%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140420141437+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140420141437+01'00') /Title (The Northern Wars. War, State and Society in Northeastern Europe, 1558-1721 Modern Wars in Perspective) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4197 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Northern Wars. War, State and Society in Northeastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Europe, 1558-1721 Modern Wars in Perspective)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sweden, Prussia, and Russia. Three great powers were forged in the fire of the Northern Wars. The military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchies fed on weaker neighbours where such existed. In the sixteenth century, Poland-Lithuania, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brandenburg and Sweden carved up the small Baltic empire left by the crusading knights of the Teutonic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Order. In the eighteenth century, the neighbours devoured the mighty commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the largest state ever to disappear from the map of Europe. The partitions of Poland lie beyond the scope of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book, but represent the logical conclusions to a development which started in the second half of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These wars transformed the Nordic-Baltic region into the most heavily militarised part of early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe. Louis XIV amazed his age by waging war with an army of 400,000, supported by twenty million )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French. But his contemporaries, Charles XII of Sweden and Frederic IV of Denmark, fielded more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(100,000 soldiers each from populations of about 2.5 million. Their navies were also relatively larger than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of most other states. It is no wonder that the Nordic-Baltic region pioneered bureaucratisation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centralisation, and state regulation of civil society during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Therefore, the Northern wars are of great importance for anybody interested in the processes of European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state formation, the development of the European state system, or those changes in the ways of war which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are often labelled 'The Military Revolution'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There exists a large amount of historical research in the languages of the region. So little is available in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English, however, that the book under review wisely does not contain any guide to further reading, only a 20-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(191)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 May, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert I Frost)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(414pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Longman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harlow)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gunner Lind)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7437 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(page select bibliography. So this is a welcome addition to the minimal literature in English on the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northeastern Europe. It is also rewarding for those of us who read some, but not all, of the relevant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(languages. There is indeed, as it is stated in the introduction, a shortage of synthetic treatments in any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language. There is also, it may be added, a shortage of modern treatment of military history in most of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national languages. Most of the extensive literature is quite old, and much of the rest is old-fashioned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What were the Northern Wars according to Robert Frost? The term is not used in a consistent manner in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous research. It is, indeed, not a very well established term at all. Here it is used as a label for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicts between Sweden, Russia and Poland between the Livonian War 1558-1583 and the Great Northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War 1700-1721, with their extensive ramifications. This is almost identical with the division championed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Klaus Zernack back in 1974. This means that this is the story of the rise and fall of Sweden as a great power, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the culmination and beginning decline of Poland-Lithuania, and the first steps of Russia and Prussia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards great power status. As military history the focus is on the battles over Estonia and Livonia, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary wars between the Scandinavian kingdoms are not neglected.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chronological delimitation functions well, especially at the end. The Swedish-Russian and Swedish-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prussian wars during the eighteenth century were indeed very different from the wars of the previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries. At the beginning, however, it is less clear why the Russian-Swedish war of 1554-57 does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belong together with the Russian-Swedish-Polish war starting 1558. The geographical boundaries are more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic. It works fine to treat the Danish-Swedish wars as a kind of side-show - even if this side-show )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had its own roots in the breakdown of the medieval Nordic union, and the fighting was on a scale equal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that on the main theatre. It functions surprisingly well too, to deal with the Swedish participation in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thirty Years' War in a summary fashion. What you miss in the book is a fuller treatment of that state which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began as the electorate of Brandenburg and ended as the kingdom of Prussia. It is not completely neglected, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of course; Brandenburg-Prussia was after all a full participant in most of the Northern Wars. But it is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealt with so extensively as the other major participants. This is a pity. The comparative analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interlocking changes of society and war-making would have gained from a fuller discussion of the Prussian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case, especially as Prussia became more important as a paradigm for the states of Europe than any other of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the military monarchies which were shaped by the Northern Wars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A central thesis of the book is concerned with the "backwardness" of Eastern Europe. It is asserted that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was no ignorance of western European military developments. Most traits which western historians have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpreted as evidence of incompetence or military conservatism - notably the extensive use of cavalry - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were instead adaptations to the local strategic and logistic requirements. The famous Polish hussars, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, were not medieval knights with a new label, but were a new type developed during the sixteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century to deal with the new infantry, which they did with great effect. The military failure of the Polish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonwealth from the middle of the seventeenth century onwards was caused by the insufficient size of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(armies. Not by their quality, and even less by their tactical composition. The roots of the problem were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and connected with the structure and mental world of Polish noble society. They were not military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a strict sense. Generally, the will and the ability to modernise were essential in the Northern Wars, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate modernisation was not identical with westernization - or following any other set pattern - and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(westernization was not always followed by success in the field. At a few occasions this line of argument is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressed a little too hard, tending towards an apology for \(especially\) Polish arrangements. On the whole, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, I find that the arguments in favour of the thesis are strong. The book presents a step towards a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more sophisticated - rather than an alternative - view of the developments labelled 'the military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is impressive how well the author uses a remarkable amount of historical literature written in an even more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable number of languages. Where I am able to judge \(Scandinavian languages, German\) the account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we get here is very accurate, very up to date, and makes use of essentially every important work, old and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new, and judging from the notes and the bibliography, relevant research written in Polish, Russian, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lithuanian etc. is also included. It is possible to find errors. Sweden was not exempted from the Sound Dues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1645 \(but exemption was extended to the new Swedish provinces\), and Landskrone may be spelled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Landskrona, but never with an Umlaut. Errors are very few, however, compared with almost any work in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 1269 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English on Scandinavian history which I have read. I do sometimes disagree with this account within my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(field of expertise, but in most cases because I do not agree with other Scandinavian scholars, whose works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been used as a basis. It is difficult to blame a foreign author for that. So I recommend this book, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treats an unusual subject in a highly qualified manner.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 708.463 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 690.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 690.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/191)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 689.289 m 322.316 689.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 664.312 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1182)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 689.6035 322.3157 701.4835 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/191) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000598 00000 n 0000000680 00000 n 0000004929 00000 n 0000005038 00000 n 0000005148 00000 n 0000005257 00000 n 0000008818 00000 n 0000008946 00000 n 0000009030 00000 n 0000009095 00000 n 0000016585 00000 n 0000016669 00000 n 0000017991 00000 n 0000018119 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 18214 %%EOF