed here which carry on the work begun by Bea Campbell.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the author's acceptance of feminist ideas blinds him to the self-perceptions of men and women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour's past - for most of them women didn't exist as conceptually independent of men, which partly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains their frustrations at union resistance to demands for equal pay and family insurance through much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Labour's history. The changing position of women in society which has allowed the change in demands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for representation, the particular forms of careerist advancement which this has often taken, the fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social difference between articulate women who enjoy material comforts and those women who do not \(with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all the dreadful consequences of that stark fact\) are absent from this account. Yet, as Pat Thane noted, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the poorest women who are at the receiving end of Labour's changes to the welfare state and their new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to family values; here, they are as neglected as they were at the height of Labour's male-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blinkered attitude.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 3178 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essay 'Labour and the Constitution' is the type of solid account which we have come to expect of Miles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taylor. His careful study of Labour's approach to constitutional reform shows that periods of radicalism such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as that of the early 1930s, when paranoia about bankers and fascists led to vague proposals for emergency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(executive powers, were brief punctuations in what was generally a very mild approach to change. Sadly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is too little on contemporary movements for reform, and nothing on the Bennite Left 's approach to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lords and the Monarchy. A reading of M.J.C. Vile on constitutionalism would also have allowed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction to be made between the rules and the spirit or principles of a constitution - the principles of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Constitution go un-noticed. The author's caution that Labour's present attitude is limited by the fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the constitution is of its own making \(p.173\) is a strangely inaccurate addendum to a history which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates Labour's conservative acceptance of Britain's unwritten constitution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite my own lack of political sympathy with the book's aims, I think it has to be recognized that it does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(try to move away from any simplified hurrah-patriotism, and at their best the essays stand as a genuine mark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the intellectual explorations of a new generation with its own political commitment. However, the book's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central theme that Labour's achievements have not prevented the party from spending much of its history in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition is in itself a measure of how far Labour's intelligentsia has travelled from confidence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party's fiftieth anniversary. What was once a socialist expectation has become gratitude for a parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 499.135 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 481.355 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 481.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/189)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 479.961 m 322.316 479.961 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 454.984 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.584 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1178)] TJ ET BT 34.016 426.184 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 480.2755 322.3157 492.1555 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/189) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000546 00000 n 0000000628 00000 n 0000004001 00000 n 0000004110 00000 n 0000004220 00000 n 0000004329 00000 n 0000007890 00000 n 0000008018 00000 n 0000008102 00000 n 0000008167 00000 n 0000014259 00000 n 0000014324 00000 n 0000021366 00000 n 0000021431 00000 n 0000028256 00000 n 0000028321 00000 n 0000035531 00000 n 0000035596 00000 n 0000042695 00000 n 0000042779 00000 n 0000046010 00000 n 0000046138 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 46233 %%EOF