%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140919032012+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140919032012+01'00') /Title (War Cruel and Sharp. English Strategy under Edward III, 1327-1360.) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4307 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(War Cruel and Sharp. English Strategy under Edward III, 1327-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1360.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It has been fashionable to downplay the importance of battles in medieval military history. 'Most campaigns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not end in battle largely because both commanders were reluctant to risk battle', was John Gillingham's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(verdict. He pointed out that Henry II never fought a battle, yet had a great military reputation. Richard I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fought only one battle in the West, as did his rival Philip Augustus. Wars, in this interpretation, were fought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the intention of devastating territory, and capturing towns and castles, not of risking all in the field of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battle. It would be possible to write a history of the many battles that did not happen, when armies faced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each other but decided that prudence was the best course of action.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If battles are unpopular, so also is strategy when the concept is applied to the middle ages. In the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford Companion to Military History)] TJ ET BT 220.688 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(ed. R. Holmes, Oxford, 2001\), it is suggested that because medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(armies were not permanent in character, and were capable of engaging in sustained combat for no more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a few hours, 'the strategic pursuit or "exploitation" necessary to capitalize on tactical success did not exist.' It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would therefore 'be wrong to imagine that anything like "strategic planning" existed before the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century.')] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clifford Rogers in this study will have none of this. His is a very different approach. The aim of his book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simple. It is 'to re-establish Edward III's military reputation' and to demonstrate that his military strategy was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended to force his enemies to fight him in battle. As befits the subject, this is a combative book. He adopts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a chronological approach, starting with the unsuccessful Weardale campaign of 1327, and concluding with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the expedition of 1359-60 to Reims and beyond. Although the historical method is essentially that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(190)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 May, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clifford Rogers)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(851158048X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Prestwich)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7320 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative, he does not follow Jonathan Sumption's example and provide a full blow-by-blow account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wars. The Brittany war of the early 1340s, for example, is dismissed in a sentence as 'opportunistic sniping'; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention is primarily given to the Scottish wars of the early part of Edward III's reign, to the strategy of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early years of the Hundred Years War, 1337-40, to the Crcy-Calais campaign of 1346-7, and to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns of 1355-6 and 1359-60. While questions about recruitment and supply are of course fully brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the discussion, the book does not aim to analyse the logistics of fourteenth-century warfare.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the many strengths of the book is the use made of a wide range of chronicle material, and notably of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several unprinted works. An unprinted Anglo-Norman Brut, for example, provides a fascinating speech )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allegedly made at the battle of Dupplin Moor. Throughout, the book is very solidly based on the sources, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ample footnoting makes very clear. Unfortunately, there is all too little discussion of strategy in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surviving documents. There is nothing from this period similar to the advice on how to conduct a crusade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressed to Edward I, or like that of Pierre Dubois to Philip IV of France. Edward III had no Sir John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fastolf to write a memorandum like that of 1435 on the war. Contemporary letters about the war are of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(help, but to a considerable extent it is necessary to deduce the strategy from the events. Did Edward intend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the first to invade Normandy in 1346, rather than relieve the siege of Aiguillon in Gascony? Rogers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that he did, but while the case is a good one, it cannot be proven beyond doubt. It remains possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he went to Normandy simply because many delays, in part caused by contrary winds, delayed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expedition so long that the Gascon plan had to be abandoned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course royal propaganda made much of the king's desire for battle. There is a sense in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges exchanged between Edward III and his rival Philip VI amounted to a game of chicken - which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king would back down, and fail to engage? Rogers' view, and he is surely right, is that it was the French who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were reluctant to fight. That was certainly the case in 1339 near Buironfosse. Philip VI of France had far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more to lose than Edward, and it was a big risk to attack an army drawn up in a well-prepared position. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Again, outside Calais in 1347, it made little sense for Philip to attack the English. The technique of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(besieging a town so as to compel opponents to risk battle in order to relieve it had worked at Berwick in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1333, but did not serve Edward III well subsequently.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rogers' case is easier to make for some campaigns than for others. Not all of Edward's campaigns were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battle-seeking. The infamous 'Burnt Candlemas', with the savage destruction of Lothian early in 1356, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended to punish the Scots, rather than to bring them to battle. In Normandy in the same year, Henry of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lancaster avoided battle with the French, when he was at a severe disadvantage of numbers. Crucial to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument, however, is the Black Prince's campaign that culminated in his victory at Poitiers. The traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view is that the Prince was outmanoeuvred by the French as he was retreating towards Gascony, and forced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to turn and fight. Rogers has to admit that the sources for this campaign are 'mutually contradictory'. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view is that the Black Prince was prepared to fight if he had to, and that the conventional analysis is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justified. In the negotiations before the battle the Prince was apparently prepared to accept humiliating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms: a massive indemnity to be paid, return of all prisoners, and a promise not to campaign against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French king for seven years. Rogers emphasises, however, the qualification that the agreement was to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject to the English king's agreement, and further points out that it was not through fear of battle that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English offered terms. What they did not want was to be starved out by the French. The case is well argued. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Chandos herald is the one source to suggest that the Prince would have avoided battle if he could; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority of chronicles are clear that he was eager to fight.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The diplomatic background to the campaign of 1359-60 is carefully analysed. French rejection of the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treaty of London gave Edward III no option other than to fight. The expedition itself had the siege and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capture of the city of Reims as its immediate aim, but when the English army approached Paris in the spring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1360, it is again clear that Edward III intended to draw the French into battle, forming up his army and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sending heralds to invite them to fight. The ploy, however, failed on this occasion, for the French had too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much to lose. For them, a battle-avoiding strategy was what made sense, particularly at this stage of the war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One possible difficulty with the thesis that the English strategy was battle-seeking is, of course, that their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tactics did not articulate well with this. Their well-proven and effective method of fighting relied on the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 2989 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength of dismounted troops formed up in a well-established defensive position. Any enemy, Scots or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French, would have to be goaded into attack, or deluded into thinking that they had an advantage. Edward III )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his commanders could not fight whenever they chose. This does not contradict the central argument of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book; it helps, however, to explain why there were not more battles, when battle was what the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are, of course, detailed points on which it is possible to disagree with Professor Rogers. To take one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minor one, he asserts that on the Stanhope campaign the Scots position when the English attempted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engage them in battle was on the north bank of the river Wear. That seems unlikely. If Jean le Bel, who was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an eyewitness, was correct in saying that the English marched towards the south from Blanchland to engage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Scots, and found a river between them and their enemy, the Scots were surely on the south bank. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of John Barbour, who wrote his book on Robert Bruce very much later, is surely far less reliable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than that of Le Bel.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Rogers has written an impressive and lively study, properly based on a close reading of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources. The footnotes alone are full of riches. It remains to be seen how far his analysis will affect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations of other periods, but it should certainly help to make historians rethink some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established assumptions about the nature of medieval warfare. Strategic planning was not a nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century invention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 499.135 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 481.355 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 481.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/190)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 479.961 m 322.316 479.961 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 454.984 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.584 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1180)] TJ ET BT 34.016 426.184 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 480.2755 322.3157 492.1555 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/190) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000562 00000 n 0000000644 00000 n 0000005003 00000 n 0000005112 00000 n 0000005222 00000 n 0000005331 00000 n 0000008892 00000 n 0000009020 00000 n 0000009104 00000 n 0000009169 00000 n 0000016542 00000 n 0000016626 00000 n 0000019668 00000 n 0000019796 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 19891 %%EOF